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F;rir A^ AvTlIGllT D [JNN INS^ ' 
I BEQCEST 

UNIVERSITY „r MICHIGAN: 

%. CiENERAL LIBR.ARY ,_^_^ 



/i. ^ 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



BOMBAY GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY, 



FROM MAY 1844 TO FEBRUARY 1846. ,' ^'i 



y=^ --^f' 



EDITED BT THE SECRETARY. 



BOMBAY: 

PRINTED AT THE TIMES PRESS, 

BT JAMES CHESSON. 

MDCCCZLVI. 



^-^^'^^ PREFACE. 



The publication of the present number of the Transactions 
of the Bombay Geographical Society has been delayed for nearly 
a twelvemonth in consequence of the journey of the Secretary 
to England, and the circumstances which led to it. All the 
printing arrangements having been undertaken by him, it was 
impossible that the details should have been known to the able 
and most zealous officer who acted as interim Secretary, and the 
consequence has been that the papers have been longer detained 
at press than was expected, and portions of matter have crept 
in or been suffered to remain in them, which might probably have 
been left out or removed with advantage. 

Several drawings and illustrations intended to have been in- 
cluded in the present issue have for the present been omitted to 
avoid further delay. The next number will be paged on with the 
present one so as to form a volume, so that the Map of Scinde 
which should have accompanied Captain Baker's papers, and the 
Barometric curves for the illustration of those of Dr Bradley, 
will appear in the forthcoming issue, and be fit for reference 
when the volume is complete. 

An apology must be offered to the latter gentleman for the 
publication of portions of his paper desired by him to have been 
cancelled : it had been thrown off before his wishes became known 
to the Editor. 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Preliminary Notice — — — — — — — 

Meetings of the Bombay Geographical Society, from May 1844 to Febru- 
ary 1846, — — — — i to xxxviii 

I. — Report drawn op by Captain G. Le G. Jacob, First Assistant to the 
Political Agent at Rajcote in charge, upon the general condition 
on that date of the Province of Katteewar, and containing various 
points of information, principally of a Geographical and Statistical 
nature, connected with that interesting Province. Presented by 
Government. — — 1 

II. — Continuation of Desultory Notes and Observations on various places in 
Guzerat and Western India. By John Vaupell, Esq. Communi- 
cated by the Author. — — — — — — 97 

III. — Report on the Mijjertheyn Tribe of Somallies, inhabiting the district 
forming the North-East point of Africa. By Lieutenant C. J. 
Crnttenden, I. N. Presented by Government. 111 

IV. — Observations on the Runn. By Captain G. Fulljames, with a rough 
Sketch of the Camp at Casba, on the North side of the large Runn. 
Communicated by the Author. 127 

V. — Account of collection of Geological Specimens for presentation to the 
Museum of the Bombay Asiatic Society ; and of an Inscription 
from an ancient Jain Temple situated at the Falls of the Gutpur- 
ba, about three miles South-west of Gokauk, in the Belgaum Col- 
lectorate. By Lieutenant C. P. Rigby, 16th Regt. N. I. Com- 
municated by the Author. 128 

VI. — Accounts of Adam's Bridge, and Ramiseram Temple, with a Map of 
the said Temple, from actual measurement by some of the Survey- 
ing Officers of the Indian Na\'y. Communicated by Lieutenant 
W. Christopher, I. N. _ _ _ _ _ _ 130 

"\'II. — Continuation of Desultory Notes and Observations on various places 
in Guzerat and Western India. By John Vaupell, Esq. Con- 
tinued from page 111. 138 

A' I II. — Memoir on the Charts of Rutnagheriah, Rajapoor, Viziadroog, and 
Dewgliurr. Drawn up by Lieutenant C. W, Montriou, I. N. 
Presented by Government. {:>(', 



Page. 

IX. — Remarks on a singular Hollow, twelve miles in length, called the 
" Boke," situated in the Purantej Purgunnah of the Ahmedabad 
Collectorate — with a Sketch of the Boke near Purantej Kusba 
large Lake. By Captain G. FuUjames. Communicated by the 
Author. _-_-_-_-__- -^_164 

X. — Some account of the Topography and Climate of Chikuldah, situated on 
the Table Land of the Gawil Range. By Assistant Surgeon W. 
H. Bradley, Bombay Army, at Ellichpoor. — With the following 
Papers, viz., a Plan of the Plateau of Chikuldah — Section of a 
portion of the Gawil Range in the direction of its dip — Abstract 
of Thermometrical Observations made at Chikuldah and Ellich- 
poor simultaneously, 1843-44 — Chart exhibiting the Variations of 
the Thermometer at Chikuldah and Ellichpoor, noted simul- 
taneously, 1843-44 — Chart of the Temperature of Chikuldah and 
Ellichpoor, taken simultaneously, showing the Range of each 
month, 1843-44 — two Papers of Drawings of the Specimens of 
Minerals and Shells — and a note dated Ellichpoor, August 21st, 
1845. Communicated by the Author. 167 

XI. — Remarks on the Alia Bund, and on the drainage of the Eastern part 
of the Scinde Basin; with Meteorological Observations at Kurra- 
chee in Scinde, from 1st May to 13th October 1844, and Meteoro- 
logical Observations of Sukkur, and Register of a Watergauge in 
the Indus, from 1st May to 30th September, 1844. By Captain W. 
E. Baker, Bengal Engineers, Superintendent of Canals and Forests 
in Scinde. Communicated by the Author. ^^ 18G 



MEETINGS 

OF THB 

BOMBAY GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. 



The Bombay Geographical Society held its Ordinary Quarterly Meeting in 
their Rooms, Town Hall, on Thursday the 1st August 1844, at 3 o*olock p. m. — 
Captain H. B. Lynch, L N., in absence of the President, in the chair. Present-^ 
Revd. O. Pigott; Capt. W. S. Suart; Dr. J. Bird ; Lieutenant W. C. Montriou, 
I. N. ; Ball Gungadhur Shastree, Esq.; and George Buist, Esq., LL. D., Se- 
cretary. 

The Secretary having read the minutes of the former meeting (the Anniversary 
in May,) stated that the long-expected Transactions were now ready for de- 
livery : the members present were accordingly provided with their copies. Th© 
reprint and new issue would both bo sent together to the various London, Paris, 
and other foreign Societies, to whose attentions they had been so much indebted, 
and with whom in exchange they had fallen so greatly into arrears. The Uni- 
versity Libraries of England, Scotland, and Ireland, with all other public libraries 
which might desire copies, would be supplied without delay. The following do- 
nations were then laid on the table : — 

Papebs. 

By the ^M«Aor.— Meteorological Return from Aden. By Corporal Moyes. 

By t?ie Author. — Continuation of Desultory Notes and Observations on various 
places in Guzerat and Western India. By John Vaupell, Esq., with a note dated 
27th May, 1844. 

By the ^utAor.—Meteorology of Aden. By Corporal Moyes. (Second con- 
tribation.) 

By the Author, through Colonel G. R. Jervis.— Jervis*s [Major T. B., P. R. 
S.] printed Observations on the comparative use and merits of the various kinds 
of Artistical Illustration— with Glyphography, or engraved drawings, by Edward 
Palmer^s Patent (15 copies.) 

Books. 

By the SociitS Asiatique de ParU, through the Royal Geographical Society of 

£^nclon. Journal Asiatique, ou receuil de memoires d' extraites et de notices 

Ac. Ac., tome L, No. 3, Mars j tome i., No. 6, Mai ; tome i.. No. 6, Join; tome ii., 
No. 8, Septembre, Octobre j and tome ii., No. 9, Novembre, 1843. 



By the SocUU Oeographie da Paris, through the Royal Geographical Society 
of London. — Accroissraent de la Collection Geo^raphie de la Bibliothique Royale, 
en 1841. 

By the Author, — Jackson's [Col. J. R.] Observations on Lakes, being an at- 
tempt to explain the laws of Nature regarding them ; the cause of their formation 
and gradual diminution; the different phenomena they exhibit, &c., in 1833. 

By the Author, through the Royal Geographical Society of Loudon. — Vetch's 
[Capt. J., R. E., P. R. S.] Inquiry into the means of establishing a Ship Naviga- 
tion between the Mediterranean and Red Seas. 

By the Royal Geographical Society of London. — The Journal of the Royal 
Geographical Society of London, Vol. xiii., part 1, of 1843. 

Letters. 

From Mr J. M. Richardson, dated London, February 13th, 1844, regarding a 
parcel sent to him for transmission, by the Geographical Society of London, which 
was forwarded by the ship Inchinnan, through Messrs Collett and Co. 

From Captain W. E. Baker, dated Kurrachee, June 1st, 1844, returning 
thanks for the Transactions of this Society sent him by the Semiramis, which 
have reached him safely, &c. &c. 

From the Editor of the Hindu newspaper, dated Madras, 2nd July, 1844 ; do. 
do. by the Mary Ann, ditto ditto. 

The Secretary was directed to return thanks to the respective donors. It was 
stated that though the Society was plentifully supplied with books of reference in 
to far as these were desirable, and had lately received very numerous contribu- 
tions from all parts of the world, it had permitted its collection of Maps to fall 
greatly behind. The Secretary was accordingly directed to have a very hand- 
some Table Atlas provided in the first place, and to see after other maps on the 
largest scale, and by the best hydrographists, by degrees, and as the funds per- 
mitted : Arrowsmith's Library Maps, to be suspended from rollers on the walls, 
were also recommended. The Revd. Mr. Pigott suggested the importance of 
making collections of old and scarce maps, especially in so far as they related to 
the geography of the east, with a view of preserving a record of the progress of 
discovery around us. The very great expediency of this was fully concurred in, 
but there seemed to be much difficulty in carrying it into effect otherwise than by 
the assbtance of private parties, whose aid would be especially desirable. Were 
each member to lay himself out for the collection of such maps as he could fall 
in with, and to forward these to the Secretary, the object might by and bye be in 
part attained. Of course many things of very little consequence might turn up, 
but amongst these a large number of papers really valuable might be looked for. 
Even of those which in themselves seemed insignificant, some might occasionally 
be found of much importance for the completion of sets and making up of 
a series. — Some fine specimens of Glyphography were laid on the table — ^presents 
from Major Jervis, of the Bombay Engineers. It seemed extremely doubtful 
whether, in the first place, the art could anything like fulfil the promises made 



in its favor, and whether, if it did so, it possessed any advantages over wood- 
catting, wbioh entitled it to a preference. — Lieutenant Montrioa gave soma 
account of the Survey just commenced on the Malabar coast — Lieutenant Rivers 
being engaged at the same time in carrying down a series of triangles along 
the Ghauts as part of the great general trigonometrical survey. This tedious 
and expensive operation has already cost Government considerably upwards of 
one million sterling, and is still far from being completed. Captain Lynch 
stated that besides continuing the survey on which Lieut. Montriou had been 
engaged, and which would be resumed immediately after the rains, Govern- 
ment were likely this season to commence another along the shores of Cutch from 
the mouth of the Indus to Surat, and a third was in contemplation on the southern 
shores of Arabia. With the Red Sea on the east, as far as Aden, we were never 
minutely acquainted, and sufficiently well informed as to the shores of the Persian 
Gulf; — but there were still large fragments of coast of which we knew next to 
nothing, the examination of which was essential to connect the other surveys to- 
gether. Colonel Dickinson had drawn up a very elaborate digest of our knowledge 
on this subject, pointing out the tracts which were well known to us on the best 
authorities, — the tracts in reference to which we were partially informed, or in- 
formed on doubtful authorities, — and those in reference to which we were entirely 
in the dark. The last amounted to an extent of many hundreds of miles ; this 
was remarkable and unfortunate enough, as these seas were not only not unfre- 
qnently traversed by vessels of the Indian Navy, but were constantly frequented 
by native craft trading with Bombay, and in whose safety we were directly inter- 
ested ; but not by any means so remarkable or so unfortunate as was our total 
want of trustworthy information as to the geography of the shores of Scinde, from 
the westernmost mouths of the Indus around to the coast of Guzerat. Of the hy- 
drography of the Gulph of Cutch we know next to nothing ; and although vessels 
had made their way often enough towards Mandavie, it was impossible to give in- 
stnictioas beforehand for the pursuance of any definite course, or to say how, or 
in what time, a voyage might be accomplished. Along these shores we scarcely 
knew with precision the exact boundaries of our own territories. It seemed very 
likely that instead of running twelve or thirteen degrees down the coast against 
the wind, as at present, and then running half as much back again, to make for 
Aden during the S. W. monsoon, — that a stretch of three or four degrees north- 
west before the wind, would carry steamers through the region of storm altogether, 
■B the wind at this season was only violent within about two hundred miles of the 
shore. A sufficient offing being thus made in the direotion of the Indus, vessels 
would then steer direct for Aden, nine degrees south, in comparatively easy wea* 
iher : this seemed to be a system very likely shortly to be adopted were the state 
of our information such as to permit us to make arrangements sufficiently certain 
■nd specific. Some observations having been made in reference to the very limited 
■DMHuft of additions which had been made to the stock of published knowledge of 
the geography of the Chinese seas, the straits and islands belonging to the Dutch 



Government, it was stated that a very considerable stock of valuable facts was oc- 
casionally collected by the commanders of merchant ships, who sometimes put 
down upon the ordinary charts, notes of bearings, soundings, and the direction of 
currents, whose publication would be valuable to the navigator. There was, on 
the part of these gentlemen, no backwardness in imparting the information that 
they had collected, and it was hoped, accordingly, when it became known how 
grateful the Society would feel to have geographical documents of this or of any 
other variety entrusted to them, and how happy they would be to have them 
lithographed, engraven, and supply the party contributing the sketch with what- 
ever copies he might desire, that documents known to be in existence would find 
their way into the Society's hands, and that others might be brought into being 
for the purpose of being placed there. Some conversation took place as to the 
state of our information in reference to the fluctuations of the tides, and the im- 
portance of carefully attending to this in all marine surveys, especially in bays, 
creeks, friths, and estuaries. The expediency of attempting to employ photogra- 
phy in the delineation of headlands and the mouths of harbours, was also taken 
into consideration : there occurred considerable doubts as to whether it could bo 
extensively resorted to, but it was considered well worthy of being tried. Though 
useless on board a ship, there were often rocks or other positions which afforded 
resting places for the camera, whence the picture might be taken. — Lieut. Suart 
reported that he had received advices of the shipment of the monument for Dr 
Heddle, to be put up in the Cathedral : Dr. Buist had inspected that at Mal~ 
colm Peth, and found it every way suitable. 



The Bombay Geographical Society held its Ordinary Quarterly Meeting on 
Thursday the 7th November, 1844, at 3 o'clock p. m. — Captain D. Ross, Presi- 
dent, in the chair. Present: J. P. Willoughby, Esq.; Captain W. S. Suart ; Revd. 
George Pigott; Dr. J. Bumes, K. H.; Lieutenant W. C. Montriou, I. N.; and 
George Buist, Esq., LL.D., Secretary. 

The Secretary having read the minutes of a former meeting, gave a very 
favourable account of the progress and prosperity of the society. The Transac- 
tions issued just anteriorly to the former meeting had been forwarded to their re- 
spective destinations — the Bombay Government having kindly transmitted the 
copies for the London Society, the Library at the India House, the Asiatic Soci- 
ety, Lord Auckland, &c., by the overland mail. The following gentlemen 
were admitted members : — 

J. S. Law, Esq. — ^proposed by J. Bumes, Esq., seconded by the Rev. Mr. 
Pigott. 

Captain W. E. Baker, Bengal Engineers — ^proposed by J. Burnes, Esq., 
seconded by Captain Ross. 

Major J. Brook, 2d Regt. Light Cavalry— proposed by J. Burnes, Esq., second- 
ed by the Rev. Mr. Pigott. 



Lieut. R. Phayrc, 25th Regt. N, I. — proposed by J. Burnes, Esq., seconded 
by Lieut. Suart. 

Sebastian S. Dickenson, Esq. — proposed by Mr. Willougbby, seconded by Dr. 
Burnes. 

Commander James Young, L N. — proposed by the Rev. Mr. Pigott, and ie- 
conded by Lieut. Montriou, I. N. 

The following contributions "were laid on the table of the Society, and the con- 
tributors directed to receive their thanks : — 

Papers. 

By Government. — Report from Lieut. J. C. Cruttenden, I. N., on the Mijjer- 
then tribe of Somallees inhabiting the district forming the North East point of 
Africa ; with a letter from E. H. Townsend, Esq., Secretary to Government, 
dated No. 631, of August 7th, 1844. 

By Government. — Report drawn up by Capt. G. LeG. Jacob, 1st Assist, to the 
Political Agent at Raj cote in charge, upon the general condition on that date of 
the province of Katteewar, and containing various points of information, principal- 
ly of a Geographical and Statistical Nature, connected with that interesting pro- 
vince ; with a letter from J. P. Willoughby, Esq., Secretary to Government, 
dated Uth October, No. 3132 of 1844. 

By the Author. — Remarks on the Ulla Bund, and on the drainage of the East- 
em part of the Scinde Basin ; with Meteorological observations at Kurrachee in 
Scinde, from 1st May to 13th October 1844, and Meteorological observations of 
Sukkur, and register of a Water Gauge in the Indus, from 1st May to 30th Sep- 
tember 1844 : also a letter dated Bombay, 27th October 1844. 

By the Author. — Account of collection of Geological specimens, (for presenta- 
tion to the Museum of the Bombay Asiatic Society) with that of an ancient Jain 
Temple situated at the Falls of the Gutpurba, about three miles South West of 
Gokauk, in the Belgaum collectorate, by Lieut. C. P. Rigby, 16th Regt. N. L 

By the Author. — Reports on the range of the Thermometer at Aden in the 
month of June 1844, by Corporal Moyes. 

By Dr. Buist. — Progress of the Rise and Fall of the River Indus for Sep- 
tember 1844, and range of the Thermometer, and progress of the Inundation of 
the Indus, dated Kotree, 6th October 1 844, addressed to Mr. J. Murray at the 
Times Ofice. 

Books. 

A letter from J. S. Law, Esq., dated Tannah 6th August, 1844, forwarding a 
parcel addressed to his care from Mr. Pamplin of Munich, containing the under- 
mentioned works, and also requesting the Secretary to be good enough to enrol 
his name in the list of subscribers of the Society : — Abhandlungen der Mathema- 
tisch Physikalischen classo der Roniglich Bayerischen Akadcmie der Wissen- 
chalten, Almanach der Koliglichen, Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenchaften. 
— ^Preis — Aofgabe der Mathematisch, Physikalischen classe de Koniglich 



Bayeriacben Akademie der Wissenchaften Zer Munchen, Gestellt im Jahre, 
with Balletin der Koninge, Akademie der Wissenchaften Munohen, 3rd January 
to 30th August, 1843. No. 1 to 55. 

By the Bombay Branch Royal Asiatic Society. — Journal of the Bombay Branch 
Royal Asiatic Society, No. 7, May 1844. 

By the Bombay Chamber of Commerce. — Report of the Bombay Chamber of 
Commerce for the fourth quarter of 1843-44 ; with a letter from Mr. Alex. 
Sutherland, acting Secretary to the Chamber of Commerce, dated No. 113 of 3rd 
October, 1844. 

By the Medical Boards with the sanction of the Hon^ble the Governor in Coun- 
cil. — Report on the Medical Topography and Statistics of the Southern Division 
of the Madras Army, 1843 ; and report on the Medicel Topography, and Sta- 
tistics, of the provinces of Malabar and Canara, 1844 : — with a letter from Dr. 
J. Bumes, K. H., Secretary to the Medical Board, dated No. 951 of 11th Oc- 
tober, 1844. 

By the Madras Literary Society. — Madras Journal of Literature and Science, 
edited by the Committee of the Madras Literary Society and Auxiliary Royal 
Asiatic Society, No. 30, June, 1844. 

. Bought for the Society from J. Jamieson § Co., for Rs. 100 — The National 
Atlas of Historical, Commercial and Political Geography, constructed from the 
most recent and Authentic Sources. By A. K. Johnston, Esq., F. R. G. S. 
Map.— -By Captain W. E. Baker, 

Map of Baroche and the English Northern Purgunnas, with part of Guzerat, 
including the route of the army under command of Lieut.-Colonel Thomas Keat- 
ing, in 1775. (Captain Baker states the Maps illustrating these remarks will be 
sent [lithographed] from Calcutta.) 

Printed Catalogue. — By British Library of London, 

Printed Catalogue of London British Library, dated August 20th, 1844. 
Printed Paper. — By the Author, 

Lumley's Bibliographical Advertiser for July, 1844. 

Letters. 

From Capt. W. E. Baker, Engineers, Supt. of Canals and Forests in 
Scinde, dated Kurrachee, October 3rd, 1844, intimating that he is about to for- 
ward a report on the survey of the Alia Bund in Kurrachee, &c, &c., and likewise 
expressing a wish to become a member of this Society. 

From Dr. C. F. Collier, dated Intrenched Camp, Hydrabad, October 23rd, 
1844, informing to remit or send an order for fifty rupees on account of his sub- 
scription due to the Society, and likewise introducing Major Brook and Lieut. 
Phayre, both anxious to become members of the Society. 

It was moved by Capt Ross, and seconded by J. P. Willonghby, Esq., 
Secretary to Government, that the Governor- General be requested to become 
patron, and the Governor of Bombay vice-patron, of the Society ; this was the 
arrangement which had existed under the governorship of Sir R. Grant, when 



the Governor-Oeneral had on all occasions expressed his anxiety for the welfare 
of the Society, and his desire to forward its prosperity. — It was resolved that 
hereafter the papers forwarded to the Society, and considered worthy of publica- 
tion, should be sent to press so soon as it was determined to have them printed ; 
8o that the Transactions would thus be issued periodically so soon as a sufficiency 
of papers were printed as to make a number of 1 50 or 200 pages. A statement 
of the papers now in hand, and of the condition of the funds, shewed that this 
plan could easily be carried out, aud that probably another No. would have passed 
through the press by January or February. — A lengthened proposition was laid 
before the Society on the subject of Tidal and Meteorological observations. A 
general resolution having been passed in favour of the proposition, the President, 
Captain Ross, was appointed to draw out details to be laid before Government. 
The leading objects contemplated, were the establishment of Tide-Guages at 
Aden and Kurrachee, on the shores of Cutch or Goozerat, and on the Malabar 
Coast, Ac. Ac. ; with small meteorological observatories wherever these could be 
got established. It was believed that were the Bombay Government applied to 
on this point they would readily give that assistance in forwarding the objects in 
▼lew invariably bestowed by them on physical research. Some discussion having 
arisen as to whether the Government of Scinde should not be applied to, it seem- 
ed to be considered more becoming to apply in the first place to the local Govern- 
ment, nnder whose more immediate auspices the Society had flourished — so that, 
in the event of their approval being obtained, application might be made through 
or by them to the proper quarter. It was understood that the Governor of Scinde 
was most anxious for the promotion of all such enquiries, and that any application 
made to him was likely to meet with the most favourable consideration. 

The Bombay Geographical Society held its Ordinary Quarterly Meeting in 
its Booms, Town Hall, on Thursday the 6th February, 1845, at 3 o'clock p. M. — 
J. P. Willooghby, Esq., Vice President in the chair. — Present : Dr. J. W. 
Winchester; Lieut. G.Jenkins, I. N. ; John Smith, Esq.; S. S. Dickinson, Esq.; 
Dr. J. Barnes, K. H.; and George Buist, Esq., LL.D., Secretary. 

The Minutes of the last Meeting were read and approved of. With reference 
to the appointment of Captain D. Ross to consider and report on the pro- 
position laid before the former meeting on the subject of the expediency 
of I4>plying to Government for assistance in the organization of a Survey on 
Tidal and Meteorological phenomena, the Secretary stated that there 
was no written communication from Captain Ross on the subject ; all that had 
been considered necessary by that gentleman was, that the general principle should 
be recommended, leaving to Government the arrangement of details. It ap- 
peared to the Meeting that if so much only was forwarded in the shape of recom- 
mendation, it would only be productive of trouble and delay. Government could 
not baft be in favor of the principle of promoting such investigations as those re- 
commended: their objections, if they had any, must be based on the expense or dif- 
ficnlty of carrying the wishes of the Society into effect. The Secretary having 



read the suVjoined Memorandum on the subject, it was agreed that a copy of this 
should be forwarded to Government, througli the Secretary for the General De- 
partment: — 

Memorandum as to the best method of carrying into effect the recommenda- 
tions of the Geographical Society, in reference to the establishment of a system of 
Tidal and Meteorological observations. 

It must in the first place be kept in mind, that the scheme the Society has in 
view is wished to be carried out without any regular establishments, and at scarcely 
more cost to Government than the price of the instruments, and loss of the ser- 
vices of some dozen or two European soldiers temporarily detached from their re- 
gular duties. 

The first set of Hourly Meteorological observations extant till the British As- 
sociation devoted its energies to the subject, is that made under direction of Sir 
David Brewster, by the Privates and Non-Commissioned Officers at Leith Port 
— ^published in the Transactions of the Royal Society. 

Where there is energy, ability, and zeal, in the cause, such researches will readi- 
ly be pursued without other stimulant than the permission or recommendation of 
Government : where amateurship is wanting, all the machinery which could bo 
looked for from Government would be found insufficient for the object in view. 
The only documents extant in reference to the climate of Aden, are the records 
of the observations of Corporal Moyes, of H. M.'s l7fch Foot — copies of a portion 
of which were laid, with much appreciation, before the Dublin Meeting of tho 
British Association, by the Marquis of Northampton. A large collection of the 
papers of Mr. Moyes is now in the possession of the Geographical Society. The 
best account we have of the climate of the Delta of the Indus is comprised in the 
papers of Mr. Strath, Engineer at Hydrabad to the Steam Flotilla on the Indus. 
Where amateurs cannot be found willingly to undertake the work, it ought for the 
present to be delayed. 

Aden. — The following is the scheme I would recommend for Aden. Mr. 
Moyes, who is spoken of by Colonel Pennycuick as a quiet steady soldier, waa 
sent here some time since in charge of Invalids, for the purpose of receiving in- 
structions as to the manner of conducting the work at the Observatory. He, with 
the assistance of a couple of European soldiers from the 17th and two or three 
lascars, is quite willing, on being supplied with instruments and relieved from 
regimental duty, to do every thing that is desired. I should suggest that a Tide- 
Guage with suitable apparatus — such as is described in my article on Tides in 
our Transactions — should be sent to Aden and set up by the Engineer Officer on 
the spot. It should be eminently desirable, indeed, to have two sets of Tidal ob- 
servations instituted at Aden, as the Tides seem to follow very different laws at 
the opposite sides of the Peninsula; this depending on the state of the Monsoon in 
the Arabian Sea. As also a Barometer, four Thermometers, and a Rain-Gauge. 
A well chuppered tent would be perfectly sufficient for an observatory, and ruled 
schedules of observations should be returned every Mail to Bombay. Colonel 



Pennycuick states that there would be no difficulty or inconveniency in detachings 
Ihe required number of men on separate duty, by the permission of the Command- 
er-in-Chief. The whole of the observations must be made every hour, day and 
night, for the space of one year at least. 

Knrrachee. — I am not at present aware of any amateur at Kurrachee. The 
Tide-Gauve could be put under the charge of the Conductor always on duty at 
Minora Point : indeed, as it requires only to be looked at once a day, any lascar 
could be taught to change the card — say at sunset or sunrise daily — and wind up 
the clock, which is all that is requisite. The Tidal returns should be made daily 
to the party in charge of the meteorological observations in camp, and by him 
forwarded monthly to Bombay. 

Hourly Meteorological observations can only be conducted, without an estab- 
lishment, where European sentries are constantly on duty. I would suggest that 
an observatory tent, chuppered, and with a wooden ceiling of four or five feet 
square just over the instruments, should be placed in the vicinnage of some sentry 
post ; and that the serjeant in charge should be directed to see that the observa- 
tions were noted every hour. This could be done by the men on guard — the Ser- 
jeant being responsible. Meteorological instruments are so easily read that there 
would be little risk of any material error. The whole might be taken charge of 
by any officer at the station who had a fancy for this species of study, and could 
see that the men were properly instructed and did their duty. 

It would be eminently desirable that observations on the periodical rise and fall 
of the River Indus were made at Hydrabad as well as at Sukkur. The distance to 
which the land and sea breezes are felt inland; as well as that to which the Ba- 
rometer is affected by the setting in of the S. W. Monsoon; are points of great 
interest, which might be fully inquired into. Mr. Strath would, I know, be de- 
lighted to take charge of the observations. 

It was stated that H. M. 17 th was about to be withdrawn from Aden; and 
that before the services of Mr. Moyes could be made available he must be trans- 
ferred to H. M. 94th about to be quartered there. This could be effected by the 
order of the Commander-in-Chief, Mr. Moyes consenting on making application 
to that effect. The Society would willingly take upon itself as many of the de- 
tails as it could carry through, especially those as to the providmg of instruments 
and furnishing instruction and forms for observations, and in seeing that these 
were duly attended to and returned filled up. The state of its funds, now chiefly 
occupied in printing its Transactions, hardly permitted of pecuniary liabilities 
being incarred. 

The fallowing donations were then laid on the table : — 

Papers. 

By Oovemment.-^MemoiT on the Charts of Rutnageeree, Rajapoor, Vizia- 
4roo^ and Dawgurr, drawn np by Lieutenant C. W. Moatriou, I. N.; with a 
latur froJOL E. W. Tjvj-asaad, Esq., Secretary to Government, dated 21st No- 
Tonbor, No. 4213 of 1844. 



read the suVjoined Memorandum on the subject, it was agreed that a copy of this 
should be forwarded to Government, througli the Secretary for the General De- 
partment: — 

Memorandum as to the best method of carrying into effect the recommenda- 
tions of the Geographical Society, in reference to the establishment of a system of 
Tidal and Meteorological observations. 

It must in the first place be kept in mind, that the scheme the Society has in 
view is wished to be carried out without any regular establishments, and at scarcely 
more cost to Government than the price of the instruments, and loss of the ser- 
vices of some dozen or two European soldiers temporarily detached from their re- 
gular duties. 

The first set of Hourly Meteorological observations extant till the British As- 
sociation devoted its energies to the subject, is that made under direction of Sir 
David Brewster, by the Privates and Non-Commissioned Officers at Leith Port 
— ^published in the Transactions of the Royal Society. 

Where there is energy, ability, and zeal, in the cause, such researches will readi- 
ly be pursued without other stimulant than the permission or recommendation of 
Government : where amateurship is wanting, all the machinery which could bo 
looked for from Government would be found insufficient for the object in view. 
The only documents extant in reference to the climate of Aden, are the records 
of the observations of Corporal Moyes, of H. M.'s I7fch Foot — copies of a portion 
of which were laid, with much appreciation, before the Dublin Meeting of the 
British Association, by the Marquis of Northampton. A large collection of the 
papers of Mr. Moyes is now in the possession of the Geographical Society. The 
best account we have of the cliinate of the Delta of the Indus is comprised in the 
papers of Mr. Strath, Engineer at Hydrabad to the Steam Flotilla on the Indus. 
Where amateurs cannot be found willingly to undertake the work, it ought for the 
present to be delayed. 

Aden. — The following is the scheme I would recommend for Aden. Mr. 
Moyes, who is spoken of by Colonel Pennycuick as a quiet steady soldier, waa 
sent here some time since in charge of Invalids, for the purpose of receiving in- 
structions as to the manner of conducting the work at the Observatory. He, with 
the assistance of a couple of European soldiers from the I7th and two or three 
lascars, is quite willing, on being supplied with instruments and relieved from 
regimental duty, to do every thing that is desired. I should suggest that a Tide- 
Guage with suitable apparatus — such as is described in my article on Tides in 
our Transactions — should be sent to Aden and set up by the Engineer Officer on 
the spot. It should be eminently desirable, indeed, to have two sets of Tidal ob- 
servations instituted at Aden, as the Tides seem to follow very different laws at 
the opposite sides of the Peninsula; this depending on the state of the Monsoon in 
the Arabian Sea. As also a Barometer, four Thermometers, and a Rain-Gauge. 
A well chuppered tent would be perfectly sufficient for an observatory, and ruled 
schedules of observations should be returned every Mail to Bombay. Colonel 



Pennycuick states that there would be no difficulty or inconveniency in detaohing^ 
the required number of men on separate duty, by the permission of the Command- 
er-in-Chief. The whole of the observations must be made every hour, day and 
night, for the space of one year at least. 

Knrrcichee. — I am not at present aware of any amateur at Kurrachee. The 
Tide-Gauge could be put under the charge of the Conductor always on duty at 
Minora Point : indeed, as it requires only to be looked at once a day, any lascar 
could be taught to change the card — say at sunset or sunrise daily — and wind up 
the clock, which is all that is requisite. The Tidal returns should be made daily 
to the party in charge of the meteorological observations in camp, and by him 
forwarded monthly to Bombay. 

Hourly Meteorological observations can only be conducted, without an estab- 
lishment, where European sentries are constantly on duty. I would suggest that 
an observatory tent, chuppered, and with a wooden ceiling of four or five feet 
square just over the instruments, should be placed in the vicinnage of some sentry 
post ; and that the serjeant in charge should be directed to see that the observa- 
tions were noted every hour. This could be done by the men on guard — the Ser- 
jeant being responsible. Meteorological instruments are so easily read that there 
would be little risk of any material error. The whole might be taken charge of 
by any officer at the station who had a fancy for this species of study, and could 
see that the men were properly instructed and did their duty. 

It would be eminently desirable that observations on the periodical rise and fall 
of the River Indus were made at Hydrabad as well as at Sukkur. The distance to 
which the land and soa breezes are felt inland ; as well as that to whicli the Ba- 
rometer is affected by the setting in of the S. W. Monsoon; are • points of great 
interest, which might be fully inquired into. Mr. Strath would, I know, be de- 
lighted to take charge of the observations. 

It was stated that H. M. 17 th was about to be withdrawn from Aden; and 
that before the services of Mr. Moyes could be made available he must be trans- 
ferred to H. M. 94th about to be quartered there. This could be effected by the 
order of the Commander-in-Chief, Mr. Moyes consenting on making application 
to that effect. The Society would willingly take upon itself as many of the de- 
tails as it could carry through, especially those as to the providing of instruments 
aad furnishing instruction and forms for observations, and in seeing that these 
were daly attended to and returned filled up. The state of its funds, now chiefly 
occupied in printing its Transactions, hardly permitted of pecuniary liabilities 
being inonrred. 

The fallowing donations were then laid on the table : — 

Papers. 

By Oavernment — Memoir on the Charts of Rutnageeree, Rajapoor, Vizia- 
llroo^ and Oawgurr, drawn up by Lieutenant C. W, Moatriou, I. N.; with a 
letter froji £. W. Tjvv^nsaad, £sq., Secretary to Government, dated 21st No- 
Tember, No. 4213 of 1844. 



3y the ^luMor.— Meteorological Return from Aden for the montlu of October 
and November 1844. By Corporal Moyes. 

Books. 

By Dr. J, Wilson, D, D.— The North British Review Advertiser. Edin. 
bnrgh, May, 1844. 

By the Author. — General Index to the contents of the first ten Volumes of the 
London Geographical Journal. Compiled by Lieutenant-Colonel J. R. Jackson, 
Secretary to the Royal Geographical Society. 

By Dr, Martin^ at Calcutta. — Almanack der Koniglichen Bayerischen Aka- 
demie der Wissenchaften fiir das schalt. Jahr, 1844. 

By the Secretary to the Library of the Literary Society — Cairo^ Egypt. — Mucel« 
lanea ^^yptiaca Consociatio Litteraturae. Seance du 2ad Mai, 1842. 

By the Medical Boardy with the sanction of the Hon'ble the Governor in Coun- 
cil. — Report on the Medical Topography and Statistics of the Southern Division 
of the Madras Army in 1843. (2 copies.) 

Report on the Medical Topography and Statistics of the Provinces of Malabar 
ftnd Cinara in 1844. (2 copies.) 

Report on the Medical Topography and Statistics of the Ceded Districts in 
1844. (2 copies.) 

Letters. 

Prom C. J. Erskine, Esq., Private Secretary to the Hon'ble the Governor, 
dated Government House, Parell, 12th November, 1844, giving information that 
the Governor has great pleasure in accepting the office of Vice Patron to the So- 
ciety, and that — " The important duties by which His Excellency is so constantly 
occupied, will, he is afraid, prevent him from taking sucli an active part iu the 
proceedings of the Society as he would otherwise have been happy to do: but he 
will a^ all tim33 hive grjat pleisura in pro.n3iia^ its welfare to the utmsst, and in 
len ling his all to extend a? widaly a^ pwVible tho sp'iere of its utility." — His Ex- 
C3lie:icy als^ratarned his basi thi:iksfjr th3 cD^y of the Society's Tra.isactioas 
which accompanied the Socretary's letter of the 9th November, No. 45 of 1844. 

From J. P. Willoughby, Esq, Chief Sasretary to Government, No. 3733 of 
1314, dated the 7th December, informing the Secretary that Government havo 
been pleaded to accept the Society's offer, "on the subject of supplying Govern- 
ment with 300 printed copies (stitched separately) of the Memoir drawn up by 
Captain G. LeG. Jacob upsii the geuiral condition of the Province of Kattee- 
war, at an expense of Rs. 150, and as it is desirable that the Map of this province 
which forms an accompaniment to Captain Jacob's Memoir should be stitched up 
with the Pamphlet, the Superintendent of the Government Printing Establish- 
ment has been instructed to cause 300 copies of this Map to be Lithographed and 
sent to the Society for the above purpose." 

From Sir Charles Malcolm, dated London, N. S. Club, October 30th, 1844— 
thanking the Society for a copy of their Transactions from 1841 to 1844. — He was 
liappy to see that the contributors continued to give their aid to the interests of tho 



Jovrnal, and regretted that any oircumstance should have occurred to delay the 
prosecution of his friend Lieutenant Christopher's discovery of the Haines River, i 

as it appeared to him to have been an object of great interest to Government that ; 

some one equal to so useful a work as penetrating into Eastern Africa by the great 
River, should be ordered to undertake it as an object of geographical science. 

From Lieutenant- Colonel W. H. Sykes, dated London, India House, 23rd No* 
vembsr, 1844 — thanking the Sdoiety for a complete set of their Transactions. He 
will not fail to notice the observations in the Ssciety's report for May 1844, and 
will always be ready to aid the useful objects of the Society. \ 

Prom Jamss C. Melvill, Esq., date I LDndon, East ladia House, 18th October, | 

1844— thanking the S3ciety, in the name of the Court of Directors of the East 
India Company, for a complete set of their printed Transactions, which accompa* ^ 

aiedthe Secretary's letter. No. 37 of the 24th August 1844. \ 

From the Right Hoaorable Lord Auckland, dated L>ndQn, Kensington Grove, { 

Dao8mber2ai, 1844— thaakin2: the M^mbarsof theSaciety for copies of the printed ' 

Transactions of the Geographical Society, and for the kind recollection on the part , 

of the Society of the favorable view which ha took of its labors whilst lie held I 

office in India. He fiadi them to contiin matters of liigh value, and well calculated | 

to carry out the objects for which the Society was founded, and heartily wishes i 

it a long coatinued success in the prosecatiou of its importint researches ; and j 

concludes the letter by thanking the Society, and acknowledging the Secretary's | 

letter of the 24th of August last. { 

The following pipars ware presented and placsd in the hinds of the Co3i« 
mittee for publication : — 

Bj Gj'j/.nin^nt. — Iliport from Lieutsnint J. C. Crutteaisn, I. N., on the 
Mijjerthein Tribe of Somallees inhabiting the district forming the North-East 
point of Africa. 

i5y Oovsrnment. — ^Report drawn up by Captain G. L3 G. Jacob, 1st Assis- 
tant to the Political Agant at Rajcote in charge, upon the general condition on 
that date of the Province of Katteewar, and containing various points of informa* 
tion, principally of a geographical and statistical nature, connected with that in- 
teresting province. 

By the Author, — Remarks on the Alia Bund, and on the drainage of the Eastern 
part of the Scinde Basin — with Meteorological observations at Kurrachee in 
Bcinde, from 1st May to 13th October 1844, and Meteorological Observations of 
Bukknr and a Register of a Watergauge in the Indus, from 1st May to 30tb 
September 1844. By Captain W. E. Baker, Engineers. 

By the Author. — Account of collection of Geological Specimens, (for presenta* 
tion to the Mnseom of the Bombay Asiatic Society,) with that of an ancient Jaio 
Temple sitoated at the Junction of the Gutpurba, about three miles south west of 
Ookaak in the Belgaum collectorate, by Lieutenant C. P. Rigby, 16th Regi. 



By the Author. — Observations on the Runn, by Captain G. Fulljames — 
with a rough sketch of the Camp at Kasba on the north side of the large Rann. 

The following Gentlemen were elected Members of the Society : — 

W. E. Frere, Esq., proposed by Mr. Secretary Buist, and seconded by J. P. 
Willoughby, Esq. ; C. J. Erskine, Esq., proposed by S. S. Dickinson, Esq., and 
seconded by Dr. J. Burues, K. H. 

The Secretary stated that Captain G. Le G. Jacob's paper on Guzerat was so 
full of minute and elaborate tables as to have occupied a much longer time in 
printing than was anticipated. The expense was very much greater than was 
estimated, in so much that in supplying Government with the copies desired, a 
higher rate of charge than was contemplated would require to be made : it would 
Btill be very much lower than that at which Government could have printed it in 
a separate form for themselves. Copies of th3 M ip had been furnished for the 
Government part of the impression : a Map on a reduced scale more suitable for 
the Transactions, would be got up for the Society. 

The General Report of the Secretary indicated a high degree of prosperity in 
the funds, and of success in the exertions of the Society, and the Meeting then 
adjourned. 



The Ordinary Annual Meeting of this Society took place on Thursday the 15th 
May, at 3 o'clock p. m. —Captain D. Ross, I. N., F. R. S., President in the 
Chair.— Present : J. P. Willoughby, Esq. ; Dr. J. Burnes, K. H. ; Dr. John 
Scott ; S. S. Dickinson, Esq. ; R. W. Crawford, Esq ; Dr. J. Bird ; and Com- 
mander H. B. Lynch, I. N., Acting Secretary. 

A letter was read from Dr. Buist, the Secretary to the Society, regretting his 
inability, from severe domestic affliction, to be present at the meeting, or to draw 
up and lay before them, as intended, the customary report on the labours of the 
Society and state of its affairs, and the progress of geographical research within 
the sphere of its operations. The letter also intimated that Dr. Buist was 
about to depart immediately for England for a period of six months, in the hopes 
that the healing hand of Providence, and soothing influence of time, might in 
some measure restore to him the use of his faculties now prostrated and paralyzed 
by calamity. Captain Lynch, Deputy Superintendent of the Indian Navy, having 
been elected to act as Secretary to the Society during Dr. Buist's absence, the 
following resolution was recorded, and a copy ordered to be extracted and trans- 
mitted to the Secretary : — 

** That the acting Secretary be directed to express to Dr. Buist the regret with 
which they view his departure, and their sympathy with him in the distressing 
events which have led to their being deprived for a time of his valuable assistance." 

The minates of the Society having been read, it was intimated that a letter 
had been duly forwarded to Government, as formerly directed, on the subject of 
the researches in Physical Geography — chiefly hydrographical and meteorologi- 
cal — desired to be undertaken under the superintendence of the Society, but that 



no reply had hitherto been received. These chiefly related to the establishment 
of small observatories for meteorological observation, provided with self-register- 
ing Tide-gauges, at Aden, Kurrachee, Gogo or Surat, and two other points on 
the Malabar Coast to the Southward of Bombay. The scheme was detailed at 
length, and an estimate of the outlay required for carrying it out, in the Secretary's 
letter — a copy of which was laid before the meeting. The Secretary had provid- 
ed four tide-gauges on his own account, to be placed at the disposal of the So- 
ciety when reqaired. These had a rived in Rombay some time since : they were 
very beautiful and perfect instruments, and it was thought probable that Govern- 
ment would possess themselves of them for the purpose of investigating the ano- 
malies in the tides around Bombay and ou the adjoiuing coast. Nothing could be 
done in this matter on the large scile contemplated by tlie Society during the S, 
W. Monsoon now close at hand ; and as the scheme was that of the Secretary, it 
would in all probability not be proceeded with till his return. Should Govern- 
ment desire the tide-gauges referred to for the important local researches recom- 
mended by the Chief Engineer, and which certainly demanled priority of atten- 
tion, other instruments for more re:note observation could be provided from home 
by the time they were required. The acting Secretary was directed to re -call 
the attention of Government to the subject. — A further report on the printing of 
the Transactions stated that much delay had been occasioned in consequence of 
the intricacy and elaborateness of the tables contained in Captain Le Grand Ja- 
cob's report on Katteeawar ; but that it was now far advanced and proceeding 
rapidly, so that a number comprising all the papers considered worthy of publica- 
tion laid on the table of the Society up to the present time, would in all likeli- 
hood be in the hands of members before next quarterly meeting. — No reply had 
been received from the Governor-General on the subject of his nomination as 
patron of the Society. — The following donations were then laid upon the table : 
the thanks of the meeting were ordered to conveyed to the donors respectively : — 

Papers. 

By Oovernment. — Report on Malwan Iron Ore, dated East India House, 18th 
December, 1844, by Dr. J . Forbes Royle, on the specimens collected by Dr. 
Gibson ; accompanying a letter to the Managing Directors of the new British Iron 
Company, dated Pontypool, 27th November, 1844, from W. Wood, Esq., — with 
a letter from Mr. Secretary Escombe, dated 10th March, No. 769 of 1845, Ge- 
neral Department. 

By the Author, — Meteorological Tables showing the Temperature and Pressure 
of the Atmosphere at Ellichpoor, deduced from observations taken by Assistant. 
Surgeon Bradley, Nizam's Army. 

By the Author. — Ellichpoor's Mean Hourly and Daily Curves of the Barometer, 
tdken by Dr. W. H. Bradley. 

By the Author, — Meteorological Returns from Ellichpoor for the months of 
Marob and April, 1845, by Dr. W. H. Bradley. 



JLXf 

By the Author. — Meteorological Retains from Aden, for the months of Decem- 
ber 1844^ and January 1845^ by Corporal W. Moyes. 

Books. 

By Oovernment — Thornton's [E. Esq.] History of the British Empire in In- 
dia, 5 vols , with Maps, and a Gazetteer of the countries adjacent to India on the 
North West, including Scinde, Affghanistan, Beloochistan, the Punjaub and the 
neighbouring states, in 2 vols, with Map — with a letter from Mr. Secretary Es« 
combe, dated 28th February, No. 655 of 1845. 

Jiy the Author. — Beke's [C. T. Esq.] Statemsnt of facts relative to the tran- 
sactions between the writer and the late British Political Mission to the Court of 
Bhoa — with a letter dated London, 20th January, 1845. 

Jiy the Society. — The twenty-sixth Report of the Bombay Auxiliary Bible So- 
ciety for 1844. 

By the Royal Oeographical Society of London^ through Messrs. Briggs ^ Co. — 
The Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London, vol. 14th, Part 1st 
of 1844, and an Address to the Anniversary Meeting of the Royal Geographical 
Society, dated the 27th May 1844. By R. J. Murcliison, Esq., V. P. R. S.&c, 
President. 

By the SocUti de la Asiatique de Paris, through the Royal Geographical So- 
eiety of London. — Journals Asiatique, ou Receuil de Memoires, Ac. Ac, Tome 
2nd, No. 10, Decembre, 1843 — Tome 3rd, No. 11, Janvier, Fevrier, 1844 — and 
Tome 3rd, No. 12, Mars, 1844. 

By the Society de la Geographique de Paris, through the Royal Geographical 
Society of London. — Collectiou Geograpliique de la Bibliotheque Royale, en 
1842. Collection Geograpliique de la Bibliotheque Royale, annee 1843. Second 
voyage a la Recherche des sourcss du Bahr-el-abia I ou Nil-blang ordonne par 
Mohomed Ali, Vice-Roi D'Egypte — Documents et observations sur le cours du 
Bahr-el-abiad ou dufleuve blang, &c. par M. D'Arnande — Lettre sur Tutiiite 
des Musees ethnographiques, et sur I'importance de lear creation dans les etats 
Europeans qui possident des colonies, &c., par M. Ph. Fr. de Siebold — and Notice 
Biographique sur Venture de Paradis. 

Letteks. 

From L. C. C. Rivett, Esq., Superiatendent Government Printing Establish- 
ment, dated the 1st March, No. 33 of 1845 — informing of the instructions receiv- 
ed by him from Mr. Secretary Willoughby's Memorandum dated the 7th Decem- 
ber last, (No. 3734) to forward to the Secretary to the Bombay Geographical So- 
ciety, 300 copies of the Map of Kattywar, each containing four separate pieces 
[which are required to be stitched separately] to the 300 copies of the report drawn 
np by Captain Jacob, on the same province. 

From Comte Auge Dest, President of the " Scientific Commission for the Dis- 
covery of American Antiquities," dated Paris, 5th February, 1845, calling on the 
Oeographical Society of Bombay for their sympathy and aid in the proposed nn- 



dertaking of an expedition composed of English, French, and Germans, about to 
be organized this year, under the suspices of the above Society, for the investiga- 
tion of the Antiquities of America. 

Prom P.L. Simmonis, Esq., dated 2nd April, 1845, 18, Cornhill, London, (op- 
posite the Royal Exchange), . inquiring whether the Society would be disposed to 
exchange a copy of its Transactions with him for a copy of his Colonial Magazine 
published monthly, and showing a great eagerness that a very large number of 
Foreign and Colonial learned and Scientific Societies would feel proud to be rank- 
ed by him as an honorary or corresponding Member of this Society, which has 
^n laid before the Committee of this Society, who have directed the Secretary 
to aeoept his polite proposition for the exchange in question. 

An abstract of the votes for the Office-bearers for the next year having been 
made, the following appeared to have been chosen by a majority of votes on the 
printed Uiits:-^ 

President. 8. Rev. G. Pigott. 

Captain D. Ross, I. N., P. R. S. 9. The Hon'ble L. R. Reid, Esq. 

Vice-Presidents, 10. Dr. James Bird. 

1. Major-General Vans Kennedy. 11. Major J. Holland. 

2. J. P. Willoughby, Esq. 12. Captain P. L. Arthur. 

3. Dr. J. Bumes, K. H. Non^Resident Members. 

Resident Members. 1. Major H. C. Rawlinson. 

1. Dr. J. McLennan. 2. Major R. Leech. 

2. Lieut. Col. P. M. Melvill. 3. Capt. G. L>G. Jacob. 

3. Dr. C. Morehead. 4. Capt. E. P. Del'Hoste. 

4. Comnander H. B. Lynch, L N. 5. Lieut. Col. O. Felix. 

5. B ill Gang idhurSliastree, Esq. 6. Capt. R. Sliortreed. 

6. Major-General D. Barr. 7. Lieut. J. C. Cruttendon, L N. 

7. J. Bowman, Esq. 8. Captain G. Fulljames. 

An audit committee having been appointed on the finances, gave a very grati- 
f/iag account of the state of the funds of the Society. 

Annual Statement of Receipts and Disbursements of the Bombay Geographical 
Society, from \st May 1844 to ZOth April 1845. 

184^. DiSBURSEMBICTS. Rt. A. P. 

AprU39tli. To Printing.. .. ... 1.5i5 o 

„ „ NttiuiiHi Atlas of Historical, Commercial, and Political Geogrra- 

phy, by A. K. JouaUoii, i:^bq.. •• •• •• 100 

M M BatAlilixhment . .. .. .. •• .. 561 

M tf Couiiugeut expenses.. •• • ••• •• 86 11 

2,265 ~ 11 
•• •• Amount taken on loan frnm thi* Society's funds to defray the 
balance of Mr W. lirowirs (iniderukcr'n) bill for the ereu- 
tiun iw the M irai T<bler in >t. Tbuuiaa'd Uatiiedral to the 
late Ur. J. F. Ueddle, SecreUry.. .. .. •• 108 10 10 

2.433 11 9 
M M Balance in favor of the Society this date.. •• ..1,519 i 6 

Rs. 3,952 IS 8 



1844. Rbobipts. Rg A. P. 

July 31st. By balance in th« hands of the Treasurers this date... .. 1,704 7 9 

1845. 

April 30th. f, Amount ef Government Subscriptions for 13 months, at 60 Ru- 
pees per m(>nsem.. .. .. .. .. 6cO 

If t« Of siihseriptions of Members for this year.. .. .. 1,523 

„ „ Of printed Copies of this Society's Procpe.iinprs sold.. .. 114 2 S 

„ „ Ditto uf 2 copies of the Roysl Geographical Society's Journal 

sold.. .. .. .. .. .. ..600 

3,947 10 2 
„ „ Balance of subscriptions of members to Sir A. Burnes's Por- 
trait, in the hands of the Treasurers.. .. 5 3 1 

Rs. 3,952 13 3 
^Signed) Geo. Euist, 

Bombay, 30th April, 1845. Secretary to the Society. 

An application from Mr Simmonds, to the effect that he should receive a copy 

of the Society's Transactions regularly as issued, in return for one of his Colonial 

Magazine, was directed to be complied with. 



The Ordinary Quarterly Meeting of this Society took place on Thursday the 
7th August, 1845, at 3 o'clock p. m., in the Society's Rooms Town Hall — Cap- 
tain D. Ross, I. N., F. R. S. President in the chair. Present: Dr. J. Burnes, 
K. H. ; R. W. Crawford, Esq. ; Manockjee Cursetjee, Esq. ; and Captain H. B. 
Lynch, I. N., Acting Secretary. 

The Minutes of the last Anniversary Meeting, held on the 15th May last, were 
read and approved. The undermentioned gentleman was duly admitted a Sub- 
scriber to the Society — Ali Mahomed Khan, Esq., proposed by Captain H. Blosse 
Lynch, I. N., Acting Secretary, and seconded by Dr. J. Burnes, K. H., Vice 
President. The following donations were then laid upon the Table, and the 
thanks of the Meeting were ordered to be conveyed to the donors respectively. 

Papers. 

JBy the Author^ through the Vice-President^ J. P. Willoughhy^ Esq. — A Geo- 
graphical Table, shewing the fifty-six Original Divisions of Bharata Khanda, 
now called Northern Hindoostan, together with its division under the Mahome- 
dans, and the present division under the British Government ; prepared by Cavel- 
ly Venkata Ramaswamy, Pundit, C M. R. A. Society — with a letter from the 
Author, dated Bombay, 2nd June, 1845, stating that the above table was prepared 
by him during his tour to Hindoostan, and requesting the Society to furnish him 
with 200 copies for t'le use of the Literary Society of Madras, in case they deem 
it worthy of publication. 

By the Author (3rd portion.) — Continuation of Desultory Notes and Observa- 
tions on various places in Guzerat and Western India. By John Vaupell» Esq., — 
with a letter dated lOt'i June, 1845, — expressing a hope that they would be in 
time to appear with the 2ad portion of the same which is now in type and about 
to appear in the forthcoming volume of the Society's Transactions — also transmit- 
ting a Sketch of the Islands of Salsette and Bassein, illustrative of the 3rd portion 
of the notes, drawn by Native artists, of which he begs the Society's acceptance, 
and states his not having received any acknowlegment of the 2nd portion of the 



Notes from the late Secretary Dr. Buist, and requests that he might be famished 
with the same. Mr. Vaupell also expresses to the Society a hope of his being 
able to furnish them with a 4th portion of these Notes. 

By the ^u<Aor.— Meteorological Return from Aden for the month of February, 
1845. By Corporal W. Moyes, H. M. 17th Regiment. 

By the Author. — Meteorological Observations at Fort George Barracks, for tho 
month of June, 1845. By Corporal W. Moyes, 17th Regiment. 

By the Author. — Meteorological Register kept, and Horary Barometrical Ob- 
servations taken, at Ellichpoor, for the months of May, June, and July, 1845. By 
Assistant Surgeon W. H. Bradley, 8th Regiment Nizam's Infantry. 

Books. 
By Oovernment—A brief Historical Sketch, prepared by Captain D. C. Gh^- 
ham, of the 19th Regiment Bombay Native Infantry, Commandant of the Bheel 
Corps in Candeish, of the Bheel Tribes inhabiting that Province, accompanied by 
an outline of the principles of the conciliatory line of policy which has been ob- 
served towards these rude tribes by the Bombay Government since the year 1824- 
25. With a letter from J. P. VVilloughby, Esq., Chief Secretary to Govern- 
ment, dated the 24th May, No. 2496 of 1845. 

By the Royal Geographical Society of London, through Messrs, Spong and Tur- 
ner. — General Index to the contents of the 1st ten volumes of the London Geo- 
graphical Journal, compiled by Colonel J. K. Jackson, Secretary to the Royal 
Geographical Society ; and the journal of the Royal Geographical Society of Lon- 
don, Part 2nd of vol. 14th, of 1844. With a letter dated London, 28th Decem- 
ber, 1844, from Col. J. K. Jackson, acknowledging the receipt of the Society's 
letter of the 24th of August last, and thanking them for the printed Transactions, 
and intimating that the Society would receive therewith a parcel and a letter from 
the French Ambassador in London, forwarded from the Minister of War at 
Paris, &c. &c. 

By tlie Ambasszdeur deFrance^ through the Royal Geographical Society of Lon- 
don — with a letter dated Herlfori house, de 20th Decembre, 1844. '< Dictionaire 
Fraacais, Berbere(Dialecte Ecrit et parle par les Kabailes de la division D' Alger) 
onvrage compose par order de M. le Ministre de la Guerre," and '^Rudiments de 
la langue Arabe de Thomas Erpenious traduits en Fraucais, accompaynes de Notes 
et snivis dun supplem ent indiquant les differences entre le langage litteral et la 
langage vulgaire, par A. E. Hebert, capitaine du genie." 

By the Medical Board, with the sanction of the Hon'hle the Governor in Coun- 
ill. — Stewart's [Duncan, Dr.] Report on Small Pox and Vaccination from 1827 
to 1844 in Bengal ; and Medical Topography, Northern, Hyderabad, and Nag- 
pore divisions, the Tenasserim Provinces, and the Eastern Settlements. With a 
letter dated 28th July, No. 727 of 1845, from the Secretary to the Medical 
Board. 

Map. 
By the Author, — Map of part of Lower Scinde, shewing the intersection of the 
Allah Bond by the Goonee and Pooran Rivers, drawn and surveyed by Captain 



W. E. Baker, Bengal Engineers, Director Ganges Canal — with a letter from the 
author dated Hindwan via Saharunpoor^ 10th June, 1845, intimating that the Map 
in question is illustrative of a paper on the AUa-Bund, which was presented by the 
author to the Society in the month of October last, and stating that Mr. Secretary 
Buist requested him to get the Map lithographed in Calcutta, but omitted to men- 
tion who were the Society's Agents at that Presidency, and how many copies of 
the Map would be required : also that he had written to the Secretary for infor- 
mation on these points as soon as he reached Calcutta, but had received no reply 
prior to the note above mentioned. Having been appointed to the Northern Doab, 
and being 1000 miles from Calcutta, he could not conveniently superintend the 
lithographing of the Map, and has therefore thought it better to transmit to the 
Secretary the original. 

Letters. 

From Lieutenant-Colonel P. M. Melvill, Secretary to Government, dated 6th 
June, No. 871 of 1845 — acknowledging the receipt of a letter dated 25th March 
last. No. 10, with its enclosure, to the address of Mr. Secretary Escombe, stating 
that the Government of Scinde, and the Political Agent at Aden, had bsen res- 
pectively addressed on the subject of establishing a system of Tidal and Meteoro- 
logical observations at Mandavee, Kurrachee, and Aden, and expressed the inten- 
tion of Government to render any assistance that might be required to carry out 
the object in question. 

Prom John Vaupell, Esq., dated l7th June last, acknowledging the receipt of a 
duplicate copy of Dr. Buist's letter to his address of the 5th August, 1844, the 
original of which he regretted to state he had never received, and intimating his 
gratification that the portion of the Notes alluded to had safely reached tbe So- 
ciety. 

FromW. H. Payne, Esq., datedRajapoor, the 17th May, 1845, to the address 
of Dr. Buist, forwarding a bottle of Water from the Hot Spring at that place, and 
expressing a hope that he would profit by Dr. Buist's remarks upon its chemical 
properties, and tests as to the mineral substance it contains, &c. Mr. Payne also 
states that the volume and temperature of the water continue the same through- 
out the year, and that, with the exception of an occasional ablutionary act per- 
formed at it, the spring is not resorted to for either sacred or secular proposes by 
any persons. 

From Ball Gungadhur Shastrie, Esq., dated the 29th July, 1845, requesting 
that his name might be withdrawn from the list of this Society's members. 

The meeting then adjourned till the first Thursday of November next. 



The Ordinary Quarterly Meeting of this Society took place on Thursday the 
6th November, 1845, at 3 o'clock p. m., in the Society's Rooms, Town Hall — 
Captain D. Ross, I. N., F. R. S., President in the Chair. Present : Dr. J. Burnes, 
K. H. ; J. P. Willoughby, Esq. ; Ali Mahomed Khan, Esq. ; and Captain H. B. 
Lynch, L N., Acting Secretary.— The minutes of the last Quarterly Meeting held 



on the 7th August last, were read and approved. — The following donations were 
then laid upon the table, and the thanks of the meeting were ordered to be conveyed 
to the donors respectively : — 

Paperrs. 
By the Author. — Some account of the Topography and Climate of Cliikuldah, 
situated on the Table Land of the Gawil Range, by Assistant Surgeon W. H. 
Bradley, Bombay Array, at Ellichpoor — with the following papers, viz., A plan 
of the Plateau of Chikuldah — Section of a portion of the Gawil Range in the 
direction of its dip — Abstract of Thermometrical Observations made at Chi- 
kuldah and Ellichpoor, simultaneously, 1843-44 — Chart, exhibiting the variations 
of the Thermometer at Chikuldah and Ellichpoor, noted simultaneously, 1843-44 
— Chart of the Temperature of Chikuldah and Ellichpoor, taken simultaneously, 
shewing the range of each month, 1843-44 — Two papers of drawings of spe- 
cimens of Minerals and Shells — and two notes dated Ellichpoor, August 21st and 
September 22nd, 1845. 

By the Author. — Meteorological Register kept, and Horary Barometrical and 
Thermometrical Observations taken, at Ellichpoor, for the months of August, 
September, and October 1845. By Assistant Surgeon W. H. Bradley. 

By the Author. — Meteorological Observations taken at Fort George Barracks, 
Bombay, for the months of July and August, 1845. By Sergeant W. Moyes, 
H. M.'s i7th Regiment. 

By the Author y through J. P. Willoughhyy Esq., Chief Secy, to Govt. — Remarks 
on a singular Hollow twelve Miles in length, called the " Boke," situated in the 
Porantej Purgunnah of the Ahmedabad CoUectorate, by Captain G. Fulljames. 
accompanying a sketch of the Boke near Purantej Kusba large Lake. 

Books. 
By Government. — " American Sumach" [Prom Part 2nd, Vol. 4th, Journal of 
the Agricultural and Horticultural Society of India.] Correspondence relative to 
the valuable properties of the American Sumach, or Dividivi, (Coesalpinia Coriaria) 
as a tanning plant. Communicated by Dr. N. Wallich,— with a letter dated 8th 
September, No. 4358 of 1885, from E. H. Townsend, Esq., Secretary to Go- 
vernment. 

By the Royal Geographical Society of London, through Messrs. Spang and 
Turner. — The Journals of the Roy al Geographical Society of London, Volume 
IStb, Part 2nd of 1844, and Volume 15th, Part 1st of 1855. 

By the SocUt^ de Geographic de Paris, through the Royal Geographical Society 
of luondon, and A. S. Ayrton, Esq., Attorney at Law. — Extraitdes Bulletin de la 
Societe de Geographie. Rapport au nom de la commission der prix annuel pour 
lade converte la plus importante en geographie en 1841. Commissaires : M. M. 
Eyries, Walckenaer, Larenandiere, Danssy Jomard, rapporteur. Appendice, 
Proves de la collection Geographique de la Bibliotheque Royale en 1844 — Bulle- 
tins de la Societe de Geographie. Troisieme serie. Tomes 1st & 2nd of 1844. 

By the SociSti de Asiatique de Paris, through the Royal Geographical Society 
of Lwdon, and A* S, Ayr ton, Esq., Attorney at iaw.— Rapport annuel Fait a 



la Sooietd Asiatique dans la Seance generale du lOtb Juillet, 1844, Par M. J. 
Mohl, membre de Pinstitut, Secretaire adjoint de la Societe Asiatique — Joamal 
Asiatique, ou Receuil de memoires d'extraits et de notices relatiss a l'histoire,ala 
phiJosophie, aux langues et a la litterature des peuples orientaux &o., Qiiatrieme 
Serie. Tome 3rd No. 13, Avril.— Tome 4th No. 16, Juillet.— Tome 4th No. 17, 
Aout — Tome 4th No. 18, Septembre, Octobre. — Tome 4th No. 19, Novembre. 
— Tome 6th No. 20, Decembre 1844. — Tome 5th No. 21, Janvier— and Tom* 
6th No. 23, Avril, Mai, 1845,— with a letter dated Paris, le 7th Avril, 1845. 

By the late M'ljorR. Leech^ C, B , Bombay EngineerSy \st Assist, to the Oovemor* 
Generals Agent on the N. W, Frontier, — Six manuscript books in Persian cha- 
racter, viz. 1, Vit Kievitch's Cabool, compiled in 1837-38, under that officer's or- 
ders at Cabool, incomplete. 1 Memorandum of a tour tliro' the Turkisthan States, 
and 1 an account of Cafiristhan, by Rujubalee of Cabool in 1837 ; 1 History of 
the conquest of parts of Caffiristhan, 1 an account of Beistar drawn up by a MuUa 
of that country in 1838, and 1 Geographical Notice of the Punjaub drawn up in 
1835, making in all 5 volumes — accompanying 2 Maps of the River of Cooner, 
one in the Persian character and the other in English, with a letter dated Um- 
l>allab, 7th August 1845. 

Letters. 

1. Prom Lieut.-Col. P. M. Melvill, Secretary to Government, Marine Depart- 
ment, No. 1243, dated 21st August, 1845 — communicating, for the consideration 
of the Society, copy of a letter Nos. 67 and 12, dated Aden, 23d July, 1845, from 
the Political Agent at Aden, relative to the proposal to establish a system of Tidal 
and Meteorological Observations at Aden, to be made in two places, one near tho 
Western point and the 2nd on " Seera Island,'* to be placed under the Senior Na- 
val officer, and that Mr. Moyes, of Her Majesty's 17th Regiment, superintend tho 
Eastern experiments, assisted by two men of H. M.'s 94th Regt. and 3 Tent Las- 
cars. The Political Agent, Captain Haines, I. N., also offers some observations 
on the difference in the atmospheric influence on the mercury within Aden and at 
the western point. 

2. From E. H. Townsend, Esq., Secretary to- Government, Political Depart- 
ment, dated 23rd August, No.4068 of 1845, intimating the receipt from the Society^ 
of 300 printed copies of Capt. LeGrand Jacob's Report dated 4th Oct. 1842, on 
the condition of the Province of Kattywar at that period ; and stating that the Gene- 
ral Pay Master has been instructed to Pay to the order of the Society's Secretary, 
the sum of Rupees 150, the price agreed on by the Society for the printing of tha 
Memoir in question. 

3. From John Shillinglaw, Esq., Assist. Secretary to the Royal Geographical 
Society of London, dated 15th October, 1844, acknowledging a present to it of th© 
Transactions of this Society from 1836 to May 1844^ and expressing its best thanks 
for the donation. 

From Ali Mahomed Khan, Esq., dated 20th August, 1845, expressing his thanks 
for the honor of having been elected a member of the Society. 



From R. Barton, Esq., Acting Secretary of the ** Scinde Association,^' dated 
Korracbee, 21st October, 1845, forwarding copy of the resolutions passed at the 
first Meeting of that Society, and expressing an opinion that, as the objects of the 
Association in many points correspond with those of the Geographical Society, it 
woald be advantageous to both institutions to aid each other in their respective 
views. 

From J. P. Willonghby, Esq., Chief Secretary to Government, dated 29th 
October, No. 4894 of 1845, requesting that the Original Report of Captain G. Le G. 
Jacob, late 1st Assistant to the Political Agent in Kattywar, upon the general 
condition of that Province during the year 1842, forwarded to the Society on the 
6th November, 1844, might be returned. 

From Captain A. McD. J. Elder, acting Secretary to the Military Board, 
dated 4th November, No. 4436 of 1845, requesting that the Society would be 
good enough to state whether certain Instruments, such as Barometers and Ther- 
mometers &c. &c., are procurable in Bombay, and where and at what prices. 

Resolved unanimously — That the Society record in their proceedings the deep 
regret with which they have learned the demise of Major R. Leech, C. B., whoso 
lamented death has deprived the Society of one of its most eminent Members. 

Resolved. — That the Society's Transactions shall be published as soon after a 
sufficient number of papers of interest be received to form a Journal of from 160 
to 200 pages. 

The Meeting is adjourned till the first Thursday of February next. 



A Quarterly General Meeting of the Bombay Geographical Society was held in 
iLhe Town Hall on Thursday the 5th Feb. — Captain Ross, President^ in the Chair. 
Pbesent. — Captain Sir R.Oliver; J. P. Willoughby, Esq., Secy, to Govern- 
ment ; Dr Bumes, M. D., K. H., F. R. S. ; Dr J. Bird, Secy. Asiatic Society ; 
Dr Glen, Member of the Medical Board; Dr McLennan, Superintending Surgeon; 
8. S. Dickinson, Esq., Sheriff of Bombay ; Dr C. Morehead ; Dr Geo. Buist ; Ali 
Mahommed Khan, Esq. ; and Captain Lynch, Acting Secretary, 

The Minutes of last meeting having been read, the following books and papers 
were laid on the table of the Society. Thanks were directed to be conveyed to 
the donors respectively. 

Papers. 

By the Acting Secretary (R. Burton, Esq.) to the Scinde Association. — A litho- 
graphed copy of the Resolutions passed at a General Meeting of the Asso- 
ciation held at Kurrachee on Saturday the 8th November, 1845. 

By the Author, — Meteorological Observations taken at Bombay, Fort George 
Barracks, for the months of September and October 1845. By Sergeant W, 
Moyes, Her Majesty's 17th Regiment. 

By th€ Author, through Lieut, -Col. P. M, Melvill, Secretary to Government, — 
Mfteorological Register kept, and Horary Barometrical and Thermometrical 
Obaervatioiui taken, at EUichpoor, for the months of November and December, 



1845, By W. H. Bradley, Esq., 1st Assistant Surgeon 8th Regiment Nizam's 

Infantry. 

Books. 
By Government. — A Printed copy of the report of Major A. C. Peat, 
C. B., Superintendent of Roads and Tanks, for the year 1843-44 ; with a Letter, No. 
3466, dated 10th November, 1845, from W. Escombe, Esq., Secretary to Govern- 
ment. 

By the SoclHS de Asiatique de PariSy through Messrs. W. Nicol ^ Go. — Journal 
Asiatique ou Recuil de Memoires, d'extraits et de notices relatiss a I'histoire, a la 
philosophic, aux langues et a la litterature des Peuples Orientaux &c. &c. Tome 6, 
No. 25, Juilet, and No. 26, Aout, 1845. 

Letters. 
Prom Major-General Vans Kennedy, dated 1st Dec. 1845, returning to the 
Society the six Persian Manuscripts sent to him on the 10th November last 
for his inspection and opinion as to their nature and value. General Kennedy 
kindly provides brief notes on each, and intimates that the whole are more 
or less imperfect from parts being wanting, and expresses an opinion that the only 
manuscript that appears to be deserving of Translation is that numbered four by 
him in pencil, being " An account of Journies to Turkistan, the Mountains of 
the Kafirs, made in company with Dr. Lord'' — and which also is represented 
as imperfect at the end. 

From Dr. George Buisfc to Captain H. B. Lynch, I. N., acting Secretary 
to the Bombay Geographical Society, dated the 3rd February 1846 — transmitting 
copy of lithographed correspondence between himself, the Lords Commissioners 
of the Admiralty, Colonel Sabine, &c., on the subjects of Tidal and Meteoro- 
logical Observations in India. 

In reference to a letter from Captain Burton, accompanying a report of the 
Society at Kurachee, and soliciting assistance and co-operation, it was resolved 
that a copy of the Transactions of the Bombay Geographical Society should be 
transmitted to the Kurrachee Association, and that the Secretary should be directed 
to convey the best wishes of the Society for the success of the researches in 
Scinde, and an expression of the anxiety experienced to aid them and co-operate 
with them in any way that might be suggested. 

The following letter from Dr Buist was then read by the acting Secretary : — 
To Captain H. B. Lynch, Acting Secy, Geographical Society. 

Bombay, February 3, 1846. 
Sir, — I have the honour to enclose, for perusal of the Committee, a printed 
copy of a memorial addressed by me to the Admiralty, together with their reply, 
on the subject of Tidal and Meteorological observations formerly forming the sub- 
jects of our correspondence with the Bombay Government. 

The correspondence arising therefrom is so voluminous, and operations so multi- 
plied and complex, that I have considered it expedient to have it lithographed in 
the shape of a narrative, with relative documents, so that a copy may be left with 
each of the members of the committee. 



The matters will come on for discus^sion at the meetiug of the 5th, and I deeply 
regret that a load of other duties has prevented me from placing the whole in 
yoQT hands earlier, so as to leave time for its examination. 

I may st-ite shortly, that my application was made to the Lords of H. M.'s Ad- 
miralty, in consequence of the warmth with which our project was taken up and 
commended by one of their Engineers, on whose recommendation my further 
proceedings were adopted. 

The scheme, as laid before their Lordships, is much more extensive than that 
originally contemplated ; but we are left untrammelled, to work it out accord- 
ing to our views — they undertaking to supply us with what instruments may 
be desired, to the extent of £350. I am of course ignorant of tlie nature or 
extent of the arrangements which have been made during my absence, but 
rejoice to observe that the execution of a portion of our scheme is now in pro- 
gress ; Government apparently having entered fully into our views. 

Captain Beaufort, Hydrographer to the Admiralty, and Colonel Sabine, R. A., 
superintendent of the magnetic and meteorological observatories conducted under 
the Governments of Her Britannic Majesty and the Ilon'ble the East India 
Company, are the parties at home under whose superintendence all our operations 
are to be placed ; and I may state that at a parting interview with these gen- 
tlemen, I had the promise of the most extensive countenance and support if 
necessary — ^much beyond that contemplated in my memorial, — with the assurance 
that every effort would be made at home to smooth away any obstacles or diffi- 
culties that might occur. 

Colonel Sabine, in expressing himself of the merits of the scheme in a manner 
too flattering to be repeated, intimated that as it was to him the Admiralty would 
look for the home division of the labour, that he would look upon me personally 
as the party in India on whom all responsibilities should devolve. 

The Admiralty expressed themselves solicitous for copies of our transactions, 
and I ondertook to have them sent punctually to the Library in Whitehall, as 
well as to the Hydrographer personally. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, your obedient servant, 

Geo. Buist. 



To the Committee of the Bombay Geographical Society. 

Bombay, February 4<A, 1846. 
Gentlemen, — In acknowledging your kind and feeling letter of the 1 6th of 
May, I beg to intimate to you my return to the Presidency, and my readiness to 
resume my duties as your Secretary. 

I have to offer my most grateful thanks to Capt. Lynch for the kind manner in 
which he came forward to tender his assistance to me, and the very able service he 
has rendered to me in my absence. 



I most take leave to crave your attention to the following narrative and cor- 
respondence — ^hoping that the arrangements I have endeavoured to make with the 
view of promoting the objects of the Society, may meet with your approbation. 

It will be remembered by most of you, that the following entries were made in 
our Minutes on the 6th February 1845 : — 

" With reference to the appointment of Captain Ross, to consider and report 
on the proposition laid before the former Meeting, on the subject of the expe- 
diency of applying to Government for assistance in the organization of a Survey on 
Tidal and Meteorological phenomena, the Secretary stated that there was no 
written communication from Capt. Boss on the subject : all that had been consider- 
ed necessary by that gentleman was, that the general principle should be recom- 
mended, leaving to Government the arrangement of details. It appeared to the 
Meeting that if so much only was forwarded in the shape of recommendation, it 
would only be productive of trouble and delay. Government could not but be 
in favor of the principle of promoting such investigations as those recommended : 
their objections, if they had any, must be based on the expense or difficulty of 
carrying the wishes of the Society into effect. The Secretary having read the 
subjoined Memorandum on the subject, it was agreed that a copy of this should 
be forwarded to Government through the Secretary for the General Department. 

" Memorandum as to the best method of carrying into effect the recommenda- 
tions of the Geographical Society, in reference to the establishment of a system 
of Tidal and Meteorological Observations. 

" It must, in the first place, be kept in mind, that the scheme the Society has 
in view is washed to be carried out without any regular establishments, and scarce- 
ly more cost to Government than the price of the instruments, and loss of the ser- 
vices of some dozen or two European soldiers temporarily detached from their 
regular duties. 

" The first set of hourly Meteorological observations extant, till the British As- 
sociation devoted its energies to the subject, is that made under direction of Sir 
David Brewster, by the privates and noncommissioned officers at Leith Fort> 
published in the Transactions of the Koyal Society. 

" Where there is energy, ability, and zeal, in the cause, such researches will 
readily be pursued without other stimulant than the permission or recommenda- 
tion of Government : where amateurship is wanting, all the machinery which 
could be looked for from Government would be found insufficient for the ob- 
ject in view. The only documents extant in reference to the climate of Aden 
are the records of the observations of Corporal Moyes, of H. M.'s 17th 
Foot ; copies of a portion of which were laid before the Dublin Meet- 
ing of the British Association by the Marquis of Northampton. A large 
collection of the papers of Mr. Moyes is now in the possession of the Geographical 
Society. The best accounts we have of the climate of the Delta of the Indus is 
comprised in the papers of Mr. Strath, Engineer at Hydrabad to the Steam Flo- 
tilla on the Indus. Where amateurs cannot be found willingly to undertake the* 
work, it ought for the present to be delayed. 



" Aden. — The following is the scliemo 1 would recommend for Aden. Mr. 
Moyos, who is spoken of by Colonel Pennycuick as a quiet steady soldier, was 
sent here some time since in charge of Invalids, for the purpose of receiving in- 
stnictions as to the manner of conducting the work at the Observatory. He, with 
the assistance of a couple of European soldiers from the I7tli and two or three 
lascars, is quite willing, on being supplied with instruments and relieved from 
regimental duty, to do everything that is desired. I should suggest that a 
Tide-Gaugc, with suitable apparatus — such as is described in my article on 
Tides, in our Transactions — should be sent to Aden, and set up by the Engineer 
Officer on the spot. It would be eminently desirable, indeed, to have two sets of 
Tidal Observations instituted at Aden, as the Tides seem to follow very different 
laws at the opposite sides of the Peninsula, this depending on the state of the 
Monsoon in the Arabian Sea : as also a Barometer, four Thermometers, and a 
Kain-Gauge. A well chuppered tent would be perfectly sufficient for an obser- 
vatory ; and ruled schedules of observations should be returned every Mail to 
Bombay. Colonel Pennycuick states, that there would be no difficulty or incon- 
venicncy in detaching the required number of men on separate duty by the per- 
mission of the Commander-in-Chief. The whole of the observations must be made 
every hour, day and night, for the space of one year at least. 

" Kurrachee. — I am not at present aware of any amateur at Kurrachee. The 
Tide-Gauge could be put under the charge of the Conductor always on duty at 
Minora- Point : indeed, as it requires only to be looked at once a day, any lascar 
could bo taught to change the card — say at sunset or sunrise — daily, and wind 
up the clock, which is all that is requisite. The tidal return could be made daily 
to the party in charge of the meteorological observations in camp, and by him for- 
warded monthly to Bombay. 

" Hourly meteorological observations can only be conducted, without an 
establishment, where Euroi)ean sentries aro constantly on duty. I would sug- 
gest that an observatory tent chuppered, and with a wooden ceiling of four or 
five feet square just over the instruments, should be placed in tlio vicinnage of 
some sentry post ; and that the seijeant in charge should be directed to see that 
the observations were noted every hour. This could be done by tlie men on 
guard — the sergeants being responsible. Meteorological instruments are so easily 
read, that there would be little risk of any material error. The whole might 
be taken charge of by any officer at the station, who had a f;uicy for this species 
of study, and could see that the men were properly instructed and did their duty. 

" It would bo eminently desirable that observations on the periodical rise and 
fall of the River Indus were made at llydraliad as well as at Sukkur. The dis- 
tance to which the land and soa breezes are felt inland, as well as that to which 
the Barometer is affected by the sctlin;^ in of the S. W. Monsoon, are points 
uf great interest, which might bo fully iii«iuircd into. Mr. Strath would, I know, 
be delighted to take charge of the observations. 



" It was stated that H. M.'s 17th was about to be withdrawn from Aden ; and 
that before the services of Mr. Moyes could be made available, he must be trans- 
ferred to H. M.'s 94th about to be quartered there. This could be effected by 
the order of the Commander-in-Chief — Mr. Moyes consenting on making ap- 
plication to that effect. The Society would willingly take upon itself as many 
of the details as it could carry througli, especially those as to the providing of 
instruments and furnishing instructions and forms for observations, and in seeing 
that these were duly attended to and returned filled up. The state of its funds, 
now chiefly occupied in printing its transactions, hardly permitted of pecuniary 
1 iabilities being incurred " 

Up to the beginning of May we had received from the Bombay Go- 
vernment no official answer to our letter of 25th March, though we were 
under the impression that this arose from no coldness or indifference to the scheme 
we had laid before tliem, but that so soon as circumstances permitted, our ap- 
plication would receive that kind and considerate regard always manifested by 
them in the advancement of philosophical inquiry. 

On intimating my intention of retiring for a time from Bombay, I stated to 
you that — '* Government had been written to at length, in compliance with the 
resolution of the Society on the subject of researches (Tidal and Meteorological) 
in Physical Geography, — the letter book will shew the tenor of my communica- 
tion ; but no answer has as yet been received. I have already provided Tido- 
Gauges, four in number, at Rs. 120 each. These Government are, I believe, 
likely to appropriate for observations at or near Bombay ; and if so, a further 
supply can be obtained in England. The monsoon is now so near at hand, that 
it is probable no progress will be made in this matter till next cold weather ; 
and I trust the Secretary will write to me in England, where I may be able to 
forward the views of the Society ;" and I imagined, therefore, that arrangements 
on this head would for a period pause. On my way homewards I happened to 
meet with Mr. W. Scamp, Admiralty Engineer, on his return from Malta, where 
lie had just had charge of the construction of a dock, costing nearly a million 
sterling. 

The state of Geographical research in the East happening to form subject of 
conversation between us, I placed a copy of your Transactions in his hands, when 
the subject of the above-quoted minutes came more immediately to be discussed. 
He stated that there was nothing from which marine engineers received greater 
annoyance than from the loose and careless way in which facts such as those we were 
in quest of, were collected, and that the Admiralty had often issued instructions, 
and were perfectly willing to incur any reasonable cost for instruments, but unless 
when amateurs were met in with devoted to such investigations, their purposes 
were almost invariably frustrated. He quoted many instances coming within 
the sphere of his own observation, illustrative of his statement, — instances which 
were afterwards multiplied to me beyond belief by engineers of much talent 
and experience. Without troubling you with details, I may take leave I trust to 



lay berore you the following letter addressed to him by me at his suggestion : — 
" W. Scamp, Esq., Engineer, No. 2 Hanover Street, Regeut Street, Loudon, 

" Taijus Steamer, of Olbraltar, July 5, 1845. 

" Dear Sir, — On reflecting over the subjectof the conversation which the other 
evening occurred betwixt us, in reference to the importance of concerted Tidal 
and Meteorological Observations in the Eastern Seas, to the Sliips of H. M.'s Navy 
in foreign parts, and the encouragement likely to be given to the prosecution of 
them by the Lords of the Admiralty, it has occurred to me that it might be ex- 
pedient to lay before you iu written form the scheme already placed iu tho 
hands of the Bombay Government by the Bombay Geographical Society; as well 
as to submit to you some suggestions as to what miglit, with much advantage, be 
effected in this department of Physical Geography, were the Society above named 
provided with the means. 

" I may premise that the Bombay Geographical Society, of which I have the 
honor to be Secretary, consists of about one hundred members, — is provided with 
rooms by Government free of all expense, — and possesses an income of about 
£250, arising chiefly from the subscriptions of the members, and almost entirely 
expended in the publication of its papers. 

" The condition of the Tides in the air and ocean from Cape Comorin to Suez, 
along the Malabar Coast, Scinde, the Persian and Arabian shores, was the 
grand point desired to be investigated by the Society ; but it was considered ex- 
pedient to broach only a small portion of the plan at a time to Government ; and 
the present was considered a very favourable opportunity for the prosecution of 
these researches, when two vessels belonging to the Indian Navy were engaged 
on surveys, the one to the south, and the other to the westward, of Bombay. 
Where Tidal observations were in progress. Meteorological research to a limited 
extent could be prosecuted with little extra trouble or expense; and the investi- 
gations of the Currents and Tides of the atmosphere is matter of importance scarcely 
second to the determination of the epochs, the intensity and direction of those of 
the ocean. A memorial was forwarded, to the best of my recollection in the 
month of February, to the efiect that Government should cause small Meteorological 
and Tidal Observatories to be fitted up and provided with instruments — as many 
of these as possible being self-registering — at Back Bay and Front Bay, Aden ; 
at Rurrachee, in Scinde ; at some point between Mandavie in Cutch, and Bom< 
bay ; and at a port to the southward. The instruments were to be selected, 
and the observations to be conducted, under the superintendence of the Society, 
and at the expense of Government. The Tide-Gauge at the Bombay Observatory 
was intended to be the general standard of reference. 

*^ We had much reason to believe that the most favorable consideration would 
be given to the proposals ; but at the time of my quitting India no answer had 
been received. As the scheme was in a great measure my own, and intended 
to be worked out under my immediate superintendence, it was recommeuded at 



the meeting of the Society which took place on the 15th Al.iy, that all the ar- 
rano^enients referring to it should be deferred till my return. 

*' The Government of India have at all times been most favorable to the prose- 
cution of scientific research ; but the cumbrous forms of office, the extreme slow- 
ness with which biLsincss not municipal or political advances in India, and the 
stringency with which, in all financial matters, the hands of the Governments 
of Madras and Bombay are tied up, renders the result of .iny such application as 
that lately made, ultimately doubtful and dilatory — the grant when given, being 
frequently small in amount and loaded with restrictions. 

" From what you stated as to your views of the importance of such things to the 
Royal Navy, and the likelihood of any suggestion you may make regarding thorn 
being favorably listened to by the Admiralty, 1 am led to lay the following pro- 
positions before you. 

" First. That the scheme of observation already partly entertained, and in part 
propose<l to the Bombay Government, shall be now taken up entire under the 
direction of the Bombay Geographical Society, and controul of the Admiralty and 
local Government. 

" That, conformably with this, a set of self-registering Tide-Gauges shall be 
established at Point de Gallein Ceylon, Mangalore, Vingoria, Doiiius (near Surat,) 
Dieu, Mandavie in Gutch, Kurrachee in Scinde, Sonmeanec in Beloochistan, 
some port near the mouth of the Persian Gulf, at Maculla in Arabia, Back Bay 
and Front Bay, Aden, Mocha in Arabia, and Suez in Egypt. Corresponding 
observations at Alexandria, Malta, and Gibraltar, would make the line nearly 
complete. The Tides at Cochin have already been investigated by a Gauge under 
direction of Mr. Taylor, Astronomer, Madras ; and this instrument is now at Bom- 
bay under orders to be set up in the Gulf of Cutch. 

" At these stations resi)cctively meteorological observations ought to be made 
with the Barometer, Ombrometer, Thermometer, and self-registering Animometer. 
The additional expence will be inconsiderable, and the information that may be 
looked for of the greatest interest and value, not only in general physics, but as 
tending to the elucidation of the laws which regulate aerial currents, for the in- 
formation and advantage of the mariner. These observations to be continued for 
the space of not less than two years, commencing if possible in 104G. 

" The expence of the instruments, and other pecuniary outlay, to be defrayed 
by the Admiralty. The Bombay Government to afford all the assistance in its 
power which can be supplied by the use of its vessels, and by placing uncove- 
nanted servants, non-commissioned officers and privates, at the disposal of the 
Geographical Society, in so far as the good of the service is not thereby inter- 
fered with ; and fitting up the instruments, or adapting or constructing places for 
their reception. 

" The whole outlay required for two years' observation only — the cost of instru- 
ments, which will be restored uninjured to the Admiralty or taken off their hands 



at prime co.^t, can scarcely exceed £'.00 ; and the money will he most rigidly and 
faithfully accounted for under any guarantee that may be desired. 

" The Society >vill undertake not only for the general supervision of the execu- 
tion of the scheme, but for the collection, reduction, and publication, of the obser- 
vations ; no charge whatever beyond that for actual outlay being imposed by it on 
the Admiralty, and no recompense or requital being accepted of by any of the 
officers of the Society. 

" Should a favourable view of these things be taken, it would be most impor- 
tant that sanction should be given as early as .possible to the execution, in whole 
or in part, of the scheme now detailed, so as to enable me to have the requisite 
instruments constructed under my own superintendence, or at all events put in 
hand before my departure for India on the 1st November. 

" I can only address you in the capacity of an individual, but believe I am 
guilty of no act of presumption in pledging myself to the extent I have done for 
the Society. Had the subject been placed before me before leaving Bombay in 
the light in which you have now placed it, I should have been enabled to have 
addressed you in behalf of the Geographical Society, and as their official organ. 
" 1 have the honor to be, Sir, your very obedient servant, 

" Geo. Buist." 
Mr. Scamp, on his return to England after an absence of some diu-ation, and 
from avocations of the greatest importance, was for a time so much occupied, and 
the superiors of his department at this period so engaged with matters of more 
urgent moment, that my letter for asea.son fell aside. In the montli of October the 
subject was revived : I had the honor of being introduced to various officers in the 
Admiralty, and, in laying the proposition before them, was received with every mark 
of kindnosss and consideration, and requested to bring the subject before their 
Lordship by memorial. On the ICth of October, accordingly, the following 
Memorial was addressed to them : — 

" To the Hon. the Lords of Ilcr Majesty'' s Admiralty, 
" The Memorial of Dr. George Buist, Secretary to the Bombay Geoyraphi.oil 
Society, late Secretary to the Agricultural Society of Western India, arid lately 
in charge of the Government Observatory at Bombay, 

" Sheweth, 
" That your Memorialist has, for many years, devoted himself with zeal and 
success to the prosecution of Physical research, especially in various departments 
of the Sciences connected with Natural History and Natural Philosophy. That, 
while in charge of the Bombay Observatory, upwards of three hundred thousand 
observations in Magnetism and Meteorology were made by him, or under his di- 
rection, and are now about to bo printed under his superintendence by order of 
the Hon'ble the Court of Directors. 

" That the Bombay Geographical Society has of late resolved to direct its ener- 
gies to several branches of research in Physical Geography (greatly in need of 
elucidation), referring particularly to the direction and velocity of tidal currents ; 



to the epochs and amount of high water ; the state of the aqueoas and aeria] 
currents along the coasts of Western India, Scinde and Beloochistan, Persia and 
Arabia, from Bombay to the mouth, or if possible to the upper end, of the 
Red Sea. 

" That a scheme of observation (an outline of which is subjoined) was, some ten or 
twelve months since, drawn up by your Memorialist, and adopted by the Geogra- 
phical Society ; and that its execution would in all likelihood have now been in 
progress had the requisite funds been forthcoming. The revenues of the Society, 
mainly arising from the private contributions of a very limited number of mem- 
bers, are chiefly swallowed up by the printing charges incurred in the publication 
of its transactions. 

" That the Bombay Government, which has at all times shewn the utmost 
anxiety for the promotion of such researches, and which is understood to be 
eminently favourable to the present scheme, is so hampered in its resources, that 
complaints are constantly being made of the want of instruments and men of 
science set apart for their own use in their own surveying vessels. Besides the 
attainment of a large mass of information in Physical science, it is thought likely 
that much useful knowledge might be expiscated, for tlie practical purposes of 
navigation, by the enquiry contemplated. It is proposed that the expense of pro- 
viding instruments shall be borne by the Lords of the Admiralty ; and that the 
service of vessels required for their transport, and those of non-commissioned 
officers and men for the work of observation, shall be provided by the Bombay 
Government — the Geographical Society pledging itself for the faithful administra- 
tion of the funds, and careful and diligent use of the instruments, entrusted to 
them ; and undertaking for the organisation, working out, and superintendence, 
of the scheme, and for the collection and publication of the observations, without 
any charge or requital whatever. 

" SCHEME. 

" A self-registering tide-gauge has been set up at the Government Observatory, 
and an elaborate set of Meteorological observations, begun under the superin- 
tendence of your Memorialist, has been ordered to be continued for an indefi- 
nite period of years. The Observatory is proposed to be considered a standard of 
reference, and the observations there made the general model for those to be 
elsewhere registered. 

" The positions of observations recommended are — 1st, at Suez, at the upper 
and, 2rf, at Aden (where two tide-gauges would be required), at the lower, 
extremity of the Red Sea; 4th, at Muscat; 5th, at Bushire, in the Persian Gulf; 
6th, on Minora Point, at the mouth of the Indus; 7th, at Mandavie in Kutch; 
Sth, at Pore Bunder in Goozerat; 9th, at the mouth of the Taptee, near Surat ; 
lOth, at Vingorla; llth, at Mangalore, on the Malabar coast ; and \2th,a.t Point de 
Galle, in the Island of Ceylon — being 12 points in all, requu-ing 13 tide-gauges, 
at the cost of about £10 each. 

" That, besides these, a barometer, a wet and dry bulb, solar and terrestrial ra- 
diation thermometers, a wind and rain-gauge, should be established — the cost 



of these instruments at each Observatory being about £25 or £30, or probably 
£330 in all. 

*' A small cottage or thatched tent, to be erected by Goveniment for the recep- 
tion of the instruments and occupation of the observer, who should be provided, 
under orders of the Commander-in-Chief or Superintendent of the Indian Navy 
from the unemployed men of the station. It will be remembered that the 
earliest, and one of the best, sets of hourly Meteorological observations in exist- 
ence, was conducted, under the superintendence of Sir David Brewster, by the 
privates of Leith Fort garrison. 

" The erection and establishment of the Observatory would be seen to by 
the Geographical Soaiety, which would take charge of all details, and see that 
the schedules, properly filled up, were pimctually returned. 

" In laying this scheme before your Lordships, your Memorialist is precluded, by 
the brevity and suddenness of liis visit to this country, to act by direction of the 
Society, whose wishes he feels assured he is expressing. He returns to India 
by the steamer of the 3d December ; and should the present memorial be honoured 
by a favourable notice, would respectfully impress upon your Lordships the 
necessity of giving it the earliest attention that may be permitted, so as to en- 
able him, before his departure, to arrange for the procurance of proper instruments. 

" That your Lordships may give a speedy and favourable consideration to this 
.scheme, and so authorise the expenditure of such a sum as may be considered 
expedient for the promotion of these views on the conditions specified — namely, 
that the Bombay Government and Geographical Society undertake the share of 
the labour which has been assigned to them — is the respectful prayer of your Me- 
morialist." " (Signed) Geo. Buist." 

To assist in procuring early attention to this, I had written to, or communicated 
with. Sir R. Oliver, Sir C. Malcolm, the founder of our Society, Col. Sabine, Col. 
Jackson, Ccl. Sykes, Col. Dickinson, 5ir D. Brewster, Sir C. Forbes, and others, 
and had the gratification to find the views of each and all of them concurrent with 
those entertained by me. Luckily, there was no occasion for the interposition 
of their good offices, their Lordships having, witli the utmost promptitude, cor- 
dially given the subjoined reply to the application made to them : — 

"Admiralhj, 2oth October , 1845. 

" Sir, — I have laid before the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty your 
letter of 18th instant, suggesting that a series of observations should be instituted 
in respect to the Physical Geography of Western India, &c., in conjunction 
with the Bombay Geographical Society, and that the expense of the Tide-Gauges 
and other instruments required, estimated at about £350, shall be borne by the 
Naval department; and lam commanded by their Lordships to acquaint you 
that they are willing to accede to this proposal, and request you will cliarge 
yourself with the procuring the instrmnents. My Lords request you will take the 
trouble of calling on their Hydrographers at this office on the above subject. — I 
am. Sir, your most humble servant, (Signed)." 



In compliance with the direction at the conclusion of the letter, 1 waited 
on Captain Beaufort, and subsequently on Colonel Sabine, on my return to Lon- 
don in the end of November, and had wiih both long and satisfactory conferences 
on the subject of the memorial. It was suggested by the former that Egypt if 
possible, Alexandria in particular, should be included in the scheme of obser- 
vation ; and I recommended Gibraltar, and Malta, the Ionian Islands, and as 
many other points on the lino being looked forward to as likely to be ultimately 
included. It was explained that on our side three or four observatories only 
would at first be established, and that the others would come in as we could 
overtake them ; and after it had been discovered what cost might be incurred, 
and what results obtained from those first established; that in the mean time so 
many of the instruments as were to be paid for by the Admiralty might be made 
use of on the European side, trusting that should tlic objects likely to be achieved 
prove worthy of advancement, further supplies might be obtained. 

It was agreed that Mr. Stirling should supply the Tide and Wind-Gauges, 
Mr. Adie of Edinburgh the other instruments, provided the specimens sent in by 
them should prove satisfactory. I once more took counsel on these matters with 
Colonel Jackson and Col. Sykcs, who expressed their most cordial wishes for our 
buccess. 1 waited on Sir C. Malcolm, and was waited on by him, but had not 
on this occasion the fortune to meet with him. 

On my way out I met in with Mr. White, a very extensive ship-builder, on 
his way to examine into the feasibility of erecting slips at Gibraltar, who gave me 
a long list of instances in which the Service had suficrcd for want of the informa- 
tion we were in quest of. He gave mc much encouragement, and afterwards 
very valuable assistance. The following letter was written after my enquiries 
at Gibraltar had been completed. 

I have the honour to be, Gentlemen, your very obedient servant, 

George Bujst. 

'' Colonel Sabine, R. A., Woohvich, London. 

" Near Malta, Wlh December, 1845. 

" Dear Sir, — I enclose you a copy of a letter to Mr. Adie on the subject of 
Instruments to be provided for the Admiralty's observations. Will you kindly 
correct any thing which may appear to bo wrong in my suggestions, or add any 
thing that may be awanting, and address Mr. Adie on the subject. I have sent the 
letter to him, of which yours is a duplicate, by this day's nuiil. 

" It does appear to me that were fitting instruments supplied them, and proper 
care taken, a great deal might, on many occasions, be made of observations taken 
on ship-board. I sec no reason why Captiiins should not bo supplied with books 
of forms such as those used at Bombay, on which each day's work might be re- 
gistered, reduced, and the curves set down at once — industrious officers would give 
monthly abstracts as well, and so on landing produce a volume fit for use. 

*' W you think well of this suggestion, you have only to say so. We have 



plenty of ontliusiastic amateur observers in every department of science in our ships. 
Of course a great multitude of failures must bo looked for ; but the anioimt of good 
to be done by the remainder is surely wortli the exertion requisite for its attain- 
ment There is every disposition in all public departments in Bombay to forward 
scientific investigation^ though delays sometimes occur which it would be desira- 
ble to avoid. 

" The Oriental Steam Navigation Company and their officers seem very keen 
and zealous on the point, — and they have vessels at all times traversing the whole 
line of the Mediterranean, Red Sea, Arabian Gulf, and Bay of Bengal : it would 
surely be well to make a beginning at all events. 

" We got to Gibraltar at noon on the 10th, and I immediately called on Colonel 
Harding. He expressed every wish to forward our views ; but his hands were 
too fall to give us assistance in any way. He recommended me to Mr. Grant 
Dalrymple, an old friend, who had already forwarded some papers to Captain 
Beaufort, and I found him so enthusiastic an amateur, as to have projected a series 
of observations on his own responsibility, with instruments purchased at his own 
expense. A Pluviometric Register has been kept for fifty-nine years ; — I did 
not see the register of this, it being in charge of a Sergeant at a remote part of 
the works. 

« The only other Meteorological Register is that kept at the Library. The Ther- 
mometer, Barometer, and Direction of the Wind, are noted four times a-day— 
viz., at 9 A. M., Noon, 3 and 5 p. m. They have a couple of Barometers of the 
most conmion construction, such as are found in farm houses in England— the scale 
rather rudely cut, reading by use of a vernier to hundredths of an inch. Neitlier seem- 
ed in good condition ; the sound of the mercury in the tube of the best indicating 
a very imperfect vacuum. In the worst tliere was observed a very large quantity 
of air— the mercury would not strike the tube at all: it stood 00-GO lower thau 
the other. The Registerer had not made use of the vernier— the readings were 
set down so many inches, so many tenths, witli the readings above tenths extract- 
ed and exhibited in vulgar fractions thus : 29-8J orSO-lJ— the point atwhichit stood 
when I was there. They are in this shape printed daily in the Gibraltar GazetU 
— « small newspaper published at the Garrison Library. 

" We are therefore apparently without any record whatever in reference to the 
Meteorology of Gibraltar. 

« In these seas there seemed many things— in reference particularly to the pres- 
sure or moisture of the atmosphere— extremely well worthy of observation. Itwa» 
remarked by Colonel Harding, as weU as by Captam Brooks of the Tagus, as mat- 
ter of notoriety, that the Barometer always rose on the approacli, and kept 
very high during the progress, of a gale from the East or South. We 
experienced a very violent storm of this character just before our arrival and 
after our departure, during the whole of which the mercury stood betwixt 30°150 
and 30^200. A wind from the west, however gentle, invariably sends down the 
mercury, and so on with winds from various intermediate quarters, where the 



XXXIT 

mercury is affected by the direction, much more tlian the force or velocity, of the 
wind. Does it not seem much more than probable that this is dependant' on the 
quantity of moisture contained in it ?--on the vapour pressure ? and that a very mo- 
derate number of good experiments would afford much light on your views on 
this subject ? 

" I found Mr. Dalrymple a most energetic and intelligent penon, fortunately 
enjoying the full confidence apparently of the highest officers in the Garrison. 

" The following was the arrangement made betwixt us— pending the approba- 
tion of the Admiralty : — 

" That on the top of Flagstaff Hill, at an elevation of about 1400 feet, a self- 
registering Wind-vane should be erected — the forces to be taken by Lind's Gauge, 
or a force-plate, if you think fit. 

" The Serjeant in charge to have an entire set of instruments, to be registered 
hourly under liis care. 

" 2. The same instruments to be observed at the Dockyard, with the addi- 
tion of a good Tide-gauge. Here the indications of the Wind-gauge attached to 
it can be of very little value. 

" 3. A second Tide-gauge to be established on the Neutral ground, to regis 
ter the fluctuations of the sea in False Bay. The observations at Gibraltar seem^ 
of such importance, and Mr. Dalrymple so likely to do full justice to the work, that 
I think one entire set of spare instruments should be supplied. These he would 
set up for a time on the Neutral ground, to see what effect was produced on the 
pressure and moisture of the atmosphere in the various directions of the wind by 
so large a mass of rock so immediately in the neighbourhood, by which great 
•ddies and whirls might be expected, and a considerable amount of dessication 
by the precipitation of vapour to be produced. 

'' Gibraltar indeed appears so singular a place as to be entitled to the benefit 
of observations, whether the great scheme now projected be carried out or not. 
Mr. Dalrymple is anxious for schedules in duplicate. 

" I think he should, if he desires it, have schedules in triplicate — one for his own 
use, one for us at Bombay, and one to be sent to you direct. If he will take 
ihe trouble to keep all these, the cost of the ruled paper can be matter of very 
small consequence. 

" As we of the Bombay Geographical Society have been the projectors of the 
scheme, I think we are entitled to an early copy of the Gibraltar Observations. 
But we are so slow and so far away that another copy should unquestionably be 
sent simultaneously to you. With us it will form part of a system : you may 
find in the isolated record much that is of value. 

" I have written to the gentleman who formerly provided me with Tide- 
Oauges for Bombay — (James Stirling, Esq., Engineer, Dundee — under whom 
Mr. Dalrymple studied the earlier portion of his profession,) stating tha 
kind of instruments desired, and instructing him to proceed with one set 
for Gibraltar the moment he heard from you. The price is XlO* The pipe or well 



mnst b« got up on the spot ; — the plans recommended in the Bombay Geographi- 
cal Transactions I shall copy out and send to Mr. Dalrymple. I have promised 
to forward to the Admiralty copies of the Transactions themselves. 

" I think the schedules and directions for Gibraltar should be provided by you 
from home ; and might I on this point take the liberty of suggesting, that they 
should be made out somewhat in the fashion of those adopted by me for Bombay 
for the year 1844 ? — copies of the report on which will, I hope, in a few days be in 
your hands. By this means an industrious man will find no trouble in reducing , 
abstracting, and diagramising each day's work just as it is completed. It costs 
but a few minutes daily ; it becomes a terrible task when left to the end of 
the year. 

" As the postages of our despatches will be considerable, I trust some method 
may be devised of permitting them to pass free on H. M.'s service under cover to 
some one. 

" I enclose you also copies of the letter to Mr. Stirling. From this you will 
observe, that in reference to Gibraltar, Malta, &c., he will await your instructions 
I have stated that you would get the Copperplates for the Schedules engraven 
in London. 

'* I have the honour to be. Sir, your very obedient servant, 

(Signed) " George Buist." 



The following was despatched from Bombay after the conclusion of my voy- 
age and journey :-^ 
" Colonel Sabine, R, A., Woohvich. 

" Bombay, Feb. 1, 1846. 

" Dear Sib, — I intended to have forwarded you my first letter from Malta, 
with copies of those to Mr. Stirling and Mr. Dalrymple, when the storm proved 
too severe to permit me to extend them in a legible shape. I was from this time 
so occupied with observations and other matters of much urgency, that I have 
kept back the whole till my arrival here. I shall now resume a narrative of my 
proceedings from Gibraltar onward. We encountered a very severe storm off 
Algeria, and did not reach Malta till the morning of the 17th, and were only 
allowed nine hours on shore. Immediately on lauding, I proceeded to present 
my note of introduction to Mr. Napier at the Dockyard, and found him most 
anxious to forward all our views. One Tide-gauge seems for the present to be 
mfficient for him ; it will be placed near the Marine Hospital, where the indica- 
tions of the Wind-gauge will besides be of some value. The whole of the other 
instroments must be placed at the disposal of the military, and can only be read 
hourly at some of the main guards. This portion of the matter will be left for 
yoa therefore to arrange : I had no introduction to any military officers, and my 
^ime at Malta was too short to have permitted much to be done even if I had. 
There can be no doubt that abundance of amateurs will be found amongst th« 
^ffiotrs at Malta, ready to enter into our views. 



^' At Alexandria I found it would be in vain to apply to the Paslia,who, how- 
ever anxious for the advancement of science, is too much occupied with the af- 
fairs of State to do more than give a cordial assent to our projects. Mr. H. Thur- 
bum, an eminent merchant there, at once undertook to have the whole of our 
scheme carried out ; recommending bis Agent Mr. Belts, at Suez, as an eminent- 
ly intelligent person, likely to undertake as much for the upper extremity of the 
Red Sea, as he was prepared to guarantee for Alexandria. At both these points 
Tide-Gaugcs may be establislied with perfect success : we must abandon the hope 
of hourly observations, but Mr. Thurburn undertakes to have the Barometer read 
at the hours of maxima and minima, and the Thermometer at the same hour 
with the Barometer. By using three pairs of self-registering Thermometers — one 
pair for temperature in the shade, a second pair moist and dry-bulb, (to be 
placed close beside these) for hygrometrical purposes ; a third and fourth for solar 
and terrestrial radiation ; and reading these at 10 o'clock — the hour of mean 
temperature — will give us nearly all that can be desired. 

" The same remarks apply to Cairo, where Dr. Abbot — Secretary to the Egyp- 
tian Literary Institution — undertook to carry out tlie work as to Aden and Suez. 
Here I would sui!:irest that a Tide-Gauge should be placed to serve the purpose 
of a Nileometer, and the velocity of the stream should be taken once a day by log- 
line, as on ship board, from a boat shoving out to the middle of the river. Mr. 
Linant — a French Geographer of distinction resident at Cairo — would, I doubt 
not, most readily sec to this department, and have a section of the river Channel 
most carefully measured, so that the discliarge might therefrom bo computed; — 
and I think it more than probable, tliat citlicr he or Dr. Abbot would undertake 
the task of determining the quantity of solid matter carried down it — so that 
a subject with wliich we are at present very imperfectly acquamted, however 
much we may chance to talk about it, may bo determined with a close approxima- 
tion to accuracy. 

" On my arrival at Aden, I found that I had been in some measure anticipated 
in tlic schemes now under consideration — the Geographical Society and Bombay 
Government during my absence having here arranged every thing most satis- 
factorily. By tliis two Tide-Gauges and one of tlie sets of instruments conceded 
by the Admiralty v. ill bo liberated, and may be applied to other purposes. The 
Bombay Government instruments to be used at Aden, will of course be sent, 
like the others, for examination and comparison. 

" I have thus gone over nearly all the ground proposed to be traversed where 
observations in concert with our Indian scheme were intended to bo established ; 
and every where have had lield out to mo the most flattering prospects of entire 
success. 

'• I am, Sir, your very obedient servant, 

(Sicrnod') ^' Geo. BuisT." 



The contemplated obse rvations on the relative saltness of the different seas, 
wai a proposal subsequently made to the Admiralty, to which no answer had, or 
could have, been returned : it was of much importance, and likely to be 
attended with no difficulty ; the steamers were already for the most part pro- 
vided with instruments ; the engineers accustomed to the use of them, and ready 
to give their services ; the rest must be matter of private arrangement ratlicr than 
of official interference. All that was in this case required was to have the in- 
struments, where they existed, compared with some general standard ; if wanting, 
to have them supplied ; and in all cases to have ruled schedules, with a few sim- 
ple instructions, provided. The instruments on board the steamers betwixt Malta 
and Bombay had already in part been examined and rated, and thermometers sup- 
plied those on the other side. 

Captain Sir R. Oliver, who was in England at the time these arrangements 
were in contemplation, had been applied to and rendered every assistance ; and in 
every quarter the greatest kindness and consideration — the utmost desire to 
assist and promote the scheme — was experienced. 

The voluminous correspondence, of which the above is a short outline, was laid 
on the table. The following resolutions were carried by acclamation : — 

Resolved. — That the cordial thanks of the Bombay Geographical Society are 
due to their Secretary, Dr. Buist, for the able and efficient arrangements ef- 
fected by him during his short residence in England, in communication with the 
Lords of the Admiralty, for carrying into effect the views of the Society for 
obtaining a survey, together with Tidal and Meteorological observations, and for 
prosecuting other branches of physical research. 

Rssolved. — That the Society approve and confirm Dr. Buist's proceedings, as 
detailed in the papers submitted to this Meeting, and at the same time pledge 
itself to carry out to the fullest extent practicable the scientific and useful objects 
therein contemplated. 

Resolved. — That a letter be addressed to the Bombay Government, explaining, 
in continuation of their letter of the 25th March 1845, the Society's views now 
brought to maturity, and soliciting such assistance and co-operation as may be 
■ecessary to enable it to conduct with success the important series of experiments 
indicated. 

Resolved. — That in expressing the satisfaction of the Society that Dr. Buist 
has resumed the office of Secretary, the thanks of this Meeting be conveyed to 
Captain Lynch for the able manner in which ho has officiated in that situation 
daring Dr. Buist's absence in England. 

Resolved.^Thsii the cordial thanks of the Society be conveyed to Major- 
Qeneral Vans Kennedy, Vice-President, for the trouble he has taken, and the 
•pinion expressed on the merits of the six Persian Manuscripts forwarded for 
presentation to the Society by the late Major B. Leech. 



It was stated iu reference to tlie publication of the Transactions, that the issue 
ef the number now at press had been delayed by the absence of the Secretary : 
it was now nearly ready, and would be in the binder's hands in ten or twelve 
days. Several maps — the most important of which was that for the illustration of 
Captain Baker's valuable paper on Scinde — were awanting : these would not at 
present be waited for : this was the first part of the volume, and as the paging 
would run on, the wanting papers would be referred to in the preface, and come 
in at the conclusion. 

The following members were then elected : — 

E. H. Townsend, Esq. ; W. Escombe, Esq. ; and Lieut. A. B. Kemball — pro- 
posed by J. P. Willoughby, Esq., and seconded by Captain H. B. Lynch, L N. 

Captain J. Estridge — ^proposed by Capt. H. B. Lynch, I. N., and seconded by 
Dr. J. McLennan. 

Lieut. C. G. Constable — proposed by Dr. G. Buist, and secoaded by Captain 
H. B. Lynch, I. N. 

Dr. J. Anderson — ^proposed by Dr. G. Buist, and seconded by Captain H. B. 
Lynch, I. N. 

The Secretary was directed to prepare the letter to Government, and to have it 
snbmitted to the Conunittt e before transmission. 



TRANSACTIONS 

OF THB 

BOMBAY GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. 



Report drawn up by Capt. G. Le. G. Jacob, First Assistant to the 
Political Agent at Rajcote in Charge^ upon the General Condition 
on that date of the Province ofKatteewar, and containing various 
points of information^ principally of a Geographical and StatiS" 
tical nature, connected with that interesting Province. 

[Preseuted by Government.] 

From the Acting Political Agent in Katteewar, to J. P. Wil- 
LouGHBY, Esquire, Secy, to the Govt, of Bombay. 

Katteewar Political Agency, Rajkote, 4tk October, 1842. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit my report on the general condi- 
tion of this Province, as called for in the Hon'ble Court's despatch, 
No. 5, dated I6th April 1834, transmitted with Mr Secretary Norris's 
letter, No. 1561, of 11th October following, and since periodically re- 
quired by Government, but which the heav}' current work of this 
agency would appear to have prevented compiling ; and I beg to con- 
vey, at the same time, such geographical and general information as 
appears suited to a survey, physical and moral, of the peninsula. 

2. In A. D. 1807, Colonel Walker estimated the population, not in- 
clading Babriawar, Jaffrabad, and Okhamundul, at 1,975,900 souls. 
In 1831, Mr Blane's census, exclusive of the two last districts, gave 
an estimate of 1,759)277| and of 4030 towns and villages. My in- 
quiries have produced a lower result, viz — 1,475,685 for the whole of 
the peninsula under the political agency, inhabiting 3794 towns and 
Tillages. 



2 

3. Full particulars will be found in the accompanying tables, (Enclo- 
sure 1) of which the following is a brief analysis, as regards population : — 

Provinces. No. of inhabitants. 

Jhalawar 240,325 

Katteewar 189,840 

Muchoo Kanta 28,749 

Hallar 358,560 

Soruth , 320,820 

Burda 46,980 

Gohelwar 247,980 

Oond Surweya 11,373 

Babriawar, including JafFrabad 18,468 

Okbamundul ^ 12,590 

Grand total population 1,475,685 

This census is, I conceive, as near the truth as our imperfect means 
permit : the jealousy of the chiefs prevents accurate returns similar to 
those obtainable in our own districts, where Government officers have 
the power to enforce^ and the people have no longer the desire to con- 
ceal, the truths My census has been based on the reports of persons . 
in charge of sequestrated districts, on comparison of information ob- 
tained from parties possessing most local knowledge, checked by such 
limited personal inspection as opportunities have afforded me ; with the 
assistance of the statistical tables compiled by Colonel Walker and by 
Mr Blane, above alluded to : the former estimated the population at the 
high rate of five souls per house, 'which partly accounts for the sup- 
posed greater population thirty-five years ago — some, whose opinion is 
of weighty consider the rate of four even to be too high; but the 
result of scrutiny in a few cases fully bears out this proportion, which 
was that assumed by Mr Blane. 

4. The peninsula may be roughly estimated as containing a surface 
of 22,000 square miles, and deducting the eastern portion which has 
fallen under the Ahmedabad collectorate, of 20,000 under this agency, 
which thus gives an average of a fraction under 74 souls per square 
mile. 

5. The population is composed of the various classes common to 
other parts of Guzerat, but the proprietors of the soil deserve especial 
notice, which, considering the changes that have taken place in the 
structure of society, cannot well be done without a brief sketch of the 
past history of the peninsula. Only four of the old races — viz. the 
Jetwas, the Choorasamas, the Solunkees, and the Walas — are now ex- 
isting as proprietors of the soil, who exercised sovereignty in the 
country prior to the immigration of the Jhalas, the Purmars, the 
Kattees, the Gohels, the Juts, the Mahomedans, the Jarejas, and the 
Marathas, between whom the country is now chiefly portioned out. 
The Jetwas claim to have held the northern division of the province, 



now constituting Burda, Hallar, and Muchoo Kanta, from tlie two 
last of which they have been driven by the Jarejas. They profess to b« 
the aborigines of the soil ; and I extracted from the genealogical re- 
cords of the Rana's Wywunchia* the names of 399 generations,! from 
f lunooman the Monkey God down to the present chief. The son of 
this deity, mysteriously begotten of an alligator, was the first of the 
Muggar Dwuj race ; he is said to have built Sree Nuggur, whose ruinn 
are shown near Poorbundur. Morvee is attributed to a grandson. 
After a time tlie family designation was changed to Kooraar, and 
Gooinlee became the capital of this race,{ on the fall of which, in the 
13th century, the diminished clan changed its name to Jetwa, and the 
chiefs successively occupied Ran poor, Chaya, and Poorbundur, the 
present capital. How far the claims of the Koomars to the ex- 
tensive tract pointed out, may be genuine, no means now exist of 
ascertaining ; but with reference to the Oojen and Anhulvvara power 
over the peninsula in remote ages, it may be described as some- 
what doubtful. The Choorasama race, in the opinion of the coun- 
try, gave rise to the Surweyas, Raejadas, and probably the 
Wajas : these three still hold possession in the territory originally sup- 
posed to have been under the Choorasama rule. The Surweyas give 
their name to the small province of Oond Surweya, on the banks of 
the Shetroonjee, and have possessions also in Wallak. The Raejadas 
are descended from the kindred of Rao Munduleek, the last Raj- 
poot sovereign of Joonaghur, whose throne and religion were both 
ibrced from him by Mahraood Shah Begra about A. D. 1472. A 
few families now only survive ; their chief possessions are at Chor- 
war, on the west coast. The Wajas have some grass possessions 
in the lesser Nagher, the narrow tract on the coast between the 
Geer Hills and the sea. The Grassias of Dholera, in the Gulf of 
Cambay, and of some villages in that neighbourhood, are of the Choo- 
rasama stock. Who the Choorasamas may be, and whence they came, 
is involved in doubt. It seems probable that they proceeded from, and 
are identical with, the Chawras, who so long ruled at Anhulwara 
(Peeran Puttun,) and probably may have held their possessions in the 
peninsula in fief of that Gadee ; and that they were originally the same 
tribe may be further conjectured from an inscription in a temple at 
Bilawul, § dated S. i320, which speaks of the gathering in that neigh- 
bourhood of all the Chavvra cliiefs ; indeed, if the present Choorasama 

* Genealogist. 

t These aro chiefly repetitions of the same names ia series of three and four : 
Ibis, however, is still the practice in the country wiih Rajpoots, Kattees, and 
Mahomodans. 

X An account of its ruins was published in the IXth No. of the Royal Asiatic 
Society's Proceedings, in 1S38. 

§ This seems the sarao) at least it agrees in the main points, with that de- 
leribed in the Appendix to Tod*s Annals of Rajasthan, vol- i. 



stock be not the descendants of the Chawras of that period, whose else 
can they be, and where are all the Chawra Grassias gone?* The 
affix Sama or Soma is itself the name of a Rajpoot tribe, and the two 
may possibly be united in the present Choorasamas : this is, however, a 
mere conjecture. The Solunkees are supposed to have succeeded the 
Chawras at Anhulwara, by the authority quoted by Colonel Tod, in 
A. D. 931 — by a genealogical list of the chiefs of that Gadee in my 
possession, in A. D. 912 ; but as the succession was effected without 
warfare, the Chawra or Choorasama fiefs in this country would most 
probably not only be respected, but their independence might thereby 
be more established. About twenty families of Solunkees survive in the 
Joonaghur districts, holding grass possessions — the remnant probably 
of the Anhulwara power under its changed dynasty. Scarcely any- 
thing is left of the Wala race but a family at Dhank, whom the revolu- 
tions of centuries have left on the spot they claim as the capital of their 
tribe when holding power in the country. There is a claim set up for 
the Walas to the honours of the Wulabhi or Balabhi dynasty, and it 
seems possible enough that they may have issued from Wulla during 
the days of its palmy existence, and established themselves at Dhank 
as an independent power, in the same manner as the Rajpoot Bhayad 
are wont to do even in the present day. The tradition of the Aheers 
of the south, of their holding the Walas' grass, shows that their pos- 
sessions were extensive, and in a measure strengthens their connexion 
with the old sovereignty of the Mewar family. The Kattee tribe of 
Wala owes its designation and priority to intermarriage with this 
race. It seems probable that the rise of the Chawra power at Anhul- 
wara A. D. 746, extinguished that of the Walas. All these races were 
probably mere waves of the tide of population that appears from of old 
to have set steadily in to this peninsula from the northward and interior 
of the continent, but in the absence of data for decided opinions, the 
Jetwa claim may be entitled to consideration. Physical appearance can 
scarcely be taken into account in judging of their origin, since the de- 
struction of their females, and constant intermarriage with other Raj- 
poot tribes, must, in the course of centuries, produce a similarity of 
appearance. The genius of the lamented James Prinsep in furnishing 
a key to the characters on the Geernar Rock, near Joonaghur, has 
thrown a ray of light on the darkness of the ancient history of this 
peninsula : these hieroglyphics unravelled, show that in the third cen- 
tury before Christ, the power that ruled in Oojen and in Muguda, alike 
published its edicts at Cuttack in the East, and at Joonaghur in the 
West, of India, and that the prevailing religion was that of Boodh. In an 
inscription, whose changed character denotes a somewhat later date, the 

• Colonel Walker, quoting from the Mirati Sikundurie, mentions the asser- 
tion therein made, of the Choorasamas having possessed the sovereign authority 
over Soruth for nineteen centuries. 



names of other Rajpoot kings of the Cha?;ra tribe, descended from 
Chundra Goopta, are given, who are spoken of as the restorer of the 
Geernar Bridge. It may be concluded, therefore, that the peninsula 
was for some centuries under the power which ruled in Central India. 
By the authorities quoted by Colonel Tod, the Wulabhi or Balabhi, the 
present Wulha, another Boodhist or Jain sovereignty, appears to have 
succeeded as the capital of the peninsula ; or it would be nearer the truth 
perhaps to say the town of most note, founded about A. D. 145 by the 
ancestor of the Ranas of Me war. An era sprung from it in A. D. 319> 
and it was destroyed about A. D. 524. The seat of power appears sub- 
sequently removed to Anhulwara,* where the Chawra tribe established 
itself as previously mentioned. But the landmarks of ancient history 
are too scattered and few to build more than a plausible theory on 
them, and successive swarms of barbarians have left scarce a vestige 
by which to measure the extent and state of the dynasties tliat ruled 
over Soorashtra when the favourite idol at Somnath was bathed daily in 
water brought from the Ganges, and Krishna sported and died in its 
vicinity. 

6. When Mahomed of Ghuznie invaded the peninsula, the 
Anhulwara Raja advanced to the rescue of Somnath, and in- 
scriptions of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries on the western 
coast allude to the Anhulwara kings as sovereigns of the peninsula ; 
and much zeal seems to have been expended by them, and by the 
chiefs of the country, in again setting up their god, and devoting 
portions of the revenues of the country to its maintenance. The 
Seeva Singa era, equivalent to A. D. 1113-14, used in two of these 
inscriptions, may, I think, be attributed to Sidh Raj Jysing of Anhul- 
wara, with whose death — after a reign of 50 years, as recorded in the 
genealogical list of the dynasty given me by some intelligent Bhats — 
it very nearly agrees ; and its use on the public inscriptions of the 
country, with that of his name and of his successor, Koour or Koomar 
Pal, proves some subserviency to that Gadee,f which is further con- 
firmed by the direct assertion of it in the Bilawul inscription (see 
note). It is probable, however, that the peninsula was very partially 
subject to the Anhulwara Gadee, whose force was moreover broken, 
and dynasty changed, by the great Iconoclast, so that there was less 
ability to resist the various tribes who now own tie soil, and who ap- 
pear to have commenced establishing themselves about the period of 

♦ The modern Peeran Puttun, near Dcesa. 

t Colonel Tod remarks) that this era was founded by the Gohels of the 
iBUad of Deo, but he appears led iuto tliis opinion by inistukiufir Deo NuL^ara, 
the title of Putten on the west coast, to this day called Deo Putten, for the 
island The counection between the two Puttens is proved by the i(iscrip« 
iioD in a temple at Bilawul, dated with the three eras of Vikruaiajeet 132n, 
Wulabhi 945, Seeva Siiiga 151, a. ii., 6t>2 ; a turiailed truuslatioii of which is 
given in the appendix to vol i. of the anuaU. 



the Ghuznuvee invasion. To theee 1 now turn ; but as they have t>een 
separately described in Colonel Walker's reports on the provinces of 
the country, which chiefly owe their names to them, and in a memoir 
by Captain Macmurdo, published in the proceedings of the Literary 
Society of Bombay in 1813, I shall limit myself to brief allusions, 
touching chiefly on points that have escaped previous notice. 

7. The present name of Kalteewar for the peninsula, has without 
due reason been suffered to usurp its correct application of Soorashtra, 
by which it was known to tlie Greeks, and is still so to almost every 
native of Goozerat who can read and write. The term Soruthdes is 
also to be met with in early inscriptions, and the Mahomedans 
retained this name for the country when they established their 
power in it, — a designation that has been retained for the part of th« 
province which still belongs to them. The etymology of Soorashtra 
is disputed, some affirming it to proceed from Soo^ good — Rasktra, 
country ; whilst others deem it a compound from Soorya, 
the Sun, which would make it the land of the sun. It is strange 
that the Kattees, who are greatly inferior to the Rajpoot com- 
munities in numbers, territory, wealth, and rank, should have had the 
honour of conferring their name on the peninsula ; and it is to be 
regretted that its more appropriate and classical name of Soorashtra 
should not have been reverted to by its new governors instead of still 
further changing it into its present incorrect designation, which has the 
further disadvantage of giving rise to mistakes whenever its subordi- 
nate province of Katteeawar is alone referred to. On this account, as 
well as to connect it with its ancient history, I would plead strongly 
for the restoration of its proper name, which even now is more gene- 
rally known than its modern and erroneous one. 

8. The peninsula is divided into the ten prants (provinces or counties) 
named in the 3d paragraph of this report : these are of very unequal size 
and importance, the last three on the list containing only 167 villages 
between them, whilst Hallar alone contains 942. The boundaries of 
these prants cannot be traced with precision, owing to the encroach- 
ments that have from time to time located the masters of one province 
within the territories of another. Thus the Jam of Nuwanuggur and 
the Thacor of Bhaonuggur have established their power in the centre 
of Katteeawar. The Kattees of the Jetpoor family occupy Mendurra 
in the midst of Soruth : Jetpoor itself properly belonging to Soruth, and 
being comparatively a modern acquisition. Wankaneera Jhala prin- 
cipality is on the banks of the Muchoo, and the Mahratta authority, 
which from a few villages has grown into one of the most powerful 
states in the country, with its capital at Amrellee, and a revenue of 
four lakhs of rupees a year, has stretched one of its arms to the west- 
ern coast.* Political boundaries alone would present a map of the 

• Korinar, a Purgunnah now of 05 villages, ceded by the the Nuwab of Joo- 
naghur in a. d. 1811. 



country, covered over with a confused net-work of lines, angles, and 
detached circles, interlacing each other in every conceivable shape — a 
geographical kaleidoscope : unhappily only the southern, and part of the 
north-western, portion of the peninsula has yet been surveyed, and this 
hat furnished little beyond the sites of villages, &c. Colonel Walker's 
reports appear the only authority on the subject, but these give the 
boundaries somewhat loosely, and the existing maps are still further 
from the truth ; indeed it is a difficult matter to lay down the exact llnea 
ofseparation between the various prants, and in fixing them as per the 
map in this report* (Enclosure 2) I have taken the means of divers 
opinions after repeated discussions with the best informed of the 
several districts. 

9* As reference to the people, or whatever constitutes the fluctuat- 
ing features of a country, will be more facile, and the subdivisions of 
territory be better understood, when the fixed land-marks that the 
surface of the country exposes to view have been previously described^ 
I shall, in the first plaee, notice these — or, in other words, show the 
skeleton geography of the Peninsula, filling in the flesh and blood after- 
wards. 

The surface of the country is generally undulating, with low ranges 
of hills running in very irregular directions : the high land commencing 
in the N.W., which throws off its waters into the Gulf of Kutch, and 
into the Arabian Sea, runs easterly to Surdhar, near which it meeta 
with a range, of which Choteela forms the highest point, running in 
nearly a southerly direction, and circling eastward to a few miles be- 
yond Jusdhun. From this high land proceed all the rivers that disem- 
bogue in the Gulfs of Kutch and of Cambay, and into the Runn. This 
portion of the Peninsula may be deemed the ridge of the tortoise shell 
which slopes gradually on all sides, but with its least fall towards the 
S,S.W., Amrellee and Buggussra, which portion may be considered 
the table land of the Peninsula : hence the waters are thrown ofl^ easterly 
into the entrance of the Cambay Gulph, and westerly between the 
Geernar and Geer Hills. This last named range interferes to bar the 
south. The greater and lesser Geerf describe nearly the arc of a cir- 
cle, broken between Dedan and Wudal, from the convex side of which 
numerous streamlets, resembling the ribs of an outspread fan, pour them- 
selves into the sea that washes the southern coasts of the Peninsula. 

10. I. Mountains. — The highland before alluded to, running easterly 
to the Choteela range, contains no hills worthy of notice. The conical 
hill above Choteela is perhaps the moat conspicuous, and is scarce 400 
feet above the level of the ground. 

* The existing maps are so erroneous, that no dependence can be placed on 
Ihem. The attempt to define boundaries thereon must be ooxtfidered merely 
as an approach to correctness for the unsurveyed portion!. 

t So oaUtd by some ; properly the WuUak Geer or Mordhar range. 



8 

II. The Geernar clump, near Joonaghur, is tlie most important in 
height, in historical associations, and in structure. A bold mass of 
granite rises almost perpendicularly several hundred feet, intersected 
with thin lamina of quartz in diagonal and nearly parallel directions. 
Its highest peak is about 3500 feet above the level of the sea. On 
approaching it from the city it resembles the Lingum in the centre of 
the Yonee, for it rises from a basin formed by a circular rim of hills: 
these have four narrow entrances, called ghauts, nearly at the four 
points of the compass, through which the basin is entered : the hill 
rim or ridge on its western side rises into a rival mountain, dedicated 
to Jumeel Shah, a celebrated Mahomedan Peer, whose shrine on the 
top cures the leprous and the blind to this day, if we may believe botk 
Hindoo and Mussulman tales. The eastern or the Geernar mountain, 
called in Sanscrit Oojyunt, rises into three lofty peaks, besides a few 
lesses ones, each sacred to a deity. The Brahmins, the Jains, and the 
Mussulmans, rival each other in devotion to their sanctit}'.* Macmurdo 
was mistaken in connecting the Geernar clump with the Geer Range,f 
as a plain of 12 miles in its narrowest part separates them. Before 
leaving this mountain, I should mention, as worthy of notice, the rock 
called the Bheroo Jup, whence until lately devotees threw themselves 
into the fearful abyss, as a religious act of suicide. The celebrated 
rock on which the edicts of Asoka, &c., are traced, is at the entrance of 
the valley which leads to the base of the mountain from the Joona- 
ghur side. 

III. The Burda hills, near Poorbundur, are a circular cluster about 
30 miles round : the highest point in the north, where are the ruins of 
Goomlee, is nearly 20v.i0 feet above the level of the sea. Bamboos 
grow plentifully on their sides, and springs of excellent water are to be 
found on their summits, which give facilities for harbouring Bharwat- 
tyas, &c. In the neighbourhood of Drapha, of Dhank, and of Kha- 
gusree, are also hills which in like manner offer shelter and water. The 
hill of Gop, half-way between Bhanwur and Lalpoor, is celebrated for 
the ascetism in ancient times shown on its summits, and for certain 
caverns, whose depths it is pretended no one has fathomed — the apparent 
terminations being merely a delusion to conceal the mysteries of the 
interior! The Oshum Doongur is a solitary narrow tabular hill, half 
way between the Bhadur and Ooben rivers, about four hundred feet 

• The first peak, 3d in height, is dedicated to Amba Devie or Bhuwanee. The 
2nd, or highest and central peak, to Goruknath. The 3d, and second in height, 
to Dalatree Swamee and Shah Mudar. The celebrated Jain temples are on 
the first landing place at the base of the Amba Devie peak : the oldest date I 
could discover on them was S. 1215, A. D. 1159 ; but there are remains of 
more ancient temples said to have been destroyed by Allah Oo deen Rhoonea, 
the bloody. The Geernar temples are inferior to those of Palitana in namber 
and in architectural beauty. 

t And still more so in speaking of the Geer as being a village, &o. 



high, worthy of mention from the quantity of Obsidian covering its 
summit, exactly resembling Kendal coal, which tradition attributes to 
the coagulated blood shed in battle at the time of the Panduws. 

IV. The Geer. — This is a remarkable formation, worthy of a more 
detailed notice than the limits of this report permit. It may be de- 
scribe'd as a succession of ridges and hills covered with forest trees 
and jungle. I have marched for twenty miles within it before finding 
room enough to pitch a bechova. The Geer, properly so called, ends 
near Dedan in the south-east, towards which it gradually narrows it- 
self : the hills that again rise between Wudal and the Shetroonjee 
river, and sometimes called the lesser Geer, are not so termed by the 
natives of the district. From Koriar, near Mendurra in the north- 
west, to Dedan, the distance is upwards of fifty miles in a straight line. 
From Sursaee in the north, to Ghantwur south, it is near thirty miles. 
This extensive arena is divided by two main vallies running north and 
south, into which, from numerous hills and hillocks, pour a vast num- 
ber of streamlets that create the Singoora and Rawel rivers, which 
enter the sea near Koreenor and Sunikra. The main lines of commu- 
nication are tiirough these vallies. The Geer has three other roads 
through it, but no cross communication save by difficult footpaths. 
Towards the north its hills are low, but they rise gradually towards the 
south, where they reach an elevation of about one thousand feet. The 
Nundee Vela Hill, between Toolsee Sham and Kunthala, forms a con- 
spicuous landmark for vessels approaching the southern coast. Every 
hill has its peculiar name. The Chassa is the most noted as a retreat 
for Bharwuttyas, as being difficult of access, having good water on its 
summit, and containing caverns and places of concealment which could 
be defended by a few resolute men against numbers. * As a specimen 
of what nature has done to render the Geer a formidable retreat for the 
disaffected, I adjoin a sketch of the position of Vejulkot near Toolsee 
Sham. 




A- Vejulkot. B— Walled Gateway. C- Walled Gateway. 

D— A deep nullah, with precipitoas banks. 
£~The Rawol Biver, with precipitous banks. 

* Ensign Robertson, of the 15th Regiment Nat!ve Infantry, was shot in 
attempt to storm a position somewhat similar to this, in a. d. 1832. 

B 



10 

The only approaches lo this place are by the northern and southern 
extremities, but tliese are all but impracticable for guns, and it would 
cost many lives to attempt it in any other manner if defended. Major 
Jervis, in his statement bef< re the Geographical Section of the British 
Association for the Advancement of Science in 1838, is mistaken in 
speaking of the neglected inhabitants of the Geernar range, the abori- 
gines of the soil, whom he estimates at two-fifths of the Katteewar 
population. The Geernar is nearly a solitary clump, possessing no 
other inhabitants than the priests of its temples, and ascetics. The 
Geer range, which that officer must have had in view, can scarcely be 
said to have any population. During half the year, u ^., from the 
commencement of the monsoon to December, it is dangerous to reside 
in, owing to the malaria produced by its extensive jungle, and the 
poisonous quality of its waters. The poor villagers, who are tempted 
to live on its outskirts by the favourable terms on which land is there 
given to them, present a melancholy spectacle in their yellow cadave- 
rous looks. I have seen few >»ithout scars produced by cautery — the 
native substitute for blisters — all over the abdomen. The Seedee race 
is the only one which, as on the pestilential coast of Africa, seems ex- 
empt from the noxious climate of this district. A few of these, chiefly 
the descendants of runaway slaves, occupy hamlets on the borders of 
the Geer without appearing to suffer, and they also tend the cattle 
'- iiich thrive in the Geer at all seasons. After the unhealthy months 
are over, droves of cattle frequent the Geer, and temporary hamlets 
are erected, inhabited chiefly by Charons, and of those a few are some- 
times tempted to remain throughout the year, but it cannot be said to 
have any fixed race of inhabitants. Even in the dry season few can 
drink of its waters for many days together without affections of the 
stomach and otherwise suffering. Water and forage are retained here 
during seasons of drought after the plains have become dried up, and in 
the worst seasons the cattle from many miles round here find enough to 
eke out a couple of months' subsistence when all elsewhere is barren and 
dry. The forest trees are chiefly of the smaller kind, but teak is abun- 
dant, and supplies the neighbourhood with wood for their buildings and 
furniture. The expense of land carriage, and its inferiority in growth 
to the Malabar teak, prevent a more extended consumption. 

V. The hilly ground between Wudal and the Shetroonjee somewhat 
resembles the Geer, but its hills are not high, the range is much nar- 
rower, less wooded, and more facile of transit. It is known by the 
name of the Wullak Geer, also the Mordhar range ; and the continua- 
tion eastward of the Shetroonjee by that of Lamdhur. It is sometimes 
termed the lesser Geer, but these general terms are little known in the 
localities themselves, where every peak or ridge has its own peculiar 
designation. For instance, proceeding from west to east, they are 
respectively named Panchtobra, Modal, Mawo, Chuttrasa, Bhekree, 
BrocLasoor-seer, under which is a valley named Khoriar-na-seer-no- 



11 

Galo — remarkable for its retaining water throughout the severest 
drought — Shibetee, Kodalia, Gorakhuro, Kurra Kulee, Gurer — the 
Gurer valley, from its facilities for water, and of concealment and 
defence, is a celebrated haunt of Bharwuttyas — Dholia, Dhar-Gebur, 
Kumla, and Sawuro. The Shetroonjee river here terminates the 
range. 

VI. East of the river rises the celebrated Palitana mountain, called 
also Shetroonjia Shiturkot, and a variety of other names. The Jaia 
temples on the top of this hill possess considerable architectural 
beauty: its height is about 1,500 feet.* Near Shehor there is a small 
hill, a detached spur as it were of the Lamdhur range, and which 
terminates the hilly formation in the east until it is again met with in 
the Bhudlee range that runs into the high land b?yond Jusdhun. 

1 1. Rivers, — The province abounds in rivers — it is difficult to make 
a day's march in any direction without crossing several. None, how- 
ever, except the Bhadur are navigable; and even this, the largest and 
longest in the country, presents in the dry season only deep pools, 
with a mere trickling streamlet to connect them. In the monsoon it 
is navigable by boats of from ten to fifteen khundees, as far as Wuntlee 
on the united Oojeet and Ooben branch, and to Jetpor on the main 
stream, and continuously at this season to Kotiana. The rivers there- 
fore scarce deserve the name, but are rather like mountain torrents that 
pour fuith a volume of water after heavy rain, and again speedily 
subside into insignificance — yet to see the width of the banks of many, 
and the huge body of water rolling past during the monsoon, a stranger 
would imagine them of much more importance than they really are. 
The majorit}', however, serve to irrij^ate the adjacent fields by wells 
dug at the foot of the banks. The Bhadur rises in the Mandwa hill 
behind Jusdhun, and disembogues at Nuvee Bunder; next to it in siz« 
is the Shetroonjee, which rises on the Susaee hill of the Geer range, 
and terminates at Sooltanpoor beyond TuUajee. Two streams — viz. the 
Kharee and the Kharudee, the former retaining water throughout the 
year — with dangerous quick sands, pass through a nitrous soil, and 

* The enormous outlay on the buildings on this hill may be supposed when 
the transport of every siujjle stone costs a coree [something less than the third 
of a rupee. ] The floors of all the temples are in tessellated marble work of cii • 
vers colours, and the thousands of idols they contain are all of marble. The 
temples recently erected by Moteechuud Ameerchund are said to have cost 
aboQt four lakhs of rupees, but they would scarcely be missed from the crowd 
of similar structures which crown the whole summit of the mountain. Tho 
oldest date to be found in the inscriptions ou these temples is S. 1l82> a. d. 
1526-27, but it seems probable that the Jains had temples on tlie hill at au 
earlier period ; the very name of the place, Palee Sthana, or the })lace of the 
PaleOf a language chiefly devoted to them, or to Booihistical writing's, be- 
tokens a very ancient period. The oldest inscriptions profess to notity the 
beveuth consecration ; a subsequent one commemorates tho assembly of differ- 
ent religious sects for the purpose of uiscussion. by Akbar in S. it53d, a. d. 
1583-84, and the support given by him to the Jains. 



12 

enter the Shetroonjee near Krankuch ; the effect of this saline effusion 
is stated to be felt throughout the remainder of its course. The 
Muchoo is the third river in size : it rises in the high land between 
Choteela and Surdhar, and, passing Wankaneer and Morvee, disem- 
bogues at the mouth of the Runn near Mallia. The Oojeet, which rises 
near Goondalee, is fed by numerous streams from the Geer ; joins the 
Ooben near Wuntlee, and the Bhadur a mile above Nuvee. The 
Ooben, which rises near the source of the Oojeet at Bhensan, but 
is thrown off to the northward by the Geernar mountain, which it en- 
circles until it joins the Oojeet as above; and the Ajee or Rajkot 
River are also streams of some size, retaining a current of water 
throughout the year. Pools of water are to be found in most of the 
rivers at all seasons of the year, and it would fill a goodly vocabulary 
to name every stream. 

12. Bunns. — One of the striking geographical features of this pen* 
insula are the tracts of country called Runns, by which it is partly 
surrounded. That of Cutch, called the Great Runn, completes with the 
Gulph its northern boundary. The Small Runn commences near the 
other ill the N. E., continuing to the Gulph of Cambay, with which 
the eastern limits are completed ; and, in the N. W., a narrow Runn 
separates the district of Okhamundul from the rest of the peninsula, 
except by the connecting link of a narrow bank of sand at Mudhe. 
I do not know any English word exactly corresponding to Runn. 
It is neither exclusively a swamp nor a fen, nor a desert, nor a salt 
marsh, but a compound of all. The Great Runn has been described 
by Macmurdo, Burnes, Lyell, &c. : the Small Runn has not, as far as 
I am aware, yet been noticed ; and as this is a very interesting tract of 
countr}^ possessing some marked distinctions from that of the larger 
Runn, I purpose availing myself of the first opportunity of visiting 
it that may occur to me, to transmit a report upon it. In some parts 
of it salt is collected by the bordering villagers; in others, the bulbous 
roots of a plant called beer abound, which, in times of famine, are dug 
up for food. A plant called theg also grows here plentifully, which 
furnishes nutriment : its roots are bruised, and a substance resembling 
small seed extracted therefrom. During the monsoon, communication 
with Ahmedabad is interrupted by this Runn, which is crossed with 
some difficulty by horse and foot travellers. Carts have to go round 
in the Veerumgam direction, to avoid the mud and small nullas in it, 
which are then filled with water. The Okhamundul Runn has been 
described in my report on that province forwarded to Government 
with letter No. 213, dated 14th July, 1841. 

13. I now proceed to notice, in their consecutive geographical order, 
the modern subdivisions of the peninsula ; and, 

I. In the N. W. comes the small province of Okhamundul, itself 
rendered a peninsula by the Runn that separates it from the main- 
land. This district was conquered from the piratical tribes who pos- 



13 

sessed it in A. D. 1815, and ceded to the Gaekwar by the vii. Article 
of the Supplemental Treaty with that Sovereign, dated 6th November, 
1817. Having elsewhere given a separate report on this district, I pass 
on to its adjoining province. 

ll.^^Hailar — Comprises the northern part of the peninsula from 
Meeanee on the west coast to the junction of the Gulf with the Runn 
of Kutch. It is named after Jam Hala, an ancestor of that branch 
of the Jareja tribe which conquered it : it now belongs to different 
families of this tribe, whose name the practice of infanticide has 
brought rather prominently to notice. Its principal chiefs are those 
of Nuwanuggur, Gondul, Rajkot, Dhurol, and Kotra Sanganee. The 
western part of Hallar is termed Bararee, which is the level portion 
between the Hills, the Sea, the Okhamundul Runn, and the Gulph 
of Kutch. Nuwanuggur, the capital of the Jam, and the most po- 
pulous city in Soorashtra, was founded by Jam Rawul in A. D. 
1540. Hallar is the largest and most populous province of the penin- 
sula. 

HI. — Muchoo Kanta. — Is a narrow slip of territory, on either bank 
of the Muchoo River, belonging to the Morvee and Mallia chiefs, who 
are more recently df^scended from the Kutch family than their bre- 
thren of Hallar. Mallia is of the Morvee Bhayad. The present 
Morvee chief is the 8th in descent from Rao Dhunjee, whose son, 
Ruvajee, obtained Morvee in A. D. 1677, but was murdered in A.D. 
1698 by the son of a younger brother, since which period the younger 
branch has been seated on the Kutch Gadee, the elder retaining 
Muchoo Kanta and part of Wagur. * 

IV. — Jhalawar — Or the country of the Jhalas, unites with Hallar 
to the southward of Muchoo Kanta, and fills up the rest of the Penin- 
sula to its N. E. angle where the Kutch Runn bends to the north ; 
eastward it reaches nearly to the head of the Cambay Gulph, This 
division includes the Petty State of Moolee, owned by Purmar Raj- 
poot8,f and the Musselman one of Bujana, occupied by Juts,t whence 
that district is called Nhanoo or lesser Jutwar.§ Beyond the N.E. 
angle of the Peninsula, though politically included in this division, are 
the Mahomedan States of Dussara and VVunod, the Kolee one of 
JhiDJoowara, and part of Patree which is under a Koonbee family. 

• The history of the Morvee family was given at some length in my report 
to Government dated 23d October 1839? No. 26'J ; and Col. Walker*8 report on 
Muchoo Kanta gives many additional particulars. This Officer's reports on 
Hallar, Muchoo Kanta, Jhalawar, Gohelwar, Soruth) Burda, and Katteewar> 
are indeed so full as to render my allusions to them brief, confiuiog myself 
to a connected view of the whole and to what has escaped previous notice. 

•jf Probably the ancient Prumara, — ono of the so called thirty-six original 
Rajpoot tribes. 

f Probably of the ancient Jet race, though now converted to Mahomedanism. 

§ The inhabitants and Mool Grassias are chiefly Juts, but the ruling family is 
of Baloch extraction. 



14 

These four are in the geographical division of Wudheear, adjoining 
that of Chowal. The Jhalas are supposed to have been located in the 
Peninsula since the eighth century.* The chief Gadees in Jhalawar 
are Drangadra, Limree, Wudwan, Wankaneer, Than, Saela, and 
Choora, ail of the Drangadra family originally, and, though entirely 
independent of it, still considering their investiture on accession to 
the Gadee incomplete without a dress from the Head of their tribe. 
The districts bordering on the Jhalawar Runn are named Null Kanta, 
and Nhanoo or the lesser Bhal. The southern portion of Jhalawar 
is termed the Burwala Purguna from the town of that name, and is now 
under the Ahraedabad Collectorate; as are also other villages of Limree, 
Wudwan and Than, shown iu the Statistical tables. 

V. — GohelwaVy or the Province of the Gohels, fills up the remainder 
of the Eastern frontier. The Gohel Rajpoots were driven out of Mar- 
war by the Rahtors, in the end of the 1 2ih century, and acquired their 
footing in the Peninsula chiefly by intermarriage with the Choorasama 
family of Joonaghur. By the revolutions of fortune their first town, 
built and named Sejukpoor after Sejuk the chief, who conducted hither 
the tribe, has fallen into the possession of a Kattee family ; whilst Gohel- 
war has nearly doubled ils original size by acquisitions from the Kattee 
and other tribes. The western division of Gohelwar, between the Shet- 
roonjee and Jholapooree rivers — the hills and the Sea, and this strip of 
land, still retains some of its former Surweya and Koleef Proprietors. 
The Rajah of Bhaonuggur, who has dropped the title of Gohel for that 
of Rawul, is descended from the eldest son of Sejuk, and is the principal 
chief in Gohelwar. Next in consequence, though far behind him in 
wealth and possessions, are the States of Palitana, Lathee and Wulla : 
the two former are possessions bequeathed to Sejuk's two younger sons, 
and Wulla more recently derived from the Bhaonuggur family out of 
the 384 villages J alleged to have been given with Lathee to Sarunjee 
the second son of the founder of the tribe : only eleven villages now 
remain under Lathee, and four of these are subject to the Ahmedabad 
jurisdiction. The establishment of the Gaek war's power at Amrellee and 
Damnuggur, has swallowed up the greater portion of its territory, for 
which, and for the honor of alliance with Damojee Gaek war, the Lathee 
chief's tribute was remitted to him, and the yearly nuzrana of a Horse is 
all that is now claimed by the Baroda Government. Bhaonuggur was 

• The original name of this tribe was Mukwah-in.i, by which titlo some tribes 
arc said still to be kuowu in Central India : they claim to have received their 
Grass from the Peeran Puttun (Auhulwara) (ja<iee. 

t Two tribes of Kolees in the south of the Peninsula are termed Khussia 
and Khant : both appear to have intermarried above their original state, the 
former with an ancestor of the Thakor of Bhaonuggur, from whom Sadool 
Khussia, the recent noted Bharwuttya, who owned Monpoor and other villages 
in this quarter, was lineally descended. 

X The traditions of ancient allotments of Grass are generally exaggerated, 
and must be received with caution. 



15 

founded by Bhao Singhjee, in A. D. 1743, but having fallen under the 
AhniedabadColIectorate, in virtue of our conquests from the Peishwa,the 
situation of the Thakor is less independent than that of the other chiefs 
of the peninsula, who have their capitals removed from that jurisdiction ; 
and as the family is keenly sensible of this difference, and has con- 
stantly essayed to have it removed without success, it seems probable 
that the seat of government will be before very long removed to with- 
in that portion of the Bhaonuggur territory which claims equal inde- 
pendence with the remainder of the peninsula. 

VI. The small district of Oond Surwe^a is imbedded in Gohelwar, 
it being merely the strip of land on the banks of the Sbetroonjee river 
northward of the Wullak hills. Oond implies low, the district being 
confined to the level country on either side the river : it contains only 
thirty-three villages, of which six have fallen under Bhaonuggur. Datha, 
with twenty villages, belongs to the same tribe, and is consequently at- 
tached politically to this division, though it is situated in Wullak. This 
small tract of land is quite unworthy the name of a province or prant, 
and is chiefly interesting from its having preserved the remnants of the 
Rajpoot tribe which ruled in the peninsula before the invasions of its 
present proprietors. No permanent settlement regarding the tribute of 
this small district has yet been made, but the amount formerly taken 
by the Gaek war's managers has been realized, except where impoverished 
circumstances rendered remissions necessary. 

VII. BabriawaVy or the country of the Babrias. — This province ad- 
joins Wullak, having the Jholapooree and Malun rivers for its bound- 
aries east and west, and reaching from the sea to the Geer hills. The 
proprietors of land are Babrias (commonly, though erroneously, called 
Babria Kattees) and Aheers. The Babrias class themselves under 72 
tribes, as per list given in appendix (Enclosure 3), but these are traced 
up to the three leading ones of Koteela, Wuroo, and Dhankra. The 
first draw their source from intermarriage with the daughter of a Seekor 
Brahmin ; the second to connection with the Jetwa family of Poor- 
bundur; the third claim descent from the Panduws. The Aheers trace 
their lineage to the ancient Solunkee Rapoots of the island of Diu,* 
and believe themselves to have fallen into possession of the territory of 
the Wala Rajpoots by the gradual extinction of that race. These 
tribes seem to have been formerly located higher up in the peninsula, 
as they claim Than for their country, and to have been gradually 
driven to the southward by the invasion of the Kattees some four or 
five centuries ago. The Nuwab of Joonaghur claims sovereignty over 
Babriawar, in virtue of the exactions which his occupation of the 
neighbouring district of Oond has enabled him to make for a long series 
of years, and of his having retained military posts iu the country. 

• lam now writing: a separate report on Babriawar, in which their own his- 
tories will be given. The statistical table in the appendix ia condensed from 
the materials collected for that report. 



16 

The Zumeendars are too divided and weak to maintain their independ- 
ence, which has onl}* been secured to them in its present modified form 
by the existence of the British power, which realizes regularly the tri- 
bute tkiat the Moolulcgeeree excursions of the Mahratta force formerly 
imposed : except with Dedan, which is the most powerful of these petty 
Zumeendaries, no permanent settlement for their tribute has been en- 
tered into. The port of Jaffrabad* is in the centre of Babriawar, and 
forms, with eleven neighbouring villages, an acquisition of the Zun- 
jeera Seedee. I could not discover the era when the Seedee first ob- 
tained a footing here : according to the tradition of the place it was 
ceded to him by MoozufFur Shah of Ahmedabad, which, if the last of 
that name, would show the grant to have been made somewhere near 
the year A.D. 1570; but some doubt is thrown on this assertion by the 
fort having been built only in A.D. 1747,t at which time the place is 
said to have been in possession of Turksj and Kolees. The port of 
Jaffrabad is one of the best in the peninsula, and affords shelter for 
shipping throughout the monsoon. There is no portion of the penin- 
sula that has been more misrepresented than Babriawar by every writer 
on it, from Colonel Walker down to Mr Elpliinstone, who, copying 
these several authorities, says, ** Nearly in the south is a hilly district 
called Babriawar, which is covered with woods," whereas there are few 
trees and still fewer hills in this district ; the mistake has probably ori- 
ginated in supposing the Geer hills to be in Babriawar, which province 
they only skirt. 

VIII Soruth This province adjoins Babriawar to the west, 

reaching along the sea coast to Madoopoor, and inland to the Bhadur 
River, where it meets Hallar, and with it encloses the seaboard district 
of Bui da, and completes the circle that constitutes Katteewar a central 
province. 

Soruth contains some minor geographical divisions, viz. — The 
Bhadur and Nolee Kantas. The Geer — the larger and lesser Geer. 
The larger and lesser Nugher. The two first refer to the districts on 
either side of the rivers so named. The Gur § is the lowland watered 
by the Bhadur, the Oojeet, and the Sawlee Rivers. During the mon- 
soon this tract is commonly covered with water, and the communica- 
tions between village and village are then made in small canoes. The 
population consists chiefly of Koonbee and Kolee cultivators. The 
larger Geer is the main body of the hilly and jungly district reaching to 
Dedan, described in my 10th paragraph. Though a large portion of 

* The correct orthography is Moozuffurabad. 

t By Seedee Sooban Khan. 

X This is the first notice I have met with of any settlement by this nation : we 
read of a uoion between the Mamlukes of Egypt and Mahmood Begra against 
the Portuguese) and that the Turks who succeeded theoi, continued to send 
ships into these seas. If the allegation be true, a small colony may have chosen 
the spot as a watering place for their ships, perhaps temporarily re&ident only. 

§ A term common to rice and marshland. 



17 

this range is considered in Katteewar ; the other is the smaller portion 
westward of the main body, reaching nearly to Pattun, The Nagher 
is the atrip of land between the Geer and the sea, commencing from the 
Nolee Kanta near Mangrol, and terminating with Babriawar. Korinar 
in the centre of Nagher, with a large district subordinate to it, was 
ceded to the Gaekwar by the Nuwab of Joonaghur in A. D. 1811. 
In addition to the old Rajpoot Grassias, spoken of in paragraph 5, 
Nagher contains several Mahomedan Syud proprietors. Nhanee, or 
the lesser Nagher, which adjoins Babriawar, is more commonly called 
the Oond district, from its chief town of that name. Besides Syud 
Grassias, this part of Nagher contains some few families of the mixed 
Gohel and Kbant races, who claim to have held possession of Diu be- 
fore the Portuguese conquest in A. D. 1535. This period of Rajpoot 
history, like every other depending only on Hindoo sources, is involved 
in obscurity. The Syuds hold their land in grant from the earliest 
periodM of Mussulman invasion. The first Mahommedan encroach- 
ment in this peninsula after the Ghuznuvee storm, would appear to 
have been made by Gheeasoo Deen Ghori's Generals towards the close 
of the twelfth century ; the latter occupied (Anhulwara) Puttun in 
A. D. 1195. Kootub ood-deen, after ravaging part of the peninsulai 
placed a garrison in Anhulwara Puttun ; when this was withdrawn or 
expelled is unknown, but Jelaloo deen Khilje would appear to have es- 
tablished his power prior to Allahoo Deen's conquest in A. D. 1297, 
for there is an inscription on marble in the market place of the town of 
Puttun,* on the west coast, bearing date A. H. 697, 12th of Rubee ool 
Uwttl (A. D. 1297), wherein one Shadyawur Khan notifies that he has 
been sent thither by the Protector of Mankind to remedy the mis- 
government of a Meerza Inayut, &c. Allahoo Deen himself is com- 
monly known in this Province by his epithet of Khoonee, or the 
Bloody, and he appears to have made havoc with the temples and 
images as well as with flesh and blood. Some beautiful ruins of tem- 
ples on the Geernar are pointed out as his work, and in like manner his 
name bears the odium of his predecessor's Iconoclastic fury. The 
mass of ancient tombs, some of beautiful design, around Puttun, 
denote a numerous bygone Mussulman population. On one of these I 
read the date A. H. 707, A. D. 1307. The old Somnath temple, whose 
hme attracted the Ghuznuvee hero, is still standing in a ruined state, 
crowned with a Mahommedan cupola, itself in ruins, a relic of the 
conqueror's bigotry. Though traces of beautiful sculpture and imagery 
are still to be seen, there is nothing in the size of the temple to lead one 
to suppose it the effect of the wealth that is said to have been bestowed 



* Commonly called Belawal or Verawul Pattun, but Belawul is merely the 
port town of Puttun, and distant from it a oouple of miles. Deo and Somaath 
areaUo discriminative epithets prefixed to its name. 



la 

on it.* The chiefship of Mangrol^f which is tributary to the Nuwab of 
Joonaghur, would appear, by an inscription on the walls bearing date 
S. 1202, A.D. 1146, to have been then a fief of the Anhulwara Gadee, 
or at least owning it as a superior power. The first Mussulman irnmi- 
gration is here traced to a I3okhara family, who landed on the co9st 
under the guidance of Syud Shah Sikundur, of Toormur, and dethroned 
the Rajah of the place, named Koour Pal{ in A. H. 777§ A.D. 1376, 
and shortly after gave it over to the authority of Feeroz Sliah ;|| the 
easy conquest of a place of this size and strength by a handful of 
adventurers, would denote the prior existence of a Mahommedan popu- 
Iption. A mosque, which adorns Mangrol, and is the finest building 
of it« kind in the peninsula, was shortly after erected under the auspicei 
of Feeroz Shah, and bears the date of A. H. 785, A. D. 1383, on the 
tablet that records the event; another inscription on the wall notices the 
re-conquest of the place from the Mahrattas in A.H. 1162, A.D. 1749, 
after its occupation by them for twelve years, by the ancestors of the 
present Sheik of the place. The Joonaghur power over Mangrol was 
acquired during the vigorous administration of the Nagur Devvan Umur- 
jee, in the year S. 1822, A. D. 1766-67.1F The Nuwab of Joonaghur 
is the chief power in Soruth, and indeed in the peninsula over wliich 
his armies formerly levied a tax, called Zortutubee,** which is now con- 
tinued to him under guarantee of the British Government, who receive 
one-fourth for the expenses of collection, &c. The only other inde- 
pendent chiefs in Soruth are of the Nuwab's Bhayad, viz. those of 
Bantwa, and there is a petty talooka of two villages, held by Mahom- 
medans of the Sheta tribe, obtained by them during the period of the 
Ahraedabad Soobahs in this province. 

IX. Burda has been alluded to when speaking of the Jetwa Rajpoots 
in my 6th paragraph. It is the small remnant left to this ancient 
family of all its former possessions. This narrow strip from Madoo* 

* One of the most remarkable relics to be seen at Puttun is a double statu* 
of Boodh and the Lingum joined to the back, denoting) as ic were) the union 
at one time of the two hostiio faiths. 

f Correctly Mungulpoor, subsequently corrupted to Mangier, the Mono* 
glossum of Ptolemy) and hence the modern Mangrol. 

± Or Koonwar, or Roomar Pal, a common Rajpoot name. 

I 1 he exact date is A. U. 777-17 of ShuwaK 1 am indebted to the descend- 
ants of the La yud for these particulars) the same beint; recorded in the annals of 
their house. The head of the family, or, as it is termed) occupant of the Gaiiee, 
enjoys (:reat reputation for sanctity ; and the sbrine of his ancestor is believtd 
to cure the sick, and perform other miracles, to this dqy, 

II 'Ihe Syud) having ce»scd to trouble himself with sublunary matters) de« 
TOted himself after the conquest of the place, to his creed, and died in the 
odour of sanctity at thenge of seventy tive. 

f In this year the Nuwab*8 army took Mangrol by assault : the arrangement 
by which his present rights over the Furguunah were seciured was m^de in 
8. 1827, A. D. 1771-72. 

•• Literally— sought by force. 



19 

poor to Nurvee, comprises only a few villages on theses coast, and» 
lifter passing the Bhadur, does not reach inland at the widest point 
twenty miles from the sea. Nearly half of the Burda hills belong to 
the Jam of Nuggur, and from Udwana the line of territory a^^ruptly 
turns till it again unites with the sea at Meeanee Bunder. The port 
of Poorbunder, though somewhat obstructed by the bar of sand at its 
mouth, is the best on the west coast, and carries on trade with 
Zanzibar, Mocha, and other ports of Arabia, Sonmeaneo, Scinde, and 
the Malabar coast ; about sixty vessels, ranging from twenty to two 
and three hundred khundees, belonging to the port, many of which ara 
laid up. 

X. KatleewarJ* — This large central province is named after the 
Kattee proprietors of the soil, of whom the three chief tribes are the 
Wala, the Khachur, and the Khooman; these tribes, termed Shakhaeet or 
noble, are subdivided into twenty of the first, seven of the second, and 
ten of the third — in all thirty seven : and there are ninety -three trilies 
of Ehvvurutias, or t^no6/<?, as p* r list given in Appendix ^Enclosure 
No. 4.) Kalieewar is divided into five districts, viz.: Punchal, in the 
north-east ; Khooman, in the south ; and the three intermediate ones 
of Wupsawar, Kliarapat, and Alug Dhannnee. The first is cele« 
brated for its breed of horses, and is chiefly occupied by the Kha- 
chur tribe. The western division, obtained from Soruth, belongs 
exclusively to the Waias. Tiiis portion is sometimes classed in 
Soruth, som«?times in Katteewar — belonging to neither of the five 
original divisions of this Prant. Khooman takes its name from the 
tribe which people it, though their power and influence have been 
greatly broken by their long struggle with the Bhaonuggur 
chief who now occupies Sawur Koondia, the chief town in the district. 
Amrellce, in the heart of Katteewar, is the capital of His Highness the 
Gaek war's possessions in the Peninsula, which owe tlieir main bulk to 
acquisitions from the smaller Kattee Grassias, partly by their desire to 
shelter themselves under a powerful State, and partly by the customary 
Mahratta process of deglutition. The Wala family of Jetpor is now 
the most powerful of the Kattees. The Khachur one of Jusdhun, the 
next. This last has possessed in succession two vigorous chiefs, who 
by forre, wealth and dexterity combined, have broken down the barrier 
of the Kattee law of ♦< Gavel Kind," and maintained themselves singly 
as chief of the Talooka. This law of equal partition is gradually 
reducing the importance of all the Kattee proprietors, and except the 
two above named no other is of any great weight in the country ; al- 
though the Wala Talookas of Buggusra, Beelka and Kotra, the Khachur 
ones of Paliad, Cholreta, Anundpoorand Kureeana, and the Kwur ones 
of Dhandulpoor and Soodamra, are of respectable size, but they are 
tub-divided into numerous shares. The Bhudlee Talooka, by the 

* Vide note to 35th para. 



20 

recent death of Bhankhachur without issue, has become the property of 
distant relations, shareholders of several other States* The Khoomans, 
though they retain some of the grass of their ancestors, no longer pos- 
sess any independent existence as separate States. The exact period 
of the Kattees settling themselves in this Peninsula is unknown, but it 
if believed to be towards the close of the fourteenth century : they came 
immediately from the North-Eastern quarter of Kutch, and appear to 
have been a nomade tribe, wandering with their herds wherever they 
could find pasture, and plundering by profession. Their first establish- 
ment in fixed villages is said to have taken place between two and 
three centuries ago, but even so late as the commencement of this cen- 
tury we find Colonel Walker speaking of them as addicted to all their 
former habits — the Jetpor and Jusdhun families excepted, whose exam- 
ple he says ** may afibrd a hope that the rest of the Kattees may also be 
reclaimed**' Those who set this good example were formerly styled 
«* reformed Kattees'*— a term already become obsolete, but the establish- 
ment of the British supremacy has alone put a stop to their predatory 
excursions, and many Kattees are yet living who have stuck their spears 
into the gates of Ahmedabad during such occasions. The lightness of 
the tribute paid by these tribes in proportion to their revenues, as com- 
pared with other communities, is owing to the greater developement of 
their resources, which habits of order have created, since these propor- 
tions were fixed by the Mahratta Moolukgeree commanders, and confirm- 
ed by Col. Walker in A. D. 1808. The Kattees owe their possessions 
chiefiy to the general anarchy produced by the decline of the Mahomedan 
power — the Jhala Jareja, and other tribes, purchasing immunity from 
their plunder by the cession of villages : Jetpoor, Beelka, Mendurra, &c., 
were thus given up by the Nuwab of Joonaghur, less than a century 
ago, with reserved rights therein. The Kattees are evidently a nor- 
thern race : their stature, features, — above all their blue and grey colored 
eyeF> by no means unfrequent — give much of probability to the idea 
that they are of Scythean descent, with which their habits in some 
degree correspond. Ihe Sun is their chief deity; its symbol is 
drawn on every deed at the head of the list of living witnesses, 
with the words Sree Sooruj Nee Shakh,* Their mixture with other 
tribes has inocculated them with respect for the Braminical deitiei, 
but the sun is paramount* There is on the Mandwa hill, near Than, 
a temple dedicated to the sun, generally believed to have been erected 
by the Kattees on their arrival in the country, for it was in that 
neighbourhood that they first established themselves | but if so, the 
Kattees no longer worship therein, and the rudeness of their primeval 
•tate, together with their ignorance of its history, throw some doubt on 
its origin ; the Sanscrit inscription on the pedestal of the deity is nearly 
illegible, and would betoken an earlier period than that fixed for the 

* The witness of the holy Sun. 



21 

imtnigration of the Katteei.* It is somewhat singular that the Purmar 
Rajpoots of Moolee should have borrowed this deity, whom they hare 
named Manduwra, from the hill on which this temple stands. He is 
vniTersally believed to represent the sun, which is besides visible from 
the halo round his head ; but w^hoever may have been the rearers of 
this edifice, they have given him a wife and a companion to share bis 
honours. 

14. The number of separate jurisdictions, as shewn in the statistical 
tables accompanying, was formerly 292, of which eifihty have been ab- 
sorbed, chiefly l)y the Gaekwar's encroachments in Katteewar, but also 
by acquisition of territor}' on the part of the Jam of Nuwa Nuggur, 
the Thakor of Bhaonuggur, and the chief of Jusdhun : the number 
now paying tribute to the British and Baroda Governments is 212. 
Some of these pay only to one, but many also to both ; for instance, 
Jlialawar is tributary exclusively to the British — Gohelwar, with the 
exception of Bhaonuggur, Oond Surwe^-a, and Babriawar, to the Gaek- 
war — Okhamundul is held tribute free, and the remaining provinces pay 
to both powers. The British share of the tribute is increased by the 
cession by the Gaekwar in part of subsidy of that of Bhaonuggur. The 
proportions now realizable from the peninsula are as follow : — 

C Tribute R8.6,06,709 13 4 

British... < Do. as Subsidy ,) 81,950 

( Share of customs ceded bj Poorbunder , 26,001 o 



Total Rs. 7,14.660 13 4 

Qaekwar „ 3,76,121 4 7 

Nawab of Joonaghur , 92,861 12 

Grand Total Rs. 11,83.643 13 U 

The above sum may be deemed one-fifth of the annual rental of the 
peninsula, which is estimated at about sixty lakhs of rupees. The tri- 
bute presses on some states severely — on others the contrary ; but the 
basis of the permanent settlement was to take things as they were, and 
prevent their getting worse. The Mahrattas followed no other cal- 
culation than that based on the respective powers of attack and resist- 
ance, and the majority of the chiefs doubtless owe their present ex- 
istence to the benevolent policy that dictated nearly costless realization 
of the tribute on one hand, and on the other protection to the states 
who paid. Twelve states, it will be perceived by the tables, pay no 
tribute, viz. — Jaffrabad under Zunjeera, and petty talookas formed by 
Mahratta adventurers during the period of their sovereign's power, or 
villages that have never been classed under, or paid tribute or fealty to, 

* Inscriptiofis have been removed from this temple, and from that of Som- 
Hath, by English geotlemen. It is said that the spota whence they were ex- 
tracted are shown. It is deeply to be regretted that one of the chief means of 
tramng the history of a country should be thus lost owing to misplaced seal. 



any atate, and who, in virtue of immemorial usage, are little chiefsliipi 
in themselves. There are now, therefore, 224 separate jurisdictionih; 
but this number faintly pourtrays the real amount of existing sovereign- 
ties. The minor Rajpoot and the Kattee states maintain the law of 
equal male inheritance* and equal rights. Thus Drapha, a Rajpoot 
talooka, posses«jes 163 sovereigns; and Cheetul, a Kattee town under 
Jetpoor, thirty-two — without including the rising generation. In most 
cases the patrimony is divided and subdivided into separate portions, 
reserving more or less of it in common. In some, the family estate 13 
h£^ld mujmoo, or in joint tenure ; but the continued bici;eringsthat en- 
sue generally end in one proprietor after another claiming iho division 
or MT^cAart of the common property. To all tliese subdivisions must 
be added the numerous farms or portions of land, belonging to one or 
to many proprietors, mortgaged to clear ofFembarassments : the num- 
ber of separate jurisdictions may therefore be calculated at several 
thousands instead of at their nominal number. 

15. The establishment of the various tribes in the peninsula was 
founded on the sword, but much of their territory was subsequently 
gained by the weaker landholders writing over their grass to whomso- 
fever they thought best able to protect them, reserving a fixed portion for 
themselves : these, where they have retained only a minor share of the vil- 
lage lands and taxes, without one in its Government, are termed Mod 
grassias ; and from the natural result of power and cupidity united, 
have in most catjes been deprived by degrees of much or all of what 
they had reserved for themselves. With these exceptions, tlie tenure on 
which all the chiefs hold their possessions is that of absolute sove- 
reignty over, and property in, the soil. Whatever may be thought of this 
question as refers to the ancient Hindoo principle of the sovereign's 
claim, here he is held the lord of the soil. He bequeaths portions to 
his sens for their maintenance, or to religious characters in charity or 
ostentation. Such bequests convey the donor's rights to the recipient, 
and so far the head of the tribe loses his sovereignty over the soil, 
though, by the arrangement for military service and for payment c f a fixed 
tribute where he himself is tributary, a modified form of sovereignty 
over the person is continued. In this respect the tenure is alike in the 
oldest and most recent of the ruling tribes. In illustration I will 
sketch the origin and formation of a village community : the first pro- 
cess is an examination of the ground by the chief in person or his 
deputed agents, and on the site being fixed he gives out publicly his 
intentions; hereupon men who fancy they can better their condition by 
change, and who can command from two to a hundred ploughs, proceed 

♦ In most of the former, and in some of the latter, a share called Mhotup, or 
eldership, is given to the eldest son — generally one additional share to that 
possessed by the other sons : thus, if there be five sons, six shares are made, 
and the eldest gets two — but the practice varies. 



23 

to make their terms, ivhich vary according to the character of the chief, 
the quality of the soil, &c., but principally only as to the amount of 
profit for the first two or three years, after which the payment is made 
under different heads, more or less varying ; the general result differs 
but little, varying from a third to half of the produce in kind, with a 
proportionate increase in fixed money tax. Generally the cultivators 
receive for the first year of occupancy the whole of the produce, the 
•econd year a small proportion is assigned to the chief, and the third 
year, unless the ground had required great outlay for clearing, he re-* 
ceives his full rights, as fixed by the deed of agreement passed to the 
pate! or parels wlio have broui;ht the ryots over to him. 

16. Each plouj;h pays a ceriaiu sum called Sar.rhee Weera, varying 
from eight to fifty rupees. The cultivators prefer a low money tax, 
and a larger payment in kind, because the losses incurred by drought 
are more equally divided. The payment in kind is called Wajje^ also 
Bhr*j. A santhe of land varies all over the country: in some it is as 
much as can be ploughed by two bullocks, in others by three, and in 
•ome by four. In some districts this last is called a double santhpe ; in 
others six bullocks per plough are necessary to form a double santhee ; 
and in some, again, even three bullocks constitute a double santhee. 
These variations occasion similar changes in the revenue management: 
generally a santhee of land is deemed to contain three prajas, each praja 
thirty weegas or beegas, and each weega a square of 95 cubits or forty- 
five yards. * For this extent of laud are required for seed in laud 
watered only by the monsoon, 

2^ Maundst of Rajree. 
I J Do. Til. 

20 Do. Wheat. 

22} Do. Gram. 

9 Do, Kupabsia or Cotton seeds. 

And tha produce, say of bajree, which is the staple of the country, 
would be in good seasons ten kulsees, or 300 muns of bajree, which, 
at the average rate at such seasons of twelve aniias per mun, would 
give a return of 225' rupees per santhee.' Now of this I take the 
Morvee Talooka as an example : 40 rupees go to the chief as santhee 
weera : the produce is divided into five shares, of which the chief receives 
one — of the remaining four, one is expended in reaping and harvesting, 
the extra labourers being paid in kind, and this includes Brahmins, 
Charons, and the various mendicants who flock together at such 
Masons ; and calculating a third share as necessary to meet the santhee 
weera. It will be seen that two-fifths of the produce are realised by tho 
Cttliivators, and about the same by the chief — this as simple rent of his 

• Nominally — but in reality reduced to forty-two yards by the mode of ap« 
plyioe the line) and in some districts to less. 

t Throughout calculated in the Surat maund of forty seers, each seer of forty 
rapoea waight. The weights and measures differ all over Katteewar. 



24 

property ; that in return for capital, stock) and labour. The ryot is, 
however, by do means clear of further demands ; extra taxes — under 
the names of uwul puedash,* khola patur^j* dhoobuk ;j: also dhomba§ 
weera, oocbka, or tax on grain pits opened in seasons of scarcity ; 
choola weera, tax on hearths ; oomur weera, that on the threshold of 
each house ; poochee weera, on the tail of each bullock — are by one or 
other name imposed on him whenever the Durbar necessities urge its 
running the risk of killing the bird to get at the golden egg. 

17. To illustrate the divers modes of raising the revenues of the 
country, I will add one more example, showing that in force in the 
Amrellee Muhal of His Highness the Gaekwar. Here the santhee is 
calculated at fifty weegas only, and to each is allotted half a ko8.|| Each 
santhee is calculated to produce in good seasons 450 muns of bajree, 
or rupees 337^. From this the Durbar santhee weera is as follows :^ 
Santhee Weera, or fixed tax, per plough, . . Rs. 23 

Cbandla Puttee, or Wudhawa,1f .... 1 

Shagira Pesha,** , . • . • . .1 

Jhampa Kburnch^tt ...... 2 

Total per Santhee, . • . . . .27 

The Durbar Wujje is a fourth of the produce, or • . 84 6 

Total, . . . . . . . Ill 6 

The Cultivator receifing three>fourths and paying the Weera, 
leaves him, ...... 226 2 

Total value of produce, ..... 387 8 
The Cultivator's annual expenses, exclusive of stock and wear and 
tear, are estimated per Santhee, at . . . 100 



Balance, ....... 126 2 

Thus, in Amrellee the Durbar receive 111 rupees, and the ryot 126 
rupees, per santhee, which may be considered favourable to the latter ; 
he is however subject to oppression in the estimate of the fruit of his 
labours. Throughout this Purgunna this is made by what is called 
dbaljj::^ in opposition to makhul>§§ and the officer of Government will 

• First produce. 

f Spreading out thp lap, t. e, begging for money in this way. 

% Dhoobuk means literally a jump. 

§ A slap on the face. 

II Well and pair of bullocks (15 weegas) are estimated for one kos. Th« 
reason of this diminution in the extent of the santhee, is the greater produo- 
tivenesfl of the soil in this part of the peninsula. 

f This is a mere name for increasing the original tax. 

** IMiis is also a niero name for increasing the original tax. 

f f Village expenses. 

1% Estimated by view. 

§^ That by measure after the produce has been brought to the village grain* 
yara or khuUa. 



25 

generally force him to consent to an over estimate, or expose iiiru to 
the loss of delay before he will permit him to reap. 

18. In most districts the produce is brought to the public grain-yard 
of the village, where it is trodden out, winnowed, and measured. The 
khulla is a spot outside the walls, selected for the purpose, &c., and 
prepared for each harvest by cow-dunging and beating down to the re- 
quisite smoothness and hardness. It is fenced round by thorns, and 
protected during the season by a guard. Here all the produce of the 
village land is carted, and a functionary from the durbar attends to 
measure out his master's rights, not forgetting his own and sundry 
other officials, under the name of kamdar no mapo (the karbarree's 
measure), the koour's (prince's), the baee's (wives'), the khuwass'i 
(household confidential slaves'), the havildar's, and so forth. These exac- 
tions at the khulla, and the loss the cultivator is apt to suffer by de- 
tention of the grain on the ground, from thefts, rats, &c., make him 
often compound fur the whole at a favourable rate to the Durbar during 
the period of what is called the kacha dhal, or rough estimate, which 
is almost always made before the coru is ready for reaping, by soma 
one officer or other of the durbar. 

19* All these customs, accidents, and risks, the patel or patels cal- 
culate on ere they take up their residence in a new quarter ; but once 
having agreed to the terms offered, they receive a turban in token of 
engagement, from which they cannot draw back without exposing 
themselves to a fine entered in the agreement : they then proceed to 
form the village in the allotted quarter. The proportion of other 
classes per hundred ploughs, is as follows : — Two families of sootars 
(carpenters), one to two of lobars (blacksmiths), two of durjees (tailors), 
two of khoombhars (potters), one to two of mochees (shoemakers), 
two of hujjams (barbers j, four of bhurwars (sheep and goatherds), 
eight to ten of dhers — these act as curriers, and perform the rough work 
of the village, — three or four of banians (shopkeepers), eight to ten of 
pusaitas :* all these classes hang together, and their dealings become so 
much mixed up with one another, that when a patel, or leading cultivatory 
of influence quits one place for another, a proportion of these will always 
accompany him : there will generally be two or three leading men among 
them, who act as leaders of the rest — the Banian, who advances grain 
for seed, and money for bullocks ; the man who, by money or by in- 
fluence, can command the greatest number of ploughs ; and the most 
skilful of the artisans. All these classes must settle the terms of their 
residence with the durbar, but this is generally done by the lead- 
ing person or persons named, and they have to pay certain taxes 

• The pusaita is the military police of the village, which it is his business to 
protect, and also to carry the oommuaicatioas to and fro between it and the 
darbar ; for thi^ he receives a small portion of land to caltivate, free of all 
charge or incumbrance. 

D 



26 

according to the nature of their trade, one of the most striking of 
which is called Wet, or Per vice performed for the chiefs without 
payment. A community is thus got together, and as it increases 
in numbers it draws artisans and mechanics of a higher order, to 
suit the wants of a more advanced state of social existence. The 
cultivators, it will have been seen, have no property in the soil, which ia 
exclusively that of the chief. The Police also depends on him ; he fixes 
the number of Pusaitas for whom be will grant lands, and maintains a 
Sipahee or a Havildar, who enforces the durbar rights : in a larger com- 
munity a Mehta (writer) or a Kotwal would be added, and extra Sipa- 
hees, according to circumstances. If the village be in a frontier posi- 
tion and likely to be involved in disputes about boundaries, or to suffer 
from theft, the number of Pusaitas is augmented, without which pro- 
tection indeed the cultivators would not remain. The Pusaitas are 
generally Mahomedans or Rajpoots of low caste,* and the land given 
to them often passes from father to son, though it is optional with th« 
chief to remove them when he sees fit. The dependence on each other 
of the laboring classes, and the facility of migration, oppose a powerful 
barrier to undue exaction. The chief is a despot, it is true, unchecked 
by any Magna Charta or code, but if he attempts too grossly to inter- 
fere with their rights, they can, and often do> desert him ; on the other 
hand, when men have resided for years, perhaps for generations, with 
their families in one spot, they will put up with much hardship ere 
they are driven to quit the homes of their childhood. 

20. Such seems to have been the earliest condition of Society and 
tenure of land in this Peninsula, but in like manner as the original 
proprietors have dwindled away into Mool Grassias, and many of these 
have been reduced by degrees to the condition of the mere Pusaita 
Rajpoot, by poverty, by force, or by fraud ; so the present customs 
tend to the same result, even under the peaceable sway of the British 
rule. The Bhayad in all cases have to be provided for, and the partition 
of land by each successive generation, reduces the smaller shareholders 
to the necessity of changing their customs or of providing for the pre- 
sent at the expense of the future — they pledge their estates to some 
wealthy chief or individual, and however unwilling they are to part 
with land Aghat (in perpetuity,) yet the result is the same, as thej 
cannot redeem it, and thus by degrees property is again changing 
hands, and the proprietors going through the same course as the origi- 
nal owners of the soil, from whom their ancestors conquered or procur- 
ed it. This transition is slow — the chain of events is long, but each 
generation adds a link to it. The notion of Sovereignty being vest- 
ed in the right over the soil, is so strongly implanted, that the Bhayad, 

* Low caste is perhaps an improper term, for they are often of respectable 
OMi perse; but from having lost their land by the process of time, have become 
forced to labour. Low condition in life would be tneir oorrect description* 



27 

though paying tribute to the heads of their tribes, would resent as an 
insult any interference with the government of their villages or village. 
Where they are strong, therefore, the chief leaves them pretty much to 
themselves ; where weak, his mode of securing his purposes is by impos- 
ing Mohsuls* to be fed at their expense until they consent to do of 
themselves what is required : and this custom, in conformity with long 
established usage, has been copied by the British Government to 
enforce compliance with its requisitions. 

21. Of Civil or Criminal law, the people have no idea« nor do they 
seem sensible of the want — but such is ever the case in barbarous com- 
munities : each caste manages its affairs by Punchayets, where the 
leading men resemble some of our own select vestries, in meeting to 
talk and to eat at their neighbours' expense. The result is generally a 
fine on the offending party, also to be laid our. in eating, besides any 
mode of adjustment that may be decided on. If a complaint of crime 
be lodged, one or more sipahees are quartered on the culprit until he 
pays what the chief considers sufficient to atone for his offence, or he is 
thrown into confinement to undergo the same process and be released 
on furnishing security. Mulcting is almost the sole penalty : capital 
punishment is rarely inflicted save in two or three of the largest States. 
— On inquiring into this subject, I ascertained that in two States of 
some consequence the only punishment by death that could be remem- 
bered occurred during the severe famine of 1812-13, when some men 
were put to death for the crime of having in their hunger killed and 
eaten cows ! If a man have a debt to recover, he consents to give up a 
certain share of it to the chief, who thereupon proceeds to coerce the 
debtor, — but this process is often one of rival bidding for the chiers 
favor. Powerful guarantees will carry the thing through without ap- 
pealing to the chief, but this is merely a supplying of his place by 
another ; as a general rule, severity in the exercise of justice cannot 
be complained of. The people are left pretty much to themselves in 
the adjustment of their disputes ; if, however, the chiefs passions be 
excited, he will not scruple to torture to obtain the information he seeks. 
One of the peculiar features in the criminal jurisprudence of the 
country, if such a term may be used, is a custom which prevails in 
many of the States^ in keeping spies on the alert to report cases of 
breaches of chastity,f which are made to yield a rich crop to the Dur- 
bar Treasury. 

22. In point of education, the Peninsula must be classed very low 
indeed : few of the chiefs can read or write, and the persons who manage 
their affairs know little or nothing beyond their immediate sphere. 
Books are rare things, and unappreciated. In every town some small 
provision is made for schooling, but the funds set apart for this pur- 

* From an Arab^'o root, and implying persons sent. 
t Th© term used to denote the otfence is chamchoree. 



28 

pose are totally inadequate, and the little use they might be turned to 
is vitiated by the custom of the son taking the provision his father 
received before him as " Grass," without any check as to his fitness 
for the office. Government pay two Pundits at Rajkote, and from 40 
to 50 Pupils attend, but their parents withdraw them before they are 
advanced beyond the simple rudiments of Arithmetic, conceiving this 
to be all that is necessary ; and 1 regret to say that the chiefs and other 
leading men have shown the most entire apathy on the subject of edu- 
cation. Some very intelligent and respectable Presbyterian Clergymen, 
from the north of Ireland, have recently established themselves as Mis- 
sionaries at Rajkote, and devote their time to the instruction of youth, 
in English as well as the local dialect, and it may be hoped much 
benefit may eventually accrue from their labours. 

23. The Brahminical Priesthood, as a body, can scarcely be said to 
have any weight in the country ; there are no colleges for their educa- 
tion. The father gives the son such smattering of spiritual matters as 
may suffice to gain his bread ; some pretend to cast horoscopes, and 
are consulted on births for the purpose; a few are sufficiently versed 
in the Hindoo astronomical tables to be able to calculate eclipses, and 
some three or four of these are well acquainted with Sanscrit, — but I 
doubt whether the whole province could produce one person coming 
under the denomination of a learned Pundit. The late Runchorjee, of 
Jocnagurh, a Nagur Brahmin, to whose family, as Dewans of the Nu- 
wab, the Joonaghur dynasty owes much of its present power, was 
the nearest approach to an educated native gentleman the country con- 
tained. His tastes and habits of thought were above his age ; but he 
departed without casting his mantle on a successor. Tiie Nagur com- 
munity is very powerful in the Peninsula : they are by profession a 
corps diplomatique, and devoted to the arts of Government. Tin ir 
principal residence is Joonaghur, but there are many families at Nu- 
wanuggur, Bhaonuggur, and other large towns.* One family received 
a grant of land during the time of the Soobahs, and are the present 
chiefs of the Wussawur Talooka; but these have given up the indus- 
trious habits of their race, and taken to opium and indolence, in imi- 
tation of the other lords of the soil. The Nagurs are a shrewd race, and 
work their way into almost every durbar by their ability and tact — 
most of the native servants of Government are of this class. The 
number in the Peninsula is estimated at 1263 families, of which 920 
call themselves simply Nagurs, in contradistinction to the remaining 
343 who are termed Brahmins. The caste is, however, the same ; but 
tlie habits of the more numerous body are purely secular, whilst the 
others live by alms and the practice of their religion. The above es- 

* A. table is given in the Appendix (Enclosure 5), shewing No., and places 
©f residence. 



29 

timate is exclusive of numerous N&gur families from Ahmedabad and 
other parts of Goozerat temporarily residing within the province. 

24. The Jains or Srawuks, whose derivation from the Boodhists 
is so apparent yet difficult to trace, are very numerous ; scarcely a 
village of any size that has not two or three or more families. The 
Banians are almost wholly of this class, though there are a few Vish- 
nu vites. I have spoken of their beautiful temples on the Pali tana 
and Geernar mountains : at stated periods, bands of pilgrims, called 
Sungs, thousands in number, visit these places to worship, from Marwar 
and other parts of India. These Banians form the bankers of the pro- 
vince, and have embued the Rajpoot, and even the Mussulman Zu- 
meendars, with some of their tenderness for animal life. In many 
parts of Katteewar they openly protect them, in the plunder, or, as they 
term it, rescue of cows, sheep, poultry, &c., from persons whose object 
they suspect to be slaughter: in this they are aided by the influence of 
the Najiur Brahmins. It would require a report of itself to do jus- 
tice to the habits of this peculiar race, and to the position they occupy 
in the peninsula. 

25. The remaining portion of the population is made up of Lohanas, 
Aheers without ** grass," Rebarees, Koonbees, Mers, mixed Rajpoot 
races of low condition, Coolees, Mehmons, and numerous Mahomedan 
tribes from Sindh, Mukran, Beloochistan, and Arabia, which last 
classes constitute for the greater part the Seebundee of the province. 
The Meeanas from Kutch, who have obtained land at Mallia, are well 
known as a formidable race of plunderers: a powerful band of these 
outlaws, who disturbed the peace of the country by their outrages, 
were tried by the Political Agent's Court in 1839 ; since which they 
have refrained from any great excesses, and none of them have gone out 
into Bharwuttya. The Wadhels and Waghers of Okhamundel — the 
latter especially — very much resemble the Meeanas in their turbulent 
and plundering]: propensities, although they have not, like the last, ex- 
changed the Hindoo faith for that of the Prophet. The vigour of the 
Gaekwar's administration at Okha has happily succeeded in keeping 
them within bounds by land, and by the sea the British flag prevents 
piracy.* The people now most likely to disturb the peace of the 
country are the Mukranees : all these men are soldiers by profession, 
ready to commit every crime under heaven for any body who will pay 
them. Attempts have been made to check the increase of this body, 
but without success. With such a multitude of bunders, and apathy on 
the part of the chiefs they belong to, the Poliiical Agent has no means 
of tracing the migration of these bodies ; and the rules to check their 
increase are inoperative. The Sindees, called Bawurs, have many 

• Petty piracy was carried on a few years back under connivance of the 
Gaekwar manager) who was surrendered by His Hi>;hness, and convicted of 
the offence before the Political Agent's Court in 1840. 



30 

of them obtained land, which serves as some check against the pro- 
ceedings of their countrymen. Some of these are, however, always to 
be found whenever a Bbarwuttya of consequence holds out his banner. 
The Arabs are less prone to take service with Bharwuttyas, and are 
considered the most respectable of the military class^ both as to fide- 
lity and character. The coolies all along the eastern border are a 
very troublesome race, prone to plunder, and assemble themselves in 
gangs for any desperate enterprise, for which a double jurisdiction 
affords them facilities. Generally speaking, the Police of their re- 
spective districts is tolerably well maintained by the chiefs, and the 
system of mutual responsibility which enables one state to claim from 
another losses traced to, or incurred therein, seems well suited to the 
present state of society. No credit is due to the chiefs on this ac- 
count, as they never give compensation without being forced to it by 
the interference of the Political Agent, and but too many of them are 
apt to retain secret shares of the plunder. 

26. Rajkote seems to have been selected for the residence of the 
British force, and of the Political Agent's establishment, from its central 
situation from the Ajee River, which passes the town, retaining water 
in all seasons ; and from the abundance of forage in its vicinity. An 
annual rent of Rs. 3000 is paid to the chief for the ground thus 
occupied. The head quarters of the Contingent of Irregular Horse, 
furnished by His Highness the Gaekwar, are stationed 60 miles due 
south of Rajkote, near the petty village of Manikwara, where the 
vicinity of the Geer hills is of advantage in the way of forage and 
wood, whilst the constant resort thither of Bharwuttyas renders the 
neighbourhood of Cavalry expedient. This contingent furnishes 
thanas of small bodies of horse, along the eastern frontier, for the 
protection of that line of trade with Central India. A detachment of 
horse and foot* help to keep the turbulent Meeanas in order at 
Mallia.f There is also an outpost of a hundred regular Infantry at 
Poorbunder, furnished to the Rana by treaty, and for which a share 
(Rs. 26,001 per annum) of the customs of that port were ceded to 
the Hon'ble Company in 1809. With the exceptions above given, the 
Police of the Peninsula is maintained by its several states: the See- 
bundee kept up by them for the purpose, may be estimated at 4300 
horse, and about 12,000 foot, as per accompanying list ^Enclosure 6.) 

27. Soorashtra has been known as holy land to the Hindoos from 
the oldest period to which their history can be traced. The Truwenee, 
or junction of three waters}: near the Puttun, where Krishna died, and 

* A company of a hundred Arabs is uoder the Political Agent, who are 
paid from the Joonaghur Chouth- 

t The contiDgent are of great service in the mohsul duty of the country, — 
a duty totally uusuited to disciplined troops. 

X Viz., the Sea, and the Hum and Suruswuttee rivers. The ashes of Krishna 
are supposed to be here entombed. 



31 

Dwarka, where temples are raised in his honor, form, to this day, the 
resort of thousands of pilgrims from all parts of India. Dwarka is deem- 
ed one of the four great Teeruts of India — and the peninsula abounds 
with spots that their Poorans have rendered sacred. These circumstances 
have thrown a religious colouring over the population, which exhibits 
itself iu the charitable provision set apart in every town and village for 
pilgrims and travellers, in the number of Gosaens and ascetics con* 
stantly traversing the country. There are upwards of a score of persons 
called Gosaeenjee Muharaj, who visit the Peninsula periodically iu 
great state, like so many popes, to receive adoration and money from 
their flocks; besides the four 7AanuA;« or stations at Joonaghur, Am- 
rellee, Nuwanuggur, and Poorbundur, where their mightinesses reside : 
these are exclusively of the Vishnoo sect. The Jains have their hier- 
archy also of Pooj and Sree Pooj — bishop and archbishop. There are 
institutions termed Munts, resembling monasteries and the religious 
orders of the Roman Church. The following places contain the most 
remarkable — Goruk Mudee, Turnethur, Seeta, Gopnath, and Beem- 
oath. These have been endowed with land by the piety or ostentation 
of succeeding chiefs, and their rights are respected by the community . 
The abbot is termed Bawa or Father, also Gooroo, or spiritual guide, a 
disciple or follower. Chgla, the most remarkable, is perhaps the first 
CD the list, which I hope I shall not be trespassing too much on the 
time of the Hoo'ble Board by describing, as throwing light on the man- 
ners and institutions of the country. The Bawa Peearn&th of Goruk 
Mudee, a venerable old man of 62, enjoys several villages in the neigh- 
bourhood of the sacred Suruswuttee, which first feeds the holy reser- 
voir of Prachee,* and after washing the walls of theBawa's palace, emp- 
ties itself into the equally sacred Truwenee,! about seven miles from 
bis residence. Goruknath, the Gooroo of Rookmeebaee, the wife of 
Krishna, is the Deity of this Munt : his shrine lies deep under ground 
in the village of Goruk Mudee, to which he has given his name. The 
Bawa has here his Gadee, and is surrounded by about forty brethren, 
who are all distinguished by the peculiar custom of slitting the central 
cartilage of both ears, whence khanphutteej: (ear split) has become the 
designation of their tribe. This is the sect that, under the name of 
Nathy has excited such notice at Joodpoor by their influence over Man 
Sing : Goruk Mudee is said to be the Kibla of the brotherhood, and 
Bawa Peearnath the head of all. The late Joonaghur Nuwab gave 
him the village of Bosun in return for an elephant which the Bawa 
brought with him from Joodpoor seven or eight years ago, the gift of 
ks sovereign on this visit to him of his spiritual father. This establish- 
ment, like the monasteries of the west, holds everything in common, 

* Also called Prachee Putton and Prachee Koond. The last word signifies 
Msenroir of water. 

I6ee note at the commenoement of this para. 
Pronounced kan futty. 



32 

and its members are under vows of celibac}', — the Bawa is alone ex- 
empted from this vow, in order to keep up the succession ; but failing 
issue, he adopts (in common with the other Munts of the country who 
are not thus released from their vows) a Chela or spiritual son from 
among his Bock. The manners and appearance of the Bawa Peear 
Nath are prepossessing, whilst those of his Chela are the reverse. The 
ceremony of initiation is performed in youth. They receive from 
most of the Hindoo castes, not being particular about parentage, though 
ostensibly they neither accept Mahomedans nor Dhers. The ear is slit 
open in the centre to the length of an inch, and the wound kept open 
by a stick of nem wood, wrapt round with the soft downy feather of a 
peacock's quill, and kept wet. When sutticiently healed, large but 
light rings of lacquered earthen ware are inserted, and after a year 
these are exchanged for rings of wood, horn, or hollowed metal, silver, 
or gold. These rings they consider the symbol and stay of their faith, 
and the Bawa informed me no khanphuttee ever survived their loss, 
whether breaking through of its own weight or torn off by others. 
Qoruknath's displeasure was supposed equally manifest, and the brother 
was buried alive ; that this indeed was the will of the parties, who 
could not be brought to survive the disgrace. As an instance, he 
mentioned one of his flock, whose ring some years ago had been cut oflp 
by a Bharwuttya, and a companion killed : he, the Bawa, and others 
endeavoured to persuade the survivor to let the ear be sown up and the 
ring replaced, but the sufferer was deaf to all entreaty, saying, " All 
things happen by God's command, and this is his token that I should 
not survive my brother:" they were accordingly buried together in the 
same grave. The only worship of the khanphuttees seems to be that of 
Goruknath, but they acknowledge the Hindoo Gods ; they are under no 
restraint in matters of food, excepting the cow, which is held sacred, 
and the hog, which is unclean. They eat freely of fish, flesh, and 
fowl ; all travellers are hospitably received and fed, this being a part of 
their code : their religion otherwise appears to consist in worshipping 
their idol once morning and evening; the rest of the day is passed in 
amusement or in indolence, except during their stated period of meals, 
'when they assemble together to feast with such strangers as may 
wish to join them. Mental recreation seems an unknown thing among 
them. The Bawa himself, in his old age, betakes himself to fishing, 
but when younger his sport was more extended, judging from the ap- 
pearance of the brotherhood. Ablution forms no portion of their 
ritual : they wear the dingy red Gosaen turban, which, with their huge 
ear-rings, form their only distinguishing marks. Notwithstanding 
their disregard to animal life in a country where such efforts are made 
to save the vilest reptiles, such is the inconsistent character of the 
Hindoo creed, that the Bawa is looked up to as a holy man by all 
classes ! and I was informed that on his visits to Joodpoor the Sovereign 
refused to sit on a chair in his presence. 



33 

28. The above details represent a peculiar stale of society, whether 
as respects the religious fraternities themselvfs or the people who en- 
courage their existence. Ignorance and superstition is the condition of 
all, but there is a fund of natural religion evident herein, which gives 
token of better things when once the mind shall have expanded be^^ond 
its present chrysalite state. The influence of tliehhats and charons over 
the community is generally on the wane ; and, although the chiefs 
still continue to squander money in presents to them on marriages and 
other state occasions, yet their dread of their incantations and tragas 
is seldom retained. I have known several instances of lives being taken 
and much blood shed without the least effect being produced, whereas 
at the beginning of this century a single life offered in traga would 
have subdued the most stubborn landholder ;* nothing, however, can 
prove the great change that has occurred during the short period of 
tur rule in this province more than in quoting Col. Walker's words, 
that *< the chieftain is aware that, without the aid of the bhat, he can 
make no settlement with Government," and instating that at the present 
time there is not a single bhat so employed. 

29. In alluding to hospitality as a marked feature of the country, 
I have made no allusion to the prevalent use of opium, \vhich, on all 
occasions of a festive nature, or of equals associating with one another, 
is the universal token of friendship ; it would require a chapter to 
treat on the use and effects of this drug : few Grassias abstain from it, 
and some consume the enormous quantity of a hundred grains a day.f 
There are few parts of the world where, as in Katteewar, a traveller, 
whatever his condition in life, may make sure of food at any village he 
may halt at. The Mehman K/iuruch, as it is termed, is provided for by 
a roster, every householder having in turn to supply provision for the 
chance guest; and there is generally a chowra, a temple, a thakor wara, 
or sheltered place of some kind, where the pilgrim may rest himself. 

30. It would occupy too much space to notice in detail the habits of 
the various tribes of the Peninsula ; the marriage customs of the Kattees 
spoken of by McMurdo, wherein the bridegroom had to carry off the 
hr'ide vi et armiSi have entirely fallen into disuse ; in them may be traced 
a connection with the Scythian tribes, from whom they have been sup- 
posed to be derived : to this day similar customs are in force among the 
Toorkomans. It would be wrong, however, to conclude any descrip- 

• A striking case of traga is mentioned in Colonel Walker's report of 15th 
May 1808, paras. 78 and 82, which succeeded ; whilst last year a more bloody 
one was committed against the son of the same chief without his appearing to 
troable himself in the least : this is one fact out of many. 

t The celebrated Bharwuttya Champraj Wala, when in the Rajkote jail« 
wasted gradually away until his dose of opium was augmented to ninety graiui 
a day. 

E 



34 

lion of this people without alluding to the prominent part taken by the 
fairer sex, in politics and in all the relations of life. The wives of the 
Rajpoots have generally more to do with the management of their es- 
tates than their lords ; these are sunk in sloth and debauchery, whilst 
the ladies, whose intellects the use of opium has not clouded,hold, either 
directly or indirectly, the reins of Government. This remark is less 
applicable to the Kattees except as to indirect influence, but between 
the Mahomedan and Rajpoot states there is little difference. It is a 
strange inconsistency, that the Rajpoot and Mahomedan women, with 
whom the rule of the Purda* is so rigid, should push themselves pro- 
minently forward in public affairs, whilst it should be the reverse with 
the Kattees, with whom, properly speaking, the notion has no existence, 
but who have merely given way to the customs of other leading tribes, 
in entertaining any desire for the concealment of females. The Kat- 
tee women have (heir natural rights,! ^>)d seem to wish no more ; 
"while the others who are debarred of them take much more than they 
are entitled to. At present the Rajpoot Talookas of Wudwan and 
Limree are directly governed by female regents ; and the Mahomedan 
ones of Joonaghur and Mangrol Poorbunder was better managed by 
the recently deceased widow of Rana Khimajee than it now is by her 
son Wikmajee. The Purda adds nothing to the character of chastity 
of the sex ; and fictitious pregnancies amongst the widows are the ge- 
neral if not invariable consequences of the decease of a husband with- 
out heirs amongst the Rajpoot chieftains. These have generally from 
two to four wives according to their wealth ; but no limit is assigned be- 
yond that of their convenience, and the intrigues of the durbar for in- 
fluence. The Mahomedan laws and customs need no description. 
The Kattees limit themselves generally to one wife, and the character 
of their females ranks far higher than that of the other two predom- 
inant tribes, — a necessary result from their higher position in the social 
scale, since they are treated by the husband more as companions ; and 
even when he has more than one wife all share alike in his society. 
Nothing can prove the degrading effects of polygamy as practised in 
this Peninsula, more fully than the dread entertained by every Rajpoot 
chieftain of being poisoned by his wives, especially if any one have an 
heir to the gadee : — food prepared by them is never touched but with due 
precaution ; but the chiefs of the Peninsula are too ignorant to reflect 
on the evils of polygamy though daily brought home to their own doors. 

* Curtain always interposed between the male visitor and the lady of the 
house. 

f I mean as to social position, but must exclude from this the law of in- 
heritance, which grossly neglects the females ; for instance Mooloo Wala, the 
present chief proprietor of Jeitpoor, has inherited the estates of two elder bro- 
thers, whilst the daughters of one of them have been left nearly destitute, and 
a mere life-maintenance only given for themselves and the two widows* 



35 

31. This letter has already reached to such a length that 1 must 
hasten to curtail my remaining observations, leaving altogether for a 
subsequent report a sketch of the present condition of the principal 
states, which information may be deemed of an ephemeral nature, and 
best therefore kept separate from a report that attempts to give a view 
of the more permanent features of the country. 

32. Ports and Traffic I enclose a list of all the bunders of the 

peninsula (Appendix. Enclosure 7 ) : the best, and from which traffic is 
chiefly carried on, are the following: — In the Gulph of Kutch — Jooria, 
Sula3'a, and Wuwania; on the west coast — Poorbundur and Bilawal 
(or Verawul) ; and a good deal of cotton is exported from Mangrol, 
though its port is little better than an open roadstead. On the south — 
Diu, Jaffrabad, and Mowa; and in the Cambay Gulph — Gogo, Bhao- 
nuggur, and Dholera. The chief trade of the country is with Bombay, 
and the principal export cotton ; but, as shewn in my account of Burda, 
there is commercial intercourse with Africa, Arabia, Mukran, Sinde, 
Kutch, and the whole line of the western coast of the continent, and 
a small coasting trade is carried on by vessels from the Persian Gulph. 
The exports are cotton, wool, grain, (chiefly bajree, wheat, and til,) ghee, 
goor, oil (extracted from til), horses, and cattle. The imports are 
bales of cloths and piece goods, and various European manufactures, and 
goods, cutlery, metals ; wood and cocoanuts from the Malabar coast ; 
ivory and spices from Africa and Arabia ; dates and stone fruits from 
the Persian Gulf ; rice and oxen from Scinde ; opium, dyes, and cloths 
for wearing apparel, are brought from Marwar. 

33. Metalsy Minerals^ Sfc. — Iron is manufactured from native ore, 
found in Hallar and Burda, to the extent of about a hundred tons 
annually ;* copper is said to exist in the small ridge of hills running 
southward from Bhudle, and also near Nuwanuggur, but 1 have had no 
opportunity of testing these statements, and no mines are ever known 
to have been worked. Gold in minute quantities can be obtained, it is 
said, by washing the sand of the Sourekl:af River, that springs from 
the Geernar, but the expanse of extracting it exceeds the value of the 
produce, i cannot trace any authority for the statement in one of 
Captain MacMurdo's papers, that gold was found in the bed of the 
Ajee River, nor the existence of any other metal ; neither is any coal 
to be found. Pearls, of an inferior quality, are procured from the 

^ • On this subject a report was transmitted to Government in 1837, which has 
nnce been published by the Agricultural Committee of the Royal Asiatic 
Society of London. 

t Literally gold dust, which is the old Sanscrit name for it, «* Sowurn Seek- 
ta,*' found inscribed on the Geernar Rock; whether it be the same river as the 
■■ Palashee," or Pala Seena, also mentioned therein, but applying to a different 
portion of it, or a separate stream ) I have not been able to ascertain. 



36 

banks in the Kutcli Gulph between Nuwanuggur and Jooria. Min- 
eral springs exist at Pind Taruk, in Okhamundul,andatToolsee Sham, 
in the Gheer, but they have not, I believe, been analyzed : the latter is 
a hot spring, the temperature of which is too high to permit of persons 
bathing in the first basin built to receive it ; for this purpose a chain of 
reservoirs is constructed, and the place is, of course, considered holy— 
the Hindoos having no idea of accounting for such deviations from 
the usual course of nature but by the miraculous intervention of some 
one of their many deities. 

34. Agricultural Products. — Cotton is the grand staple of the 
country, as far as the export trade is concerned. It is estimated that 
2,67,606^ Indian muns* are grown, as per annexed return (Enclosure 
8,) of whicli amount nearly half is exported. Wool has of late years 
also become ^n article of external traffic, and the facilities for breeding 
sheep which the pasturage of the country affords, and the quality of 
the wool in fineness and softness, bid fair fora considerable increase in 
this article, and might repay an European speculator who could devote 
attention to improvement of the breed. Most, if not all of the Indian 
grains are here raised, but the staple of the Peninsula is Bajree, except 
in seasons of drought when Jowarree is the chief article of food. This 
is owing to the nature of this grain, which admits of its being kept un- 
derground in pits for several years, whereas the other grains spoil by 
so keeping. Jowarree is, therefore, the standing resource in times of 
famine. Wheat is raised in Jhalawar by the monsoon, but in other 
parts of the Peninsula it is grown only by irrigation: the number of 
wells enable the inhabitants to gi'ow enough for their maintenance dur- 
ing partial droughts, though the cattle of course suffer on such occa- 
sions. Sugar cane is grown all over the country ; but nothing beyond 
the common sort of goor is manufactured. An attempt was made by 
the Soondei'jee Firm some years ago but failed. As the price of grain 
forms one of the elements by which to judge of the state of society, I 
do myself the honour to annex tables (Enclosure 9) shewing the varia- 
tions therein during the last half century in different parts of the coun- 
try. 

35. Domestic Animals The Katteewar breed of horses has long 

been celebrated in India. I find a letter from Government in the re- 
cords,! in which the superiority of the ori^^inal Katteewar horse for ca- 
valry purposes over every other breed in India, is stated as an established 
fact; and the opinions of Lieutenant- Colonel L. Stanhope, and officers 
of the 17th Dragoons, are quoted, that this Regiment (supplied chiefly 

♦ Of 40 Seers, 80 Rs. to the Seer. 

f From Mr Chief Secretary Norris to Captain H. Jamieson, Superintendent 
of Breeding Establishment, dated 15th February, 1827. 



37 

from Katteewar) was in 1813 better mounted than any corps in 
His Majesty's service. Since then, the breed seems to have deterio- 
rated, partly from the changed habits of the Kattee breeders, partly by 
the dreadful famine of 1812-13, which swept away thousands ; and 
partly from the sale of horses who are withdrawn from the country at 
an early age — the Kattees, and indeed all the Chiefs of the Peninsula, 
preferring Mares for their personal use. Unless some active mea- 
sures are taken by Government to prevent further deterioration, it is 
to be feared that the race will lose for ever its distinguishing charac- 
ter. The Cow, of the species termed Desar), is a native of the West- 
ern and Central districts of Katteewar, * very much prized both in and 
out of the Province. Buffaloes, and the other Cattle common to the 
continent, are in abundance. A really good Desan Cow will bring its 
owner as high a price as 40 Rupees ; and a Milch Buffaloe 60. In 
Okhamundul a small breed of Camels are reared, as' also in some other 
quarters, but the breed is very inferior to that of Marwar. 

36. Feroe NaturcBi — Lions are to be found in various parts of the 
Country. It is quite a mistaken notion of the European Naturalist 
to speak of the Maneless Lion of Guzerat ; their Mane is less than that 
of the African Lion, perhaps owing to the jungly nature of the dis- 
tricts thfv frequent, whilst those of Africa roam at large over the vast 
plains of that continent. Cycles of time may possibly suffice to produce 
a chanije in the breed corresponding to the habitat of the genus, but 
even if otherwise, the quantity of hair lost during the course of years 
by any one denizen of the thorny forests may account for its diminu- 
tion. In size and ferocity they equal the Lions of Africa, though the 
last point is perhaps doubtful. Panthers (the spotted Leopard} and 
Cheetas t (or the hunting Tiger) are very common ; so are the Neel- 
gaee : and as to the common red Antelope, hundreds may be seen on a 
day's march in almost every direction. The Black Buck, the most 
beautiful perhaps of the Antelope species, abounds in certain districts 
onl3^ The Genus Cervus (the Sambre) is to be met with only in the 
Cheer, where also the Cheetul or spotted deer is said to reside* L^ogs, 
Hyaenas, Wolves, Jackals, the W^ild Cat, Foxes, Porcupines, and tht 
smaller Vermin, abound. One of the most striking characteristics of the 
Peninsula are the rats which appear at intervals in myriads, to the 
great detriment of the country. The year Suravut 1871, A. D. 1814- 

* I allude to the Prant so called, and not Soorashtra generally. The former 
I spell, for distinction sake, agreeably to the native onhography ; but I have 
left the term Katteewar for the PeuiDsula, as usually written by Euglish au- 
thorities. 

f Writing as a sportsman, I should say that the Government table, which 
gives an equal reward for the destruction of these two animals, is founded on 
an erroneous principle. The Panther is by far the most destructive of the 
two, and most dangerous to assail. 



3d 

15, goes by the name of the Rat year, ** Oondrio Sal," from the faming 
produced by their ravages; and so recently as the year before last, 
great injury was done by these mischievous vermin : they appear sud- 
denly in dense masses, past all counting, as if springing from the earth, 
about the harvest season: nothing can stop them — fires, ditches, and 
water have been tried in vain ; they move along, a mighty host, eating 
up all that comes in their way ; all at once they vanish as if by magic, 
and for years not one is to be seen : they are about double the size of 
the common rat, and of a reddish sandy color. The Armadillo, or at 
least an animal very much resembling it in habits and appearance, is 
sometimes to be met with : the scales of this species are loose, like the 
greaves of chain armour, and not hide-bound as in the Americaa Ar- 
madillos.^ 

37. Manufactures and Arts have nearly been annihilated by the 
united power of capital and machinery in England, and the invention of 
steam ; those still existing are simple, and suited only to the wants of 
the population. Dungaree, both fine and coarse, is woven in almost 
every town by the Dhers, one of whose occupations it is considered ; 
but the Mehman tribe are also considerable manufacturers. Coarse 
Woollens are woven in many parts of the country, especially in Dho- 
rajee, where also Carpets are made. Linen seems unknown. Silk is 
manufactured at Nuggur and Poorbunder from the raw material im- 
ported from Bombay, but I doubt whether the speculation has 
answered. Cloths are dyed all over the country, but those of Nuwa- 
nuggur are the most prized. The carpenters, blacksmiths, and stone- 
masons of Katteewar, are equal in skill to those of any part of India, 
exclusive of the capitals. The blacksmiths are most prized who have 
immigrated from Kutch ; good matchlocks, swords, daggers, &c., are 
manufactured within the peninsula. Judging from the architecture 
and tracery on some of the old temples, the art of sculpture would 
seem to have deteriorated, as the more modern figures are deficient 
in proportion and grace, whilst the ancient ones show a master's 
touch. There are three mints in the country where silver is coined : the 
Dewan Shaee Coree of Joonaghur, the Jam Shaee of Nuvvanuggur, and 
the Eana Shaee of Poorbunder, but the die is of rude construction. 
The art of painting, or even of design, seems unknown, and that of 
music is in a very low state. Printing and lithography have no 
existence. 

38. Roads and Communications — There are no made roads or 
canals in the country ; the soil, however, permits of good natural 
roads, and the drainage by multitudes of streams prevents even the 

* Since writing the above I have been informed by Dr Nicholson, that the 
specific name of this animal is '^ Mania Crassicaudata.'' 



39 

black soil from seriously interfering with monsoon communication. 
The roads might be rendered excellent by small outlay, but the Chiefs 
are indifferent to the improvement of their estates, and the tenure by 
which the best Karbharrees hold their power is too fragile for them to 
attempt deviation from the customary routine. 

39- This peninsula contains in itself the elements of natural strength. 
Its geographical position and numerous ports point it out as the 
connecting link between Africa, Arabia, Persia, and the Indian 
continent: its soil is produciive, especially Katteewar. The Geer 
forests produce timber for building, and abundance of fuel. Iron might 
be worked to any extent, as the ore abounds. The horses and cattle 
are of good description, and no country possesses greater facilities for 
internal communication ; but under the rule of semi-barbarian chief- 
tains, it may be termed a giant asleep. A languid circulation goes 
on sufficient to preserve existence, but otherwise there are no signs of 
life. 

I have the honor to be, &c., 

(Signed) G. Le G. Jacob, 

Acting Political Agent. 



(Enclosure 



FINANCIAL AND 



PRAKT OR DIVISION 

Table of Talookas as per Colonel Walker's Permanent Settlement 
Jurisdictions. 

T<i.B.— The Tribute of this Province 



Xanics of TalGOltaii' 



Hulwud Drangdra .. 



Limree 



Deduct belonging to 
it but under Ah 
medabad 



Balance under this 
Agency 



Kuntharia .. 

Karol 

Kumalpoor . 

Kumlao 

Geree 

Chuchano .. 

Chulala 

Jakkun .. .. 

Khandia 

Tulsana ..... 

Tavee 

Dewlia 

Durod 

Pulalee .... 

Bhocka 

Bhuthan 

Bhulgamra.. 



Il 



A 

114 



72 



33 



39 

2 
2 
1 
2 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
3 
1 
2 
1 
2 
3 
1 
3 



51,709 



IJritish Tribute 
as fix til, or ^u\i- 
pwjicd to }iave 
been fix IN If ttv 
€i)L Wiilkerf 



27,820 

1120 

380 
160 
360 
320 
160 
200 
160 
200 
720 
120 
300 
140 
80 
1000 
160 
600 



48,909 



B 

51,931 



1610 

75^ 
837 
788 

129G 
34H 

104S 
261 
870 
985 
335 
604 
39. 
385 

1899 
692 

1512 



m Unions ut 



Authority for Corrwttwliii*' 
Ueiiiissio[]a or no^^ ^^^ ''J 

(J u t roctio OS. each Ti llJUtuT* 



6000 



^Ufrvl. LcLttT,^ 






[ Uth Jmnu^rj 






1 IMI.cttJuvt. 






. L.IIcr <lnttd i 
T IClh Nov.m. f 


43,909 




1H4(>, No. 
lisol, parM. 


51,931 
1610 






758 


8 




837 


8 




788 






1296 






343 






1048 






261 






870 






985 


^ 




335 






504 






395 






385 


8 




1899 






692 






1512 





No. I.J 



STATISTICAL TABLES. 

OF JHALAWAK. 



—shewing subsequent alterations and present number of Separate 
Kos originally Jixed in Ahmedabad Sicca Rupees. 



3 a-coa 

^^ C c 9 

3 2 ^ - 

I. e 7 3 e 



U25 



1501 



225 
1'jO 

150 
15iJ 

» 

27 
50 
54 
50 
X'l 
15 

:i3 






48,234 



63,432 



1835 
858 
837 
938 

1446 
343 

1132 
311 
967 

1135 
362 
564 
449 
436 

2200 
767 

1625 



6 g o 



4,909 



RBBCABKt. 



A— Not including 16 waste villages. 

B~Of this amount a sum of Rs. 16,250 is credited to the Chief for 
I realizations made by the Collector of Ahmedabad o^ account 

of his Purgunnah of Burwalla, which w»8 subject to that Zil- 
lah since its origrinNl formation ; but as the same had pre* 
viously formed a part of the Limree Talooica, the same has 
been brought on Colonel Walker's Permaneat settlement of 
Katteewar Tribute. 
[C— Not including 2 waste villages, vix. Cbalia and WtnjraJ. 



' These several states belong to the different braoobes of the Limree 
Bayad. 



42 



:>u S 



C 


a 


£ 


1' 


" 




20 


2(1 


21 


2i 


2'J 


12 


2;^ 


2.S 


24 


J^ 


23 


ia 


2*; 


2d 


27 


27 


11 


-J!.'-, 


29 


-9 


3 


30 


81 


31 


32 


82 


S'.i 


.s:^, 


34 


34 


35 


35 


36 


36 


37 


37 




38 


38 


39 




40 



NAoiei of TalookM- 



Litnrce Hh:iyjii' 

crtTitinued ,,p ...**. 

[.aliad „«.• .....,..*.. 

Wati^ilii ......* 

^uriila ,« t.»^..<. 

S'loukii , , ^'^-■ 

(Ji>mree .. ^.-^ 

Aiikcw;ili,L ..„.,.»,. 

lotiil L^mree lilm^ 

yad -. "■ ,.* -.,-^-** 

tho Umree Hhiijai 
m^tl^r AhinedrtlJJi'.l, i»o[ 
ii cLuded in tbe abuvi 

V^ udwan^r* ■*->»<■* ■•' 

Deduct b*-1oTiigif g trt ii, 
but uud«r AbiEre>l;>biiii^ 
iJalaiii^ti uiiUtir ttn^ 

.1 tiampodur* , 
Kheraice ... 
*iooii<leealee 
Jiiuiniiiur ... 

Doodrt j 

lihulura 



Uajpur 

Wurod ^ 

Wuna ' ® 

Total Wudwan Bha 
yad 



Wankaneer . 



MeBhria.. 



Than Luktur 

De«luct under Ah- 
medabad 

Balance under this 
Agency 

VVithulghur 



2n 

I J) 

1 

1 

2 
1 
1 
B 

4U 



SG 



70 



Britii^b Tribute 
g fixed, nr lup- Pefm&Tiftnt Rp- 



posed to bii^n' 
Cnl. HaLker. 



G18 

'Mi 

3iHJ 
24 

«uo 

iJU4U 



32,220 

2<so 
huo 
800 
lOi) 
800 
240 

800 

1,200 
7,300 



12,360 
14,000 



240 



'iSOOO 
2.820 



ini^i<ioiia 



19.D4: 



28,3ni 



14^^ 

732 
1520 

501 
118<> 

512 

2804 

1553 
4011 



12,971 
18,809 



7602 



500 



200 
202 



402 



201 



Anthorltj for 
RerniiHAti^nf &r 



16tb Nov. 1840, 

Ditto. 



■} 



Govt. L. 10th 
Nov. 1840, 
p. 5. 



Correct: btlxnet 

Tkow d»p by 
cacb TilbiiUry. ' 



I4,52f' 
107^ 
'SV 
42> 
10H£ 
561 
531 

14o: 



19941 



27331 



14 

732 

3520 

6(H 

1189 
612 

2604 

1361 
4011 



12569 
18.809 



7301 



43 



lili. 


i^i 


gs 




£^| . 


•is 




O n ^••C • 


c «-C « 


•D 




S,^t<t 


ntpermai 
m each T 
ated in A 
ca Rupee 


If. 




Z' s^ 

5 .: S c as 




C 3 ©•" - 


c • 


RiMAlUU. 


2 ?^ - 

3 C A« ^ "O 


g£ 3.a 


sii 




o4 - 1^ 


^^^.^ 


|S« 




t: •».-= 3 a 


CS ^ eS (tf 


E *- • 




£ cs C-o 


■5--^"o 


£ u< 




M 


H 


H 




1667 


12 




16,187 


12 












90 






116h 
39 
42.^ 












D— Not including one wast* village, Ti2* Chalaltt. 


112 


h 




114^ 














6li 


12 




629 


12 












6" 






682 














244 






1647 


8 












2334 


22,181 




















TABULAR SUMMARY OP THE WUDWAN TALOOKA. 




TrtDlh 


i 


1 


Hri'i.h 
Tribute in 
Abnu-aabud 


CrttVwmr 

Tribute in 
Abmnlnbad 


Zortnlobee in 
A hm. da bad 


ToUl. 






















> 


0* 


Bupeei. 


Rupee*. 


Rupcei. 




2896 






30,727 






•••••• 


... 


... 






^ 
























J|i*1..>...rTi^t>lualij^frnin 


















, 




















Hup IJ.^i 


30 


52,22(1 


27,881 












2eo<i 






30,727 












148 


8 










tL„r±Vi,. Kiii^M«*r ,,....... 


1 
31 


0' 

32.280 


27,696 


1 
1 


7 

7 






- 






- 


«7 
30,794 


1 
1 


T 

7 






Grand Tol*l of Wndwmn ... 


».. j 












73.^ 




















1520 




















501 














105 






1294 
512 


8 












201 






2806 














300 






1651 


8 












300 






4311 
















—. 


__ 




— 







— 


^ 




006 






13476 


8 












1.672 


8 




20,381 


8 




2,309 


... 


... 


-This vJllage, formerly under Wankaneer. was obtained by Bncha 
Jemadar, a Sindee officer of rank in the set vice of the Gaekwar, 




••• 


... 




... 


••. 







... 


. in S. l8dH. A.D 1811-12. and has since cot.stituted a separate 

Talooka independent of Wat kan* e-, topetber with other villager 

^ in Katteewar, now Leld by his son Goolam Uoosein Bucbabbaee. 








7,802 














village.. 


PoptJaUca. 

240 
HO 




'Meshrloo in Jhalawa 


r •• ,. 


1 
2 


601 


pliooin Kattee- 


... 


*•• 












.Beelree in Katteewar 


1 


200 












































Grand Total Mesbria.. 


4 


680 




















f These villages were obtained by Rabojee Apojee from the Than 




















Luktnr chief In 8. 1862, a.d.. 1805-6, and now constitute an in- 


••* 


... 


... 




... 


.•• 




... 


.. 


' dependency under bis grandson Bhaskur Rao Wittul, togethW 




















( with other ylllag 


»i 


inKa 


tteen 


ar 


m 


adM 


Dd 


tio< 


»K 


an 


U 








1 



44 






►41 



40 



41 

42 
43 
44 



42 



43 

44 
45 
46 



45 



47 



46 



47 



48 



49 



48 



49 



60 



51 



Names of Talooku. 



Kesria, Than Bayad 



Moolee • 



Moonjpoor Moolee 
do 

Saela 

Choora 

Kurmur of the Choo- 
rado 



Dassara... 



Bujana 



Patree 



>'3 



19 



20 



26 



Jhbjoowara . 



Wunod 

Deduct under Ah 
medabad & Puttun 

Balance under this 
Agency 



100 



9,600 



600 
7,962 
8,160 

300 



7200 



9320 



800 



Brittah Tribute 

Mospd to ha*"p 

been ftxecU hv 

Col. Walker.' 



300 



8,908 



651 

18 782 
6978 

161 



14,001 



7960 



4284 



8616 



6652 



12006 



2108 



Perrnsfjent 
Kerdiseiona cr 
Curr&ctiOD9 



810 



Anthority for 
RemisBions or 
Correutioas. 



Ditto. 



Correct balance 

now dae by 
each Tributary* 



300 



651 

18.782 
6978 

161 



14,001 



8616 



6652 



12006 



2108 



45 



«1 e s 

Si's 8 

• g h 

2-Esa 



I 



i el's o. 



ill 
"'I 

** ^ a ^ 



2 M-0 < 



£•5 gs 



2,001 



550 

730 

34 



300 



10,099 



651 
19 332 

7708 

186 



14,001 



8615 



6652 



12006 



2108 




2.782 



2000 



RlMAKKt. 



^Jbalr. Total as shown in thif^ 

wiTHULaHUR.. ]Kluew;;;vid;Vh;t* •p;;nt::: 

(Uudalaiu Muchoo Kanta ... 
Grand Total of Withulghur 



Vilkgw. 



Popniatloo- 



2820 
700 
60 

3580 



JllOWl 

nds I 
byr 



Rg.1.804 15 





543 5 
625 
245 
921 
151 










This Talooka originally consisted of 27 villasres, but 7 of thM© (one 
a Paekast village) being exclusiively under Patree. and amenable 
to the Politiciil Agent's authority, the same have accoidlngly 
been brouftht under that Talooka, though they pay now, as hi- 
therto, an Oodra tax to Dussara in the following proportions :— 

1 Guruwuloo " 

2 Murukee, a Paekast village, the lands 
of which have been absorbed 
the former 

3 Goreeawur 

4 Bamunwa 

5 Nuvrungpuroo .« 

6 Sawura 

7 Cheekasur 

Abmedabad Rupees Ks.4l90 4 

XhiB sum, however, is distinct from the Tribute payable by the 
Talooka. 

12 villages, inclusive of Patree, are shown in Mr Blane's List as 
appertaining to this talooka, but these being now exclusively un 
der the Ahmedabad jurisdiction, have been omitted in this list, 
and the villages transferred from Dussara, as above explained, are 
th< se noticed in their stead. As, however, an item of Rs. 5625, as 
Ghansdaiia, which was levied by Babojee Buchajee, and confirmed 
in Col. Walker's permanent 6ettlem»'nt, on account of the 12 vil- 
lages made over to Ahmedabad, is still payable by Patree to this 
agency through the Collector, that talooka, as well for this reason, 
and as being the state to which the Dussara villages transferred 
te it are directly sutmrdinate, is still retained in this revised list 
as a separate jurisdiction. 

(The supervision of this talooka was made over to the Collector 
of Ahmedabad A. D. 1821, but by Government Letter dated 2oth 
February, li^39, (No. 349) the criminal jurisdiction of the Political 
Agent's court was extended over it in consequence of its not being 
under the Company's regulations; the village of Rojewa was in- 
eluded in this decision, the Nuwab of Radhunpoor having de- 
clined the Jurisdiction. See further G. L., No. 1160, 17th June, 
1839. 



.s 



50 
51 

52 j 
53 



Tot. 



52 

53 

51 
2 

5:^ 



Pyg 
Noi 



Namei of Talookag. 



TuDkara.. 
Bharejra . 



(Raee •••. 
( Sanklee . 



Tribute) Tot. Raee 
Diito ) & Sauklee 



Grand Total Jha- 
lawar 



,. o 
0*3 

05 H 



496 



5000 
400 

200 
240 

440 
240325 



46 



British Tribute 
asfixed.orsup 
posed to have 
been fixed, by 
Col. Walker. 



16,001 • 
101 

300 
300 

600 
283253 



Permanent Re- 
missions or 
Corrections. 



6000 



1291i^ 



Authority for 

Remissions or 

Corrections. 



jO.L. Kc 



IMl. I 



::; i 



Correct baianet 

now due by i 

each Tributary. 



10000 




101 




600 


... 


600 


... 


270340 


— 



47 



• « eg 
5--Bc«S 


pi 


it 
ll 




52^1 


•Si. 




H^zt 


5 .03 


00 ^ 

0^ 


Rbmarki. 


8S^-S5 


g'tia 


tz^ 




c-»i? £" 

f V. - 3 « 
^0= C-O 


otal Ai 
ly due 
ka. ra 
dabad 


2S5 
2^< 




N 


H 


H 




•••••• 


... 


... 


10000 


... 


... 


2750 


... 




Under Morree. 








101 












i Thesetwo villages, beinfir under the same proprietor, are now 
/incorporated together, as one separate jarisdiction only. They 




















• •■M- 




... 


600 




.•• 




... 


... 


V originally beluntred to the Limree Hhayan. and were witten over 
Ito De-isaee Desibhaee Ramiiass, in S 1866, A. D. 180d-9 : his son 
Mewabhaee Desabhaee is now the proprietor. 








































... 




600 


•• 


... 


•at 1 .• 


... 


•- 






_ 


_ 




_ 


_ 










I7,25(> 


8 




287590 


8 




14750 








II III I 






TABULAR SUBCMART OF THE RAEE AlTD SA5KLEE TAL00KA8. 






f 


§ 


RritiJ, Zor- 


Oaekwar 






Pnints. 


1 


1 
440 


tulubM in 
Ahroedkbkd 


Tribal* in 
Ahmtdkbad 


TotaL 






> 
2 


Rnpac*. 


BupcM. 






JliaUwmr ToUl, u thown in tbii List 














eoo 










1 


800 








413 


P 




412 


8 










Onnd Total 


8 


law 


000 






41V 


' 




1012 


e 




















1 





48 



(Enclosur€ 



PRANT OR DIVISION 



Table of Talookas as per Colonel Walker's Permanent Settlement — 





on 
c 
• 






<u 








s 




*» 








5P 








.2 






•1 

s 








1 


Tribute as fixed, or sup- 
posed to have been fix- 
ed, by Col. Walker. 


Permanent Remissions 
or Corrections. 


11 


Correct bala 
from each 


c 


•^ 




Names of 


o « 


Cu 






«s 




X 






Talookas. 




2 






sS 




i 

c 

6 
2. 

1 


1 
CO 

6 


cc 




o"" 
d 


1 






-3 




British. 


Gaekwar. 


British. 


Gaekwar. 


British. 


Amrellee 


9^ 


32000 








]t\if'i 


) 
















®-;i 2 • « 








2 


/•N-S 




Ambulree 




ICO 








2^'| 












280 






5g|i5 








3 






Ambla 


Waste 








hi) 












80 






ce « «M .— 








1 

25 






Kcerala 




160 

81) 








4i.' 
























^ 




Sutnundhala Nana 




















135 
40 












2^ 

31 


s 

<5 




Kui 
Tur 


lee 




12(1 
120 








8' 










85 
200 














wura 








32 


« 




I'eola 




300 








SijO 












5)i0 












33 


c 




Deetulwudur .... 




200 








20i'> 












26.=» 






«-So6^r. 






* 


34 




Dliareejuganee .. 




60 








2611 












£6ii 






s-»««S 


** 


** 




3.i 
36 


? 




Mer 
La 11 


ee 




120 

160 








5!) 












35 
50 






.- 0) B 








palia 




38 


CO 




>umuadhiala .. .. 




320 








v>i.\ ] 












501 






3 ? g> («*••< 








52 
63 


5 

—V—' 




Jhur , 




24i» 
120 




















551 
225 














•lingoraloo 










22\i 






















15 






L)haree,asubPur.| 
gunna, embrac-l 
ins 20 Talookasf 
following :— J 


1 


2000 








bm 






' 
































































/•^ 




So? 








































5 






^1 


Ketra 




80 








30 


























6 


2 




bcf. 


Kobra ...... 




80 








mil 


























7 






.sS^ 


Katwaree . . 




80 


































8 






5o 


Keecha Nana 




120 








--^ 


























y 


:3 
3 ^ 




3 .ii 


Khumbalio . . 




160 








I'jij 


























10 




§£ 


leera 


1 120 








7n 


























n 


ss 




2''^ 


Jinkeealee .. 


1 160 








7 J 


























12 


^ c 




|.S 


Teekria .... 


I 80 








b'.\ 










** 






* 


*•• 


" 


'* 




13 
14 


1' 




SI 


Dbabalee.. . 
Dhulkanioo .. 


Wa 


«te 
160 








2:1 
51) 


























16 


<;i* 






Dharugnee.. 




240 








300 


























17 


ss 




^:h 


Peepraloo .. 




40 








2J 


























18 


Is 




r^ 


Menduwra .- 




200 








200 


























19 


sl 




^^ 


Mewassa ..*• 


Waste 1 








£3 


























20 


1 






Kureeoo ... 




40 








2.^ 


























21 




a> 00 


Veerpore 




200 








73 


























22 


«o 




2*0 


Surseeo .... 




800 








Soc:- 


























23 


ZA 




«i 


Seewur .... 




60 








35 


























24 


< 




r>ec 


Sirumbra.... 




400 








40 Cf 


























26 


'-V-' 




§2 


Holree 




40 








£u 




























/•.i^-^ 










































27 


^1 




^« 


Kuxneeghur .. 




160 








ire 






,^ 




















29 




ut 


Nagdhurte . . 




120 








son 








,^ 


,^ 


^ 


^^ 












30 






Chulalee . . . 


6 


2160 








1701 


*. 




, 


,, 


,, 






,, 


^^ 








37 


sj"; 




MankiaMhota 


1 


606 








%.13 






,^ 






^^ 


^^ 


^^ 












■§ • 








1 






























'" 




S'Z 




O '^ 






1 












1 1 




















3* 




Ti 


{ 






1 














I 



















'19 



Ao. ;/.) 



^ 



OF KATTEEAWAll. 



showing subsequent alterations and present number of Separate Jurisdictions. 



nr^nowdae 
Tributary. 



Gaekwar. 



The same converted from 
Ant or Soortee into Ah 
medabad Sicca Rupees. 



British. 






176 

::fii 

Jb3 



Gaekwar. 



1760 



-2 « 



CD fl S 






ll^ 



J 5 £ 5 

3 " =':« 



?? T = =« 
3 fcog a 

T5 « "^ 2 

&^i2 



4066 



193 
220 
1871 

G08 



S 2i 



6726 



2860 



193 
'220 
1871 

nofi 



Remarks* 



A.— Not iacluding waste villages. 



1 These Utalookas in Mr Blane's list have become 
Khalsee under Amrellee, and their tribute is only no- 
minally entered in the books, not having- been realized 
since they were written over. The sum total of these 
14 villages, Rs. 3267, must be considered as perman- 
ent d< dinlirm fvoin tlii> iiinontit of Gaekwar tribute. 
j The viUanes arc distributciJ iirnier different Tuppas, 
\v\z^ AuirellteiUhareejand Dhanturwur. 



N. B, These iTif cnty-one tit'ooka^ viz.— No. 5 to 24, 
and Ntv Hh have brc^tnae cunNi:>lii|[itedun<ier Amrellee, 
aiK^ are included iimlcr tho Diiarec Tuppa in the ac- 
counts^ the tTibutp of all these villaf^eg bei uncharged in 
one sum of Hs. 'iFJUO to Dharee, and added to that of 
lb« Amrellee taloolca. 



T.AUILAS SLMMARY OF THE AURLLLEE TALOOKA. 



KKr[*«irAr<« 



k'^LuBF { 



Amr*Uf« < 



= 






Zorhi) 
boo in A 


} 


TqUI. 












'■^ 


h 


BriiL^b, 


(iMckwtr. 






1 1 

1*0' 441K) IIM 






llijn p II 


1066 8 




I927r 


7 


11 


1 
1 


1 








S 2 








9000 
S41 

no 


3 


3 


2ir 


600^0 


I7y> 






.'.•iO« 


V 


lO-J'i 


" 




:-?32t 


" 


' 



50 



4) 
43 
44 
4.1 
4(j 
47 
4> 

Ab 

60 
51 

54 



vames ofTalookas 



Ghawurka 
Rangpur .. 
Khoree 



zi] 



Chawun 1 Tuppa 

Total Amrellee .. 

Rusnal "» 

Peoi)ul\va J 

Total under With- 
ulghur 



Jetpoor CliGetul.. 

In entiro proprie- 
torship 

In joint do with 
Joonaghur 

Total... 
Loharia 



TotalJetpor.. 



Uoelka.. 



Babra Chuiuardee 



Derrce Janbace...* 

nugusra 

Kotra Peetha 

Kanpor Eshwuria 

Kuner 

Kathrota 

Kheejria 

Qurumlee Mhotee 
Do. Nhauee.... 

Qudhia 

Churka 

Jhamka 

Dholurwa.. ., . 



72 



189 



IGO 
140 
100 

1520 
44180 

400 

300 



700 



4809i 
400 



48,492 



1962 



33b0 



.SCO 

74. ')2 
4200 
560 
IGO 
IGO 
I'JO 
200 
20(1 
120 
80( 
400 
2H 



Tribute as fixed, or sup- 
posed to have been fix- 
ed, by Col. Walker. 



British. 



642G4 



54,264 



5236 
S -^26 



Gaekwar. 



lOOUT 



Ant 
447 



447 



Ant. 
3544 



Ant. 
170 



Ant. 
25C?5 



Permanent Remissions 
or Corrections. 



17'iO 

.50 

uoo 



Gaekwar. 



3287 



447 



447 



2463 



Paid 
Remit 
1) 1750 



by 



" o 
to 



mrellc*. 
ia correctio 



Correctbala 
by each 



British. 



1750 . 



1750 



54264 . 



54264 



nof e I 



S136. 



51 



Dc#nowdiie 
TriouUry. 



Gaekwar. 



Ant. 



The «Ame con verted from 
Ant or Soortee into Ah- 
medabad Sicca Rupees. 



British. 



1750 



1750 



542G4 



54264 



Gaekwar. 



2944 



SlOO 



2J5S . 



ITI 



5236 
248 



1308 



210 
56 
56 
311 
209 
1&8 
542 
200 
111 



04- <u 3 

sSgo 

o "* C^o 
© 5 rt OJ 



496G 



Sh.h 



a o , 



|J. 



< to 



3499 



3499 



600 



1G66 
786 
126 



19273 



57763 



57763 



1908 



4780 

60J2 

374 

210 

56 

56 

237 

203 

211 

583 

200 

136 



( Villagres obtained from Bectkha by an arrangement 
t effected by mutual consent, in August 1830. 

{ Formerly under Babra, retained by Amrellee by an 
-Jarrangemont sanctioned in St. 1878, a. d. 1821-22. Vide 
(Govt. Letter, No. 1206, 20th October, 1823. 

These villages were obtained from the Babra Eatteei 
by Babojee Appojee in S. 1862. a. d. 18Ua-6, and are 
now under his grandson Bhasker Rao Wittul. — See 
Withulghur, No. 40, in Jhalawar. 

B. Total villages held (Mujmoo) in joint tenur 
with Joonaghur are 105, of which 66 are here esti- 
mated from the proprietary rights over these being 
somewhat more than those of the Nuwab ; for like rea- 
sons vice versa 39 of these villages are included un- 
der the Joonaghur Talooka, 5 waste villages in which 
Jetpor claims part proprietorship not included la the 
1 list. 

No proof existing of the Gaekwar claim to tribute 
on this village beyond a nominal entry in the record*, 
it is struck off as Permanent Remission, the village 
having always belonged to Jetpor, whiohis tributary 
onl; to the British Government. 



( This remission was made on an arrangement effected 
in S. 1886, the same being paid by Amrellee, as above 
(A. D. 1829-30) shewn, in lieu of the villages for- 
merly under the Beetkha proprietors, but assumed 
bythe Gaekwar manager. 
C— Not including 4 waste villages, viz. Chorwaree, 
Thoombalaoo, Lotka, and Gherioo. 



The whole tribute was remitted on an arrangement 

effected in S. 1878, a.i>. 1821-22, and transferred, as 

above shewn, to Amrellee in lieu of the villages 

taken possession of by it. 50 was struck off the a- 

I mount of British tribute. 

D. — The Remission being: made good by Amrellee 
is only notninal, and is not, therefore, included in the 
grand total of remissions. The same remark applies to 
1750 out of 1800 Rupees marked as remiasiou oppo- 
site the Babra Talooka : these sums having been en- 
tered opposite the villages transferred to Amrellee. 
The remaining 50 Rupees is remitted. — See G. L. 
i6th November 1840, as a correction of an error, and, 
therefore, included in the sum total of Permanent 
Remissions. 
• Belonging to an independent Charon. 

E.— Not including one waste village, viz. Kuntasra. 

{By arrangement in A. D. 1838, S. 1894, the Kattee 
Grassias own ten annas share, and the Joonaghur 
Bhayad (Babee Oomur Khan) sixanuas. 



52 



55 
56 
58 



60 
61 
62 



65 
66 
67 
68 
69 
70 

71 
72 
73 



Names of Talookas. 



Bhulgar, ... 
Manawoo ... 
Lakhapadur, 



<«} 



26 



o u 



■g, 08 rMonwel... 
a « o iRavvunee , 
•rt^^Vekria .... 
B Qj^Loongia .. . 



Waguree 
Silana.. . 
Halria .. 

Jusdhun 



SB'S o~;f2 

1 2 §•■?!': 

ti*- P.U gn 

0.2 .'a ?<< 



Kothee .... 
Koondnee 
Kunesra . . 

Mindljooka 
Vuijsi Tee- 
ruE ,„, 

SC'i'ijlirjCi,,,*,. 
HiirmtiTjthia, 
Aueealee .. ., 



Total Jhusdun.. 



160 
120 
160 



53 



Tribute as fixed, or sup- 
posed to have been fixed, 
by Colonel Walker. 



British. 



S 200 



500 
100 
240 
460 



120 
300 
800 



t052O 



tot) 
4 in 

3Q0 
16560 



3611 



493 

435 

S 6' 

576 

2101 

290 

110 

3 151 



8113 



Gaekwar. 



Permanent Remis- 
sions or Correc- 
tions. 



§1 






3 146 
3 151 



Ant. 
1001 



S J33 

s ino 
S 100 



British. 



Gaekwar 



Correct 
now due 
each Tri- 



British. 



200 



3611 



493 
435 
61 
576 
2101 

290 
110 
151 
285 

8113 



53 



►cury. 



The same converted 
from Ant or Soor- 
lee into Ahinedabad 
Sicca Rupees. 



British. 



I I 



493 
435 
67 
5-6 

190 

no 

166 
^lt4 



Gaekwar. 



2645 



I 



S2 

2728 



-MOW 

if:. 



5 >.« 



283 
185 
192 



1201 



167 
151 
151 



625G 



493 

435 

G7 

576 

2101 

200 

no 

248 
2h5 

10862 



Temporary Remis- 
sions urantcd in 
Sumviit 1897, A. D. 
1840.41. 



British. 



Gaekwar. 



1201 



Tiiiii Talooka originally consisted of 15 
villages under the name of the Wagnia 
Tuppa, was abandoned by its population 
owins: to Ranig Walas goinj? out into 
rebellion in 18(J8 S„ a. d. 1811-12. He 
died in the famine year of S 1869, a. d. 
1812^13. His son Bawa Walla being re- 
quired to give security, wrote over in 
8. 1871, A.D. 1814-15, the villages of 
Wagnia to Jetpor to induce the chiefs 
to become security for them, but im- 
mediately went out in Bharwatya, 
feeling sore at the loss of his chief 
village. The Talooka remained uncul- 
tivated until S. 1877, a. d. 1(«20.2I, 
when Bawa Wala came in and peopled 
2 or 3 villages, residing himself in 
WeesawuJdur in S. 1880, a. n. 1823-24. 
He was killed by the recent Bharwatty as 
Hursoor Walla and Blioja Mr.ngaree. 
The Talooka under Ranig Wala had 
divers claims on it of Jhoonaghur, 
Jetpor, and other Kattees, and the 
arrangemeut with him by which the 
amount of tribute was fixed seems to 
have been made without any reference to 
such claims on his death. Each person 
seized his own, and the Talooka is now- 
distributed between a variety of persons, 
which has prevented the realization of 
tribute. From the ditficulty of fixing the 
responsibility on any one, and from most 
of the villages being depopulated, until 
final arrangements be made, tribute has 
been claimed from the existing proprie- 
tors in proportion to the capabilities of 
the several villages. 
Decided to be under Halria in the year 
A.D. 1831-32, Sumvat l88S. 

(By the able management of the present 
chief and his father, the law of primo- 
geniture has been in a measure esta- 
blished in the Talooka, although it 
will probably terminate with Chela 
Wajsoor's death. 



TABULAR SUMMARY OF THE JUSDHUN 
TALOOKA. 



Kattwr. T.hLi]. J 
»H dln.^it in-. , 
thii LUt ) 

Patn% Mntidi, j 
in Goht-L«nr k 



> 


-i 




s 


Hrit. 


r;«»b. 






* 






1^3 


ii;,^flo 


iyj| 








rra? 


1 


l-Mt 




1 


m 


,U 




.'>4 


l«(5«0 


S134 


sc- 


iSl 


t 


27:-^ 



54 





c 


i 




® 










tfl 


o 




^ 


■o 




so 


J; 




V 


a 




a 






t» 


o 










PQ 


2 




u 


rt 




S 






d 


CO 


S 


o 




el 


;z; 


Z 


s 


74 


27 


3 




28 


3 


75 


29 


3 


70 


30 


3 


77 


31 


3 


78 


33 


3 


79 


33 


3 


80 


34 


3 


81 


35 


3 


82 


36 


3 


83 


37 


3 


84 


38 


3 


85 


39 


3 


86 


40 


3 


87 






88 


41 


3 


89 






90 






91 






92 






93 






94 






95 








42 


3 



Names oi 



Bhndlee.. , *. «•< *,*. 
Doduot under AU* 

modnhad ^^ w* *, ,, ** 
Balmico under this 

Ag^oiicy .. « 

Sumundliia^ik .....*... 
Kurri^rLtJii ^ *, 

Anutnipoor .. .. M. *, ,+ 

ChotCela ..*.,* .mm, t,. 

Ttit'^krjaloo bud-. *. 
Kliumbala *m .. , ,**. 

r^Jifld .„,m #. ,., d* .. *. 

Bliecmora .... ,.,, .. 
BamiLm!jor . .. *m . ., 
MehwasisEt . . ** .P *«.. 
M^triL Tiniba *.**.... 
Siiiio^rn.t . *. *m ■■,,.. ^. 
Eitriu Ciudliak -..»,. 
ClLr^l^urte .. *.. ,M m, . . 

KuhLsiir,.., 

Nctlwra ,„,..,, .*,, 

Atkot ...,* 

RliNdla *..**.*,.. w*. 
Di'tEiict uiviler Ahmc* 

dllb^lCl ., ,„^mm-. .m^^.* 

Ba.\u.7i£% under this 

Ajjcucy „ ,, ». 

Sao untti alee. ■ m^ *. 

Burwab ».** ■> ,.,.«. 

Sumnmcidhisilji ,,,.ir 

PdnchaDra --< 

Ujmer mm^..* 

Total under Niiggur, . 

/'Kumuudllia *,.... *. 

I. IpYaorfic », .. *- .* ,* +. 

Toiai unik'if Mec:r Su- 

ruf K»:£ul«e., ,... . 



IS 



37 



12 



5 



G 9 



[ » 
31* 



1 














O 










9 












'S 


' 


3 


Triljutc A% fi-vcd, or 3U[i- 

[^oHifil to kiavc beL'n fix- 

td, by Col. Walker. 


permanent ElemiftSiDns 
or Corrections. 




Correct tiSj 


^ 










o 






M 




&I 






-« J^ 




fd 






^o 














rt 










fes 




E 




























t4 


British, 


GatkwaT* 


BritUh, 


Gaekwar. 


-<! 


Britisb. 




Slog] 
























.. 


lOSl 






1 

1 
































1300 


.. 






• » 
















, 




.. 




.. 


30^4 


S b3.^ 


























e3r> 






31-Hl 


S 702 


























70'J 






1140 


^,f:i 


























253 






110 








'■ 






.„ 






" 






" 


" 






IJNO 


3 !ifti 


























554 






AlOO 


v:u 






" 






' 






♦ . 






" 


97 a 






\'2m 


S 201 
























.. 


301 






121? 


s r& 


















^.. 








7.1 






4U0 


S 43' 






,^ 












,m 








ial 






20f^ 


s »aii 






, 




















a*-! 




' 


200 


S iBi; 






^ 




















I.'v;^ 






Hm 


9 3S^- 






^^ 












„ 








3y7 






no 


!S litl 






, 




















151 






lOrj 


^ 201 


























201 






40l> 


!a 501 


A 




'■ 






■■ 






" 






- 


aoi 


s 




ici- 


2141J 






■' 






J 






,, 






■ 


ana 

I62G 






332ft 


























Gon. 


\ 






hMu 


I'tTT 












337 












Letter^ 


JllOO 






























AU&H IG, 


i 
























1 






IB31* 








eo£> 


)003 






- 






■' 






" 






" 


1093 






SflD 


C-Jij 






- 






- 






- 






" 


m 






500 


277 






, 




















271 






372 


175 












" 






-- 






... 


175 






yii3L; 


711S 




^ 


- 




'* 


377 


•■ 










" 


7011 




" 


4(10 


'■ 
























-- 






- 


1130 


t. 






,, 


















,, 


.. 






500 



































55 



iMnow due 
Tnbutaij 



Gaekwar. 



The same converted 

from Ant or Soortec 

into Ahmedabad 

Sicca Rupees. 



British. 



2149 



620 



Gaekwpr. 



3 CO •£ .a 

>5 «8 <] 05 



i.a Q fl 9 






276 



375 



g.2S 

O U 3 ., 



Temporary Rerais- 
siuus granted ii 
Sumvut 1897, ^' o. 
1840-tI. 



1249 
993 



780 

I30y 



27G 

603 
391 
25 "1 
681 
213 
248 
717 



2149 
1C26 



1475 



10&3 



277 
192 



British. 



Gaekwar 



Remark*. 



iln consequence of the death of Bhan 

j Khachur without heirs in a. d. 1849, 

I this Talooka is claimed by his colla- 

' teral relatives of the Kurreeana, 

\ Sheka Khumbala Etria Ghudhala 

I Talookas, and of Goondala (a Bhao- 

\ nuggur village). 

Belonging to an independent Charon. 

{Originally belonging to Choteela, but 
since the year 8. 1868, a. d. 1811-12. 
under Goolam Hoosun Bucliabhaee 
Jemadar.— See Meshria, No. 38, in 
Jhalawar. 

P.— Not including one waste village, 

Sukpur. 
G.— do. do. 2 do., viz. Tuptee and 

Khakrioo. 



H.— do. do. 4 do., Bheeraoreee, Keraloo, 

Malgut, and Belra. 
I— dodo. 2 do., Bhaamuttee and "Vfudal. 



{This village is under No. 80, and its 
other village of Kherdee is under 
No. 77. 

A.D. y 

1763-64 \ 

S.1820 



1790-91 
S. 1847 



A. D. 

1804-5 
3. 1861 



A. P. 

17^3-94, 
S. 1850 



A.n. 

1798-99 
S. \H')b 



Under Noanuggur, The Jam's 
encroachments on these vil. 
lages commenced so far back 
as S. 1820, A.u. 1763-64, as 
shown in the margin. The 
original proprietors appear to 
have set themselves up as such 
on the general settlement of 
the country in 8. 1864, a. d. 
1807-8, but the Jam's rights 
from long usago havo been 
confirmed. 



A.D. 

1788-99 

S. 1856 

A. D. 

1790-91 I 
S. 1847.' 

/-A village formerly under Santhlcc. 
) but iu possession of Mocr Suruf , Ra- 
\ Eulee of Baroda, and as such consti- 
( tuting a separate jurisdiction. 
/-Originally belonging to Joonaghur, 
I but since the year St. 18-^4, a. n. 
) \!>2l--2H, under Mecr Surufraz Alen 
( of Baroda. 



66 



^ 






s 






















_Bj 


*« 




mi 








s 




O 






a 


4? 
















Pi 


« 




S 






a 


a 


^ 




c 

55 










&G 


43 


3 


&? 


41 


3 


!Jn 


4j 


3 


S»y 


iii 


a 


I Oil 


il 


3 


101/ 


4 'J 


y 
3 


lUS 


4:f 


o 


IQ3 


60 




la^ 








S] 


3 




.^2 


a 




53 


3 




;ij 


3 




5^ 


3 




4; 






8 




TdIiI 


55 





Noiiiicii of Talookas. 



BecJree . 



Deduct uDder Ahmft- 



Agf'ucj^ 

gDod^imra ,, «» «» ,^ , 

K-iLtii^iird4,4*f*»>.H - 



Liukiitroo.. .. * 
GcugnEiuruii., 



Akrla. 



Urjuiiiook , 



Wccchawur * 



Kooba^ . 



Hail till ia.* 



Paving Tribute* 
NJt do , 



Grand TuUl K&ttfe- 



7232 
'J SCO 



2uo 



200 

CO 



I GO 



240 



Sio t^ijsio 



Tribute as filled, or sup- 
by Culoiik^l Walker, 



BrUleh, 



81 



3 12fi 



si33GJ 



G^okwar. 



a, Si^i 









Britlahp 



Ga«kwaf. 



Correct bil 



Bntiak. 



1133; 



Ills 
SI 



J 26 



4ii7 



sT^, e 



57 



nee now 
T&iookA. 



G&ekwar. 



The same converted from 
Ant or Boorteeiuto Ah. 
medabad Sicca Rupees 



375 

527 



British. 



1123 



144f 
6^3 



82C 



138 
67 



88671 



Gaekwar. 



412 
'579 









o"SP 



9 Co a 
^ - t« « 

2SSS 



501 
251 



E O e 



ss: 

« 9l 



* a c« 



1949 
934 



412 



166 
67 



13[ 4 1 216.S0 



2 10 18296 



126616 



Temporary Remis- 
sions granted in St. 
Ib97, A. D. 1840-41. 



British. 



Gaekwar. 



Rkbcarks. 



This village, originally a Charuu'i* 
but under Samunthlee, was obtained 
by Bucha Jumadar in S. 1868. Sett 
Meshria, No. 38, in Jbalawar. 



fJeewabhaee Dessabhaee obtained pos- 
session of nearly all the Dhussa Ta- 
lookain S. 186S, ad. 1811-12, but by 
an arrangement sanctioned, Goyern- 
nient letters. No. 1620, 3lst Aug. 1837, 
and No. 703, isth April 1838. the Kat- 
tees received the three small villages 
and a Patee in Dhussa— the Dessaee 
retaining Dhussa, and being responsi- 
for the tribute; this proprietor has also 
Raee Sanklee iu Jalawar, and Dhussa is 
not therefore marked as a separate ju- 
risdiction. 

Under "Wudwan, by whom the tribute 
is paid, under an arran^reraent sanc- 
tioned by Government letter. No. 328, 
8th February, 1812. 
Originally belonging to an independent 
Kattee, but since the year S. 1863, 
A. D. 1S06-7, under Gopal Kao Meral of 
Barcda. 
In S. 1864. A. D. ISO7-S, this village 
being at the time waste, was given by 
Katiee lloorsur to Gowreedass Tri- 
kumdas, who re-pcopled it in 8. 1865, 
A. D. l»08-9. 

This villajre was purchased from the 
lato Nawab Buchadur Khanj^e ofJoo- 
naghur, by Brijdass Rungildas in P. 
1S9I, A. D. 1834 35. 

Belonging to an independent Syud, 
Daood Meyan. 

Do. do. do., Ureez Meyan. 



1201 3 2 






58 



No. 4 PRANT OR DI 

Table of Talookas as per Colonel Walker's Permanent Settlement, 
N. B.— No Permanent Remissions or Corrections exist for this 



S 

d' 

lO 
11 

12 
13 
14 
15 
16 



rTames of Tal tjoka&» 


Nuwanuggur .# .,. ,,.., 


>,>v-* 4c ' 


_fl — r-r ^ a 






J or] a Bahim* 
bha ,. ., 




S- s =t^ 




:-";N 




:3"^ ^^ S 




-^^9, " . 






Elur^epna *., 


i» 2 .in ^ ^- * 


Qharookia... 


a 5 :- 3? C C 






^ '^ - & * 




irt^*7rrt^ 






Amrun... '■■ 


i 1 c ? ^' B 




Total Nuwanuggur h „ 


Prapl^a.". 





Vserpur ■ 

K.urcdee., **... ** 

Mooleraderee .►♦♦»,. 
Satadur wao¥ec.,.» 
Se^aang Chandler,. 

Gondtil Dhorajee*.. 

Ko'ra Sanganee ,..» 
Hhadwa. .♦,«....» 
Rajpurra....* .*** 



u o 
0-3 

li 



494 



■22 



S 



1 

k 15 

540 



17 

3 
1 

4 
5 
2 

166 
8 

20 
3 
5 



I93OO0 
8260 

2720 

200 
3500 



207680 



4000 
60 

800 
1200 
2000 

600 

84700 

1600 

8000 

300 

1200 



Tribute as per Permanent 
Settlement. 



British. Gaekwar. 



47259 



47259 



4001 
1799 
1891 
138U 

1583 

777 

53005 
3684 

11000 
1506 
3956 



45750 

Ant. 
11607 



Ant. 
562: 



Ant. 
152 

Ant. 
2404 



65540 



The same calcalated in 
Ahmedabad Sicca Rupees. 



British. 



47259 



Ant. 
62000 



47259 



4001 

i: 

1891 
1380 
1583 

777 

53005 
3684 

11000 
1506 
3956 



Gaekwar. 



53800 
13928 

6752 

182 

2884 



77547 



11 



74400 



59 



VISION OF HALLAR. 

shewing subsequent alterations and present number of Separate Jurisdictions. 
Prant, the column for that heading is consequently omitted. 



^ -O O » -'- 




o ©^ 


= s 






^ C3 . 


■o S 






« «- « 


.^ £i 






the Nawa 
B coosolid 
curreocies 
cca Rupee 


5< 






*.S 


S-rtS 




Remarks. 


^Jfo- 


«^8 






mi 


ill 






ortu 
Joe 
froi 
Ah 


ill 






N 1 


H 






1 












rbbOO Rupees of the Tribute due to the Gaekwar being orij?inally 


4869 




... 


105928 






1 taken, Khurajat babut, the Ant exchange is not calculated thereon. 










' * 


J the same being: paid in Ahmedabad sicca : on the remainder, which 














I. was the amount of the original Tribute, exchange is calculated. 


... 






13928 


6 


4 
















^ ^ 


TABULAR SUMMARY OP THE NUWANUQGUR TALOOEA. 




1 
































Z<irtiil:ati«* 




... 


... 




6752 


6 


5 


rr*n(i. 


1 






l»d UlipM*. 


t«t«J, 
























>_ 


t 


BHiriii. 


0>^^w^. 








H^J.T lr,rd. u |})Q«ia ib 


S44 


JnTitfu 




1 


J7iiJ 


U 1 


*fl«f 






••. 


... 


... 


182 


6 


5 


KallMin™:, rid a |bk| Pi*B(... 


19 


ivsi 


:tm 


9 


375 


l3ff5T.' 


II 11 

* Q 

1 




... 


•• 


2884 


12 


9 




JIS 


n6Tii|Kai7 


V 


TT*4r 


U L 


^1 ^'*^ 


..ri„ 




... 


A.— Not including waste Tillages. 




4869 


... 




129675 


15 


11 
















Temporary Remissions 
















granted in St. 1897, 










5259 






A.u. 1840.41. 




1268 








j 765 












British. 


Gaekwar. 




"' 


z 


4443 
1569 


8 


Z 






Originally of the Nuwanuggur Bhaysd. 


189 


36~ 








.. ,.. 




498 


.. 




2081 


... 


















244 


8 


... 


1021 


8 


... 




... 










Originally Gondul Bhayad. 


656 


8 


... 


12S061 


8 


... 


•• 












Do. Rajkote do. 


••• 




... 


3684 


... 


... 














Do. Gondul do. 


1258 




... 


12258 


.. 










... 






Do. Do. do. 


440 


,. 


... 


1945 


... 
















Do. Kotra Sangaoee do. 


315 






4270 






1355 












Do. do. do. 




1724 




•• 


~\~ 





60 





^ 












*s 






J^ 




•J 


•s 




-1 


1 




V 






§ 


"S 




:q 


«s 
















i* 






a 


6 


1 


.^ 


^ 


u 


- 




' — 


17 


12 


2 


18 


13 




19 


14 




20 


15 




2i 


10 




22 


17 


3 


23 


IS 




24 


19 




25 


5^(1 




26 


21 




27 


o2 




28 


(23 


^) 


29 


) 


c 


30 


24 


3 


31 


25 


3 


32 


26 


3 



Names of Talookas. 



Rajkot Sirdhar 

Goureedur 

Kotliaria 

Lodheeka 

Pal 

tiutka 

Wu.ialoc , 

Veerwao , 

Shnpor , 

Kaiik^eealee.., 
Muwa , 

Dhurol 

Surupdur. 



Kheerusra.. 



Jalllia Dewanee. 



Kotra Nayajee.. 

Grand Total, 
HaUar 



d 




« 




S) 





s «« 


•^ 


^•s 


^ 


>- 


Q* 


Ort 





«H 


P4 


a 


•a 


n 


1 


•s 




d 


H 


55 




20000 


() 


1000 


r. 


600 


11 


1601' 


( 


320 





l80(' 


1 


30U 


1 


200 


4 


80Li 


1 


60 


1 


40 


X 36 


10000 


B 20 


4000 


14 


4000 


D 10 


1300 


1 


400 


942 


358560 



Tribute as per Permanent 
Settlement. 




The fame calculated in 
Ahmedabad Sicca Ropeei 


. 


British. 


Gaekwar 


British. 


Gaekwar. 


2051 »3 

101;2 

1024 

139U 

135;s 

604 

260 

161 

501 

9; 

130 

2554 
••• 


8 


... 


A 
A 



< 

A 


nt. 
5346 
nt. 
1359 

Ant. 
2700 

nt. 
551 


... 


!!. 


20503 

1092 

1024 

1390 

1353 

694 

266 

161 

601 

91 

130 

••• 

2554 


*•• 

••* 

8 


.•• 


• •• 

6415 
6230 

••• 

3240 
661 


3 
12 

3 
1 


2 

11 

2 


161598 


14C 


)496 


161598 


167495 


2 



61 



Sc o « «J 
c * 5 2- 



: — 2 o» 
: • « « 



2515 


^' 


658 


V. 


32-J 


... 


437 




4-Jo 


8 


•Jl.s 


... 


84 




47 


8 


157 


8 


29 




41 


8 


733 


8 


377 


8 


••• 


•• 


167 


... 


16085 


... 



J^2 






o o "5 

CS C e« 



23018 


8 


1750 


8 


134G 




1827 


... 


1778 


8 


912 


... 


350 


... 


208 


8 


Qb^ 


8 


120 




171 


8 


12379 


8 


2931 


8 


3240 




818 


3 


346778 


11 



Temporary Remissions prant* 

ed in Sumvutl897, a.d. 

1840-41. 



British. 



Gaekwar. 



554 



2278 



909 



2340 



3249 



Originally of the Nuwanuggur. Bbayad 



Do. 



Rajkot 



Do 


Kg th aria 


do. 


Do. 


Rajkot 


do. 


Do. 


Shapor 


do. 



) Both under the Dhnrol chief, though the Surup- 
/ dor Fur^'unna, beinsr under a guaranteed 
( farm, cou&tiiutcS a temporary separate juris- 
j diction. 

A.— Not including two waste villages, viz. Peepur 

Tora and Majut. 
B.— Do. three do. Puchrioo, Galo- 

lioo, and Gowalioo, and their laud is culivated 

by Surupdur. 



C— The chief holds a purwanafrom the Gaekwar 
1 limiting the tribute to 2000 R«.. but he has never 
\ yet been able to pay even this much. 
/D.— The villages of Golunia and Babra, now 
I under the Jam of Nuprgur, and a waste village, 
f viz Sunosra, are not included in the list. 



These three Talookas originally of the Dhurol 
Bhayad. 



62 

PRANT OR Dl 

Table of Talookas as per Colonel Walker's Permanent Settlement/ 
N. B. — No Temporary Remissions exist for this Prant, 



Names of Talookas. 



Joonaghur.. 



In joint Proprietor- 
ship with Jetpor 



Total. 



Koreenar.. 



Bantwa.. 



Umrapur 

Grand Total, Soruth., 



1 




1 
SI 


1 

1 

•2 




s 

H 


o 




606 




|39 




645 


284300 


B 




65 


15520 


C 
54 


20000 


2 
666 


1000 


320820 



Tribute as fixed by Colonel 
Walker. 



British. 



3065i 



32002 



552 



63209 



Gaekwar. 



Ant 
45000 



45000!. 



FermaneDt Remissions or 
Corrections. 



British. 



Gaekwar. 



A 

8000 



8000 



63 

VISION OFSORUTH. 

^tiliowing subsequent alterations and present No. of Separate Jurisdictions, 
the column for that heading is consequently omitted. 



Correct Balance now due by 
each Tributary. 



British. 



30655 



32002 .. 



652 



63209 



Gaekwar. 



37000 



8000 



45000 



The same converted from 

Ant into Ahmedabad Sicca 

Rupees. 



British. 



30655 



32002 
552 



63209 



Gaekwar. 



44400 



9600 



54000 



>^B 



fi (d S 

E 2 3 



a 



75055 .. 



9600 

32002 
652 



117209 



Remarks. 



( The cession was effected during the 

paramount sovereinty of the Gaelc- 

I war in this province, and no authority 

I is to be traced in the records of the 
present Political Agency. 
A.— This is a Remission to Jonna- 
"{ ghur on account of its district of i».o- 

ireeii ; ceded to the Gaekwar in Sum- 
vut 1868, A. D. 1811-12, but being made 
good by the Amrellee muhal, to which 
I it belongs, is only a nominal Remis- 
I sion, and not therefore included ia the 
(^sum Total of Remissions. 



C B.— Not including^ waste villages, the 
-^number of which is disputed, as also 
(the proprietorship of several. 



r Originally of the Joonaghur Bhayad. 
I C— Not including one wa«te village, 
L viz. Doongree. 



Oti 



PR ANT OR DIVISION 

Table of Talookas as per Colonel Walker's Permanent Settlement, showing 
N. B. No Permanent Remissions or Corrections exist for this 



Names of Talookas. 



Bhaomiggur 

Deduct under Ah- 

raedabad 

Balance under this 

Agency 

Ru tun pur Dha- 

munka 

Deduct under Ah 

medabad 

Balance under this 

Agency 

Wula 

Deduct under Ah- 

medabad 

Balance under this 

Agency 

Chumardee 

Deduct under Ah- 

medabad 

Balance under this 

Agency 

Tora 

Katoria 

Panchoura .« 

VVaoree Wachanee.. 

Sonpuree 

Puchegem 

Deduct under Ah- 

medabad 

Balance under this 

Agency 



o 




SB 




O 




a 




it 




(S 


fi 






^ O 


3 


O rt 


O. 


H 


o 


06 '^ 

a 


fH 


o 








o 


'3 


o 

V. 


W 


753 




223 




530 


207900 


4 




1 




3 


600 


38 




6 




32 


7200 


2 




1 




1 


200 


4 


300 


1 


100 


1 


100 


3 


320 


1 


160 


6 




3 




^ 


1600 



Tribute as fixed by Colo- 
nel Walker. 



I Ste. 
74500 



Gaekwar. 



Ant. 
762 



Ant. 
7132 



Ant. 

77 



Ant 

300 
A. 190 
A. 20" 
A. 302 
A. 511 
A2157 



The same converted from Ant 

or Soortee into Ahmedabad 

Sicca Rupees. 



British. 



81950 



Gaekwar. 



914 



8558 



932 



360 
23 
248 
362 
613 
2588 



';: 



OF G O H E L W A 11 . 

subseciuent alterations and present Number of Separate Jurisdictions. 
Praiit, the column for that heading is consequently omitted. 



!-3 



24557 



1G5', 



2o35 . 



100. 



60 . 
3<' ., 

5<> ., 
733 . 



'I 
a 



u 4 






c ;! 


D 


1 




























Sj Hemakks. 


♦.•5 0. 


P - 




lis 






* 2.H 


£ 3 






II 




H'--^ 


... 
















TABULAR SUMMARY OF THE DHAONUGGUR TALOOKaI 






Tribute in Aliniedabad 






















1 Rupees. 


















PranU. 


& 


■S 1 


Zortulubec 
in Alimeda- 






ToUl. 
















~ 


t ' 


bad Rupees. 




106507 


8 


... 




... 






^ 


1 1 British. 


Gaekwar 








Oohelwar Total, m shown in) 
thia List ] 


530 


207900 81950 


... 






24557 e 




106507 


8 




Oond Surweya Total. Vide 




















thatPraut ^ 


6 


IO80' 


1513 


9 




... 


... 




1518 9 


r 














OauUi io Babriawar 





1160 

1 


ISlil 


1 


7 


... 






1S21 1 

1 


X 


















Grand Total of Bhaonnggur 


641'! 210140 gl950 ...j... 


2^4 


11 


1.| 2455r| 8,... 


109342 8 2 


A— This tribute was transferred by the Gaekwar to the Hri'ish Go- 














vernment iu payment of a subsidised force by Article V . of treaty 














dated 21st April I8J5, andis in consequence borne on the agency 














accounts under the head of subsidy. 


1079 


6 


5 





... 






11093 





5 





... 


... 


Originally Bhaonnggur Bhayad. 


1032 


6 


5 




... 






420 














2(56 


S 


2 




... 


... 


Do. Waoree Wachanee ditto. 


288 


6 


5 




... 


... 




422 


6 


5 







... 




663 


3 


2 


211 


"3 


2 




3321 


6 


5 








Do. Bhaonuggur dit 


0. 























(Jli 



PR ANT OR DIVISION 

Table of Talookas ns per Colonel Walker's Permanent Settlement, showing 
N. B. No Permanent Remissions or Corrections exist for this 



Names of Talookas. 



Bhaomiggur 

Deduct under Ah- 

medabad 

Balance under this 

Agency 



Rutunpur Dha- 

munka 

Deduct under Ah- 

medabad 

Balance under this 

Agency 

Wula 

Deduct under Ah- 

medabad 

Balance^ uuder this 

Aq-cijcy .«....«,«„, 

Chuinaidee 

Deduct mider Ali- 

medabad.*. »♦», 

Balance under this 

Agency 

Toni ,.. 

Kaioria * *.,... 

Patichoura ,^>... ..*.*« 
Waoree Wachauec.H 

Soupureo .».*4 

Puciieg^rn * .*. 

Deduct under Ah- 

medabad i. 

Balance under thb 

A 



o 




CS 




<V 




a 




« 




<u 




ta 




a 


a 




.2 


fc, o 


3 




a. 


H 


o 


a 


Ph 


^ 
^ 


a> 




B 


o 


U3 


o 


U 


753 




223 




530 


207900 


4 




1 




3 


600 


38 




G 




a2 


7200 


] 




] 


200 


4 


300 


] 


100 


J 


lOU 


;^ 


320 


1 


100 


G 




:^ 




u 


[mA 



Tribute as fixed by Colo- 
nel Walker. 



The same converted from Ant 

or Soortee into Ahmedabad 

Sicca Rupees. 



British. 



L Ste. 
74500 




Gaekvvar. 



Ant 
7G2 



Ant, 
7132 



Ant. 

77: 



Ant. 
300 
A. 190 
A. 207 
A. 302 
A. 511 
A2157 



British. 



81950 



Gaekwar. 



914 



8558 



93t 



3G0 
23 
248 
3G2 
613 
2588 



j;7 



OF G O H E L W A 11 . 

subsequent alterations and present Number of Separate Jurisdictions. 
Prant, the column for that heading is consequently omitted. 



-5-3 


o « 


_o 




ecu 


3-0 






§UX 


"^1 


T3 




"> > -a 


>.° 


"n "* 




o=i 


'^< 


2s 




^£■5 


m O 


»S 




< «_ C) 


« ^ 






|ji 


s: 


la i 


lis 


O ID 


11 


Kemarks. 


= = 
llll 


2 « 

ill 
111 


11 






















TABULAR SUMMARY OF THE BHAOyUGGUR TALOOKaJ 








1 Tribute in ^hmedabad 




























Rupees. 
























Prants. 


M 


'5 1 


Zortulubee 
in Ahmeda- 








Total. 
























1 1 




bad Rupoei. 






8 




10G507 


8 












^ 


o ' British. 
207900 81950 


Gaekw" 








24557 


Gohelwar Total, a* shown in) 
thl;, List f 


530 








24557 


8 ... 


106507 


8 






















Oond Surwtya Total. Vide 




1 












1 


























that Pram , 


6 


lOfio' ... 


...'... 


1515 


9 


7 


... 


...'... 


151S 


9 


7 




















Ganla in Babriawar 





1160 




1321 


































Grand Total of Bhaonuggur 


611' 


210140 61950 


... 


2834 


'1 


- 


24557 


8 ... 


109342 


S 


2 




A— This tribute was transferred by the Gaekwar to the British Go- 




















vernment in payment of a subsidised force by Article V . of treaty 




















dated 21st April I8J5, andis in consequence borne on the agency 




















accounts under the head of subsidy. 


1G5 






1079 


6 


5 










2535 


... 




11093 





5 




... 


... 


Originally Bhaonuggur Bhayad. 


100 




... 


1032 


6 


5 




... 


... 




60 






420 














3^) 


... 


,„ 


2(55 


S 


2 




... 




Do. Waoree Wachanee ditto. 


40 


... 


... 


288 


6 


5 




... 


... 




60 


,. 




422 


6 


5 


.•• • • 




... 




50 


... 




66'S 


3 


2 


211 


'*3 


2 




733 






3321 


6 


5 








Do. Bhaonuggur ditt 


0. 























68 






11 
12 
13 
14 
15 

16 



19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 

26 



J8 

•29: 



30. 
31 



17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 

24 



25 
26 



Nam«8 of Talooltas. 



Chitrawao .. 

Ramuuka 

VVurod 

Ulumpur 

Dhola 

Lathee 

Deduct under Ah 

medabad 

Balance under thii 

Agency 

Rajpeepla 

Veerrce 

Latheo Total 

Gudhalec 

Gudhoola 

Dcdukree 

Kheejrico 

liochurwa 

Bhojawudur 

Sumundhiala and 

Chubaria 

Leemra 

Deduct under 
Ahmedabad.. .. 

Balance under this 
Agency 

Waoree 

Wagdra 

Palee Tana 



Kheejrioo the 

H-Sf) 2d 

'i g-/Patna Maljcc. 



^ o . 

iirand Total 
hclwar 



Go 






10 



4 
1 
1 
A 

82 



G9I) 



e 
o 

t 
-a 
a 
1 

200 
240 
320 
400 
160 

4000 
200 
200 

4400 

800 
160 
200 
200 
140 
400 

720 

1200 
800 
160 

18560 

240 

300 


Tribute as fixed by Colo- 
nel Walker. 




British. 


Gaekwar. 


74500 


... 


... 


499 
583 
955 
1254 
330 

a Horse 

525 
351 
876 

1726 
171 
280 
387 
253 
418 

1922 
949 

1038 

80 

8001 

20) 
401 

32G69 


8 
*8 


•• 


2479S0 





The same converted from Ant 

or Soortee into Ahmedabad 

Bicca Rupees. 



British. 



Gaekwar. 






!.. 




698 

699 

1146 

1505 

396 

630 

421 

1051 

2071 
205 
336 
464 
303 
601 

2306 
1139 

1245 
9b 

9601 

241 

•181 


11 

9 

6 

3 
3 

3 
3 

"h 

9 
9 

6 
6 

9 

... 

3 

o 
3 

VI 


81950 


39202 



Co 



«J 3 y 

c c y 



3 aZ 






a 

« o 
gc 

H - 

-^^ »5 

♦* — Q. 
C ,«* 3 
3:^ OS 



■2 o-H 



G3y 


12 


eo5 


13 


1321 


... 


IGSU 


G 


4GU 




10G2 


s 


S05 




421 


o 


228S 


IJ 


230G 


3 


235 


3 


3GG 




515 


G 


328 


i) 


651 





272G 


G 


1430 


G 


1468 


1 


123 


... 


12280 


3 


241 


3 


48] 


3 


15555U 


8 






211 



Originally riichogam Bhavatl. 



I Under Lathee from before tho Pcnnaucnt Setllciueut. 



Origiuully Latlice Bliajail 



r A.— Not iiiclu;ling 9 waste V^illa^jcs, viz. Kliarioo, Choorce, Ram- 
1 purtl<jo, Kccjrioo, Sonpiirce, Lccinburdtiar, Sarungpoor, La- 
(. kapaliir, and Khoonsa. 



Under Anirellce. 
Do. .lusdliun. 



P 1{ A i\ T E DIVISION 



■^ xT^^o ^^ 1'alookas, as taken from the Gaekwar Mujmoodar's list, 8ho\vino 
N. B. No British Tribute is fixed for this Prant, the column for that headin" 
the tribute of this Prant has yet been made. 



14 
16 
IG 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 

26 

27 
28 
29 

30 
31 



Names of Talookas, 



Eyawej 

Veerpur 

Sunala..... 

Sheroda 

Rajpoora 

Pa-a 

Dedura 

Jallia Beeja 

Jalioo Umrajeenoo., 

Chok 

Pandria 

Total Chok 

Kunjhurda 

Satanoness 

Wudal 

Morehopna 

Bhundaria , . 

Bodanoness 

Joonapadur 

Uanpurra 

Sewreewudur 

Roheesala , 

Sumundhiala '..... 

Gundhol 



Kootia 

Jesur 

Jhurukhla. 
Depla 



Waoree 

Sutpura , 

Total now under Bhao- 
nuggur 

Katroree 



Datha 

Hathsunce 

Raneegara , 

Total Datha 

Wejanoncs , 

Grand Total Oond 
Surwova 



6 

1 

B 

20 
1 
1 



o3 







1 






o 






' u 






u 






o 














o 




o 








e9 




m 








3 


3 
U3 


a 


V, 


H 


C -f' 



~~28u 

4S 

240 

120 

300 

12. 

40 

80 

8() 

280 
120 

400 



100 
180 

00 
300 
140 

8U 
200 
100 
100 
100 

6i) 

80 
400 

80 
320 

100 
10( 

1080 
200 

0400 

200 

280 

0880 

00 



S 220 
S 51 
S 301 
S 121 
S 170 
S 301 
S 10] 
S 3f 
S 125 

S 301 
S 85 

380 



25 S 125 



1137;^ 



S 101 
S 151 
S 151 
S 301 
S 101 
S 41 
S 151 
S 5] 
S 101 
S 501 
S 101 

S 125 

S OOO 
S 200 
S 351 

S 251 
S 225 



S 386 

Aut, 

4739 
S 351 
S 701 

5791 
S 30 

II 653 



A 

125 



A 
251 



376 




•s 






a 


(U 


>> 


JH 


« 


3 


•o 


ti 




a 


ej . 


« >» 


raS 


*^ s 


C» A 






5^ 


o 


226 




... 


51 


••• 


... 


301 


.*. 


... 


121 






176 




... 


301 






101 


... 




30 


... 


... 


125 




.. 


301 


... 


... 


85 


... 


... 


386 


... 


... 


125 






101 


... 


... 


151 


... 


... 


151 




... 


301 


... 




101 


, , 


... 


41 


, , 


. , 


151 




... 


51 


... 


... 


101 


... 


... 


501 


, , 


... 


101 


.. 


.. 







600 


... 


200 


. , 


351 


... 


'"225 


... 


1376 


... 


386 


... 


4739 




351 




701 




5791 


... 


30 


... 


11277 


•• 



< 



248 


9 


66 


1 


331 


1 


133 


1 


193 


9 


331 


1 


111 


1 


33 


... 


137 


8 



331 
93 

424 

137 
111 

166 
166 
331 
111 

45 
166 

56 
111 
651 
111 



660 
220 
380 

'"247 

1613 
424 

5686 
386 
771 

6844 
33 



12878 9 5 



)F OOND SURWEYA. 



r — 

r 



•bsfquent alterations and present No. of Separate Jurisdictions. 

I coDsequently omitted. With the exception of Datha, no permanent arrangement for 



g 5« 



257 


1 


8 


6U 


I 


/ 


347 


9 


/ 


145 


9 


/ 


20ti 


1 


7 


343 


9 


7 


111 


1 


7 


33 


... 


... 


146 


... 




347 


9 


7 


102 




.. 


449 


9 


7 


137 


8 


^ J 


117 


1 


8 


16G 


1 


7 


175 


9 


7 


347 


9 


7 


12U 


9 


7 


53 


9 


< 


17^ 


i> 


7 


64 


9 


7 


119 


9 


' 


55j 


9 


7 


119 


9 


< 


*660 


•• 




220 




... 


386 


i 


7 


"247 


8 


... 


1613 


9 


7 


435 


1 


7 


69S6 


12 


10 


402 


9 


7 


771 


1 


7 


7160 


8 




33 


... 




13398 


1 


6 



oj 3 - 



6 COD 



331 



160 



248 



745 



12 



... i 



Rbmark.h. 



Under Chok. 



Half under Rajpura No. 4, and half under Datha No. 22 



A— Gaekwar claim to tribute never having been substantiated, the same 
is written off as Permanent Remission. 



^ Under Bhaonuggur. 

No authority for the transfer to be traced beyond the acts of the Pro- 
prietors who wrote over their Villages to Bhoanuggur in the years 
8.1866-67 and 1863, A. d. 1809-10,1810-11, and 1811-ia. 



B.— Not including 3 waste Villages, viz. Koondnee, Padurghur, anrt 



Under Datha. 



[Ghana Nahna. 



72 

PllANT OR DIVISION OF BA13RIAWAU. 

Table of Talookas, as taken from the Gaekwar Mujraoodar's List, sliewing suLuj 
quent alterations and present number of Separate Jurisdictions. 





«B , 




c 






o 












u 




^ 


TS 










^J 


S 




« 


•-> 






.*s 




J2 


2 




u 


o« 




^ 


(» 




C 








o 


31 


o 


d 


C3 


r, 


5Z5 


u 


] 


1 




2 






3 


2 




4 


3 




6 


4 




6 


5 




7 


6 




8 


7 




IG 






23 






9 


8 




10 


9 




11 


10 


« 


12 


11 


rt 


13 


12 
13 


':3 


14 


14 


^ 


15 


15 


0) 


17 


16 


*^ 


18 


17 





19 


18 


-. 


20 


19 


< 


21 


20 




22 


21 




24 


22 




25 


(23 
J 24 




26 


25 




27 


26 




28 


27 




29 


28 




30 


29 




31 


30 




32 






33 


31 
32 






1 


1 



Names of Talookas. 



Dedan 

Barputoleo 

Total Dedan 

Koondliala 

Peechree 

Phachrioo 

Bhoondree 

Nagsree 

Katurdhur 

Bhakodur 

Hemal 

Total Katurdhur , 

Kuntharia Kysa 

Kotree 

Kagwudur 

Kuutharla Coolee 

Teembee 

Mansa 

Jeekadree 

Balaneewao 

Bhutwudur 

Bhada 

Dhoodhala 

Lor ,. 

Dholiidrce 

Sakria 

Wuroonch3'a 

Dewkawudur 

Neengala 

Hindorna 

Hurmuntia 

Ootiawudur , .. 

Ebhulwur 

Kowaya 

Ganjawudur 

Khakbaee 

Ghanla 

Gheshpur 

Sangana 

Total Babriawar 

Jafrabad 

Grand Total Babrla- 
wur, including Ja- 
frabad 



5 o 






8 
1 
Was 



60 
A 
11 



71 



3072 
560 
3632 
140 
120 
140 
224 
676 
360 

80 
160 
600 

48 
800 
120 

84 
600 
300 
100 

64 

60 
344 
200 
180 
100 

88 
1088 
160 
140 
280 
160 
200 

6S 
208 

48 
320 

1376 
120 



to 



12,788 
5680 

18,468 



a a> 






2901 




101 


••• 


3002 


••• 


12(J 


... 


21 




101 


,,, 


51 


, , 


576 


, , 


101 


... 


101 


... 


87 


8 


289 


8 


75 


... 


201 


, , 


50 


... 


75 


... 


726 


... 


175 


... 


50 


, , 


101 


, , 


101 


... 


51 


... 


275 


... 


100 


... 


35 


... 


61 


... 


1126 




250 


io 


125 


5 


75 


... 


12G 


... 


126 


... 


51 


... 


lOl 


... 


101 


... 


100 


... 


1201 




30 


, , 


55 


... 


9706 


8 






c wi2 



3191 




111 




3302 




13S 




23 




111 




56 




633 


9 


111 




111 


*■ 


90 


4 


318 


/ 


82 


8 


221 


1 


61 


9 


82 


8 


798 


9 


192 


8 


55 


.. 


111 


1 


111 


1 


50 


1 


302 


8 


110 




38 


8 


56 


1 


1238 


9 


275 


U 


137 


13 


82 


8 


13b 


9 


138 


9 


66 


1 


111 


1 


111 


1 


110 




1321 


1 


33 


... 


60 


8 


10,677 


2 



o a> 



rt 3- 






22 



67 
61 

203 

28 



60 



443 



A.-Not inc 
ing one v» 
village, viz. 
wasa. 



Under At 
lee from th« 
Sumvut 18 

Do. Bhao 
gur. 



A.— Not in 
iDg: one 
village, viz. 
teealoo. 



73 

PRANT OR DIVISION OF OKHAMUNDUL. 




















s 














o 




















A 








o 






u 








.Sm 






(S 








-s 






« 


a 






r 

9 






.S 


1 






■» 




Talookas. 


&I 


9 

a. 


Remarks. 




g 






II 


^ 






1* 






>^ 


1 












V4 


ti3 




o 
2 


o 

i 


i 




o 

o 
as 




1 
1 








A 






■ 


1 


1 


Okamundul 


43 


12,690 


A.-Not includiog 11 waste ViUaKes. 



AIJST 



53 

104 

2 

32 

3 

1 

31 

33 

33 



.>o. 


uf 


Sei 


parate Ja- 


riidictions. 




o 




o> 












s 






Xi 


















H 


^ 




he 


« 




c 


Pk 

♦* 


3 


« 






0^ 


^4 


H 


51 


2 


53 


47 


8 


55 



2.r. 



Hi 



12 



224 



Prants. 



IG 202 



> . 



o a« 



Jlialawar 

Katteeawar 

Muchoo Kanta, 

Hallar 

Soruth 

Burda 

Gohelwar 

Oond Surweya. 

Babriawar, in 
eluding Ja- 
frabal 



Tiibute f xpd ,or sup 

puseM to have been fixed, 

by Colonel Walker. 



Okhamundul.. 



Grand Total.. 



496 
610 
120 
942 
666 
103 
690 
53 

71 
43 

3794 



24032 
189840 

28749 
358560 
320820 

46980 
247980 

11373 

18468 
12590 

I476oii5|o'j.i814i 8 



283253 
88303 

161598 
63209 
22890 
74500 



Gaekwar. 



22606 
51202 
140496 
45000 
7312 
32669 
11653 

9706 



320645 



Pernaanent Remissions 
or Correciions. 



British 



12913 
427 



13340 



Gaekwar. 



3714 



376 



409C 



Abstract slioving Populttion, &c., of tie different Classes. 



6 


— 


202 




.9;r. 

104{ 
809 


789482 
42727: 
i5892( 









KACT. 



Orr^ct Balance now 
due bj each PranL 



British. 1 Gaekwar. 



The same converted from 

Ant or Soortee into Ahme- 

dabad Mcca Rupees, 



27034O 
87936 

lfil598 
C3209 
•2-2890 
74.700 



''^MiU 



8! 18892 
51202 
140496 
45000 
7312 
32669 
11277 

9706 



316555 



270340 
88671 

161598 
63209 
22890 
81950 



688659 



13 



13 



Caekwar. 



21650 
61442 
167495 
54000 
8775 
39202 
12878 

10677 



12/ 9 



376121 



C^ E V 

o c = 
^ — "^ 

if- « •-« 

- C oJ ^ 

2 «• = o 



• - o S 



17250 
18296 

200 
16605 

5513 

34397 

519 



26001 



92861 



12 



5^ 

c ^ • 

S J- <u 
•- c Q- 

^'^'^ 

a _ tj 

O X CO 
C =9 



287590 
128618 

61642 
345778 
117209 

63179 
155550 

13398 

10G77 



2 1 



26001 118364:^ 



13 11 



Temporary Renils- 

hlons giHnicd in 

Sucuvut 18^7, A. V. 

1840-U. 



Biitisb- GaeUwar. 



14750 



2278 



1201 
16500 
3249 



211, 3 

745:12 
443' 4 



170-23, 22351 1 






(Sfgnod) (t. IjtJj. Jacob, 

Ait inn PiJitical Aaott. 



f Enclosure No. IlLJ 
List of the different Tribes of Babrias, commonly called Babria Kattees. 



6 


Titles. 


i 


Titles. 




Titles. 


1 


Koteela... 


25 


Beparia... 


49 


Chondia. 


2 


Dhankhra. . . 


26 


Kheradot... '. 


50 


Khara. 


3 


Wuroo... 


27 


Burela... 


51 


Khulala. 


4 


Ghnrga... 


28 


Pooshutia. . 


52 


Khada. 


5 


Ghoosamba. . . 


29 


Pudeeara... 


53 


Bholavla. 


6 


Chanya. . . 


30 


Changur... 


54 


Weda Bhoopal. 


7 


Boreecha... 


31 


Chak... 


55 


Shanya. 


8 


Chhubhar 


32 


Rakhur... 


56 


Nerala. 


9 


Chatroja... 


33 


Rathor... 


57 


Lujora. 


10 


Kareta... 


34 


Naeesa... 


58 


Shoba. 


11 


Mnrmul... 


35 


Sheemug... 


59 


Kagra. 


12 


Wura... 


36 


Dabhia... 


60 


Mutara. 


13 


Wusra... 


37 


Dugav... 


61 


Sheehala. 


14 


Luya... 


38 


Lobhia... 


62 


Kesoor. 


15 


Lobud... 


39 


Khata... 


63 


Dedngra. 


16 


Korena... 


40 


Klhasur. . . 


64 


Sbubar. 


17 


Khandmul. . . 


41 


Khodiala ,, 


65 


Athur. 


18 


Rha-nMia , 


42 


Kandlial... 


66 


Veea. 


19 


Sachla... 


43 


Nepal... 


67 


Keea. 


20 


Bhoowa... 


44 


Keelkan... 


68 


Khaghurda. 


21 


Bhannul... 


45 


Kateeal... 


69 


Nuvga. 


22 


Bbalera... 


46 


Wagla... 


70 


Ladba. 


23 


Dhurmneta. . . 


47 


Wenna. . . 


71 




24 


Loonwura... 


48 


Dangur... 


72 


Oomga. 



(Signed) G. LeG. Jacob, 

Acting Political Agfnt. 



77 
(Enclosure No» IV,) 
Memorandum of Tribes of the Shakbaeet Kattees. 



d 




i 


Tribes. 


d 




1 


Teibes. 






1 


Wala... 




r 


1 


Khachur. 






2 


Derooa. . . 






2 


Dand. 






3 


Waikha,.. 






3 


Jhobalia. 






4 


Laloo... 


2 


Khaclmr. . . . < 


4 


Heepa. 






5 


Kurpura. . . 






5 


Chaomdia. 






6 


Wurdur... 






6 


Lomasuria. 






7 


Veekma. . . 






7 


Khara. 






8 


Kagra. . . 














9 


Bhojuk... 






1 


Khooman. 






10 


Chak... 






2 


Chandoo. 


1 


Wala 


11 
12 


Wujsee... 
Gowalia. . . 






3 
4 


Chandscor. 
Manganee. 






13 
14 


Rajduria... 
Geega. . . 


3 


Khooman. . . 


5 
6 


Mun. 
Motia. 






15 


Wujmul... 






7 


Jhnmmur. 






16 


Far... 






8 


Jogia. 






17 


Jogia... 






9 


Loonsnr. 






18 


Boghura. . . 






10 


Wulund. 






19 


Kustooria. . . 












*< 


20 


Koodur. . . 











Memorandum of Tribes of the Elnvurutia Kaltees. 



6 


Tribes. 


© 


Tribes. 


6 


Tribes. 


1 


Dhadhul... 


32 


Nurer. . . 


63 


Wurnia. 


2 


Bushia. . . 


33 


Nala... 


64 


Laloo. 


3 


Banblianee... 


34 


Gureeba. . . 


65 


Chawra. 


4 


Gunghanee... 


35 


Beecburia. . . 


66 


Dangur. 


5 


Jhanjuria. . . 


36 


Mukwaua... 


67 


Kaleea. 


6 


Shodhia... 


37 


Mora. . . 


68 


Shekhun. 


7 


Leenkhra. . . 


38 


Unbbung... 


69 


Barud. 


8 


Loda... 


39 


Kliada... 


70 


Unchh. 


9 


Palun... 


40 


Mueetra. . . 


71 


Kotheewal. 


10 


Kuteca. . . 


41 


Jhulloo... 


72 


Bara. 


11 


Chom... 


42 


Kusor... 


73 


Jojuria. 


12 


Koya. . . 


43 


Sbekhwa... 


74 


Bhul. 


13 


Natania. . . 


44 


Ronwa... 


75 


Dawera. 


14 


Jheelria. . . 


45 


Haleeka... 


76 


Kurwutb. 


15 


Media... 


46 


Dhodliia... 


77 


Besb. 


16 


Tooria... 


47 


Bhambhla... 


78 


Jogla. 


17 


Kboondhla. . . 


48 


Kbaruk... 


79 


Malania. 


18 


Gogla... 


49 


Moya... 


80 


Mokba. 


19 


Refuria. .. 


50 


Sbekliur... 


81 


Cbeea. 


20 


Cliahuria. . . 


51 


Dhing. . . 


82 


Jumjal. 


21 


Boreecha. . . 


52 


Kbuwur. . . 


83 


Mueera. 


22 


Rutiin... 


53 


Wegur. . . 


84 


Tragmuria. 


23 


Manjhria. . . 


54 


Putgur. . . 


85 


Mot. 


24 


Tochuria. . . 


55 


Kbem... 


86 


Mim. 


25 


Veerumka. . . 


56 


Dasotia. . . 


87 


Kbakblia. 


26 


Wank... 


57 


Dewalia... 


88 


Lookbel. 


27 


Mala... 


58 


Teetoocha. .. 


89 


Mepal. 


28 


Weenchia... 


59 


Veerda. . . 


90 


Gulcbur. 


29 


Jeblia... 


60 


Khakbiiria. . . 


91 


Kateeal. 


30 


Geera. . . 


61 


Daoo. . . 


92 


Wucbbra. 


31 


Padwa... 


62 


Sarowla. . . ...... 


93 


Secndbuo. 



(Signed) G. LeG. Jacob, 

Acting Political Agent. 



79 



(Enclosure No. V.J 

Table showin*; iho number of Nagur Brahmin Families in the Pen- 
insula ofKatUM'awar, and the places they reside in. 

Rajkote, 4th October, 1842. 



1 


No. of Families Nagur 
Brahmins. 


Total. 




Tt)\VNS. 


Najurs following 
Secular pursuits. 


Brahmins not 
Secular. 




Jooiiaghur. . . 


300 


150 


450 




Xuwannggnr. . . 


125 


75 


200 




Bhaonuggur... 


100 


35 


135 




Mangrol... 


90 


GO 


150 




Khumbalia aiid Dwarka. . . 


50 


1 


51 




Puttun and Verawul 


60 


2 


62 




Poorbunder. . . 


40 


15 


55 




Oona and Dilwara 


30 


5 


35 




Morvee.., 


25 




25 




Wusawur. .. 


25 


... 


25 




Surdhar... 


12 




12 




Mowa... 


11 




11 




Dhurol... 


8 




8 




Ajuruii. . . 


8 




8 




Amrellee... 


4 




4 




Limree ... 


4 




4 




Wankaneer. . . 


4 




4 




■Hulwud... 


4 




4 




Hindorna Jamka 


4 




4 




Kalawar... 


4 




4 




Rajkote... 


3 




3 




Jetpoor... 


3 




'' 




Jooria. . . 


3 


^ 




Wudwan... 


3 


3 




920 


343 


1263 





(Signed) U. LeG. Jacob. 
Acting PoH*i>'»il Annit. 



80 

{Enclosure No, VI.) 

List of Sebundees in the Peninsula of Katteeawar. 



No. 


Names of Talookas. 


Foot 
Sepoys. 


Horsemen. 


1 


Joonaghur ,-- 


2000 


1000 


2 


Nuwanuggur ^^ 


1500 


400 


3 


Bhaonuggur — — — 


2000 


700 


4 


Poorbunder — 


400 


100 


5 


Limree — 


300 


100 


6 


Wudwa.Ti.... 


300 


125 


7 


Gondul Dhorajee — — — 


400 


150 


8 


Rajcote Surdhar.-^ -^ — 


50 


25 


9 


Dhurol Surupdur-^ 


50 


50 


10 


Morvee — *^ — 


200 


75 


11 


Hulwud Drangdra.^ — 


100 


50 


12 


Saela_ _ _ 


30 


40 


13 


Wankaneer -^ 


25 


30 


14 


Amrellee 


400 


220 


15 


Okhamundul 


400 


30 


16 


Jetpoor — 


100 


50 


17 


Lathee..., .^ 


25 


40 


18 


Wnla . _ 


40 


30 


19 


Choora^ ^ _ 


25 


10 


20 


Palee Tana^. ^ 


150 


50 


21 


Than Luktur_- ^ _ 


25 


15 


22 


Jusdhon . 


100 


60 


23 


Bantwa^ ^ _ 


75 


50 




Remaining small States of the Country 

Totals _ 


3000 


900 


11695 


4300 



(Signed) G. LeG. Jacob, 

Acting Political Agent. 



81 
(Enclosure No, VIL) 

List of Bunders in the Peninsula, in their order of position, commenc- 
ing from the head of the Kutch Gulf and terminating with that of 
Cambay. 



Under. 



The Thakor... 
of 
Morvee... 



The Jam... 

of 
Nuwanuggur. . . 



In 
Okhamundul... 



The Jam... 

The Rana of 
Poorbimder. , 



The Nuwab... 
The Shekh of.. 



The Nuwab of 
Joonaghor. . . 



Amrellee... 



Portugal. . . 



Names of Ports. 



Wowaniah.. 



Jooria 

Ilurrecaua... 

Balaclicrry 

Ivhcree... 

Xuwabunder 

Xagiia. . . 

Rojeebara... 

Beree, or the port of Nuwa 

Nuo:^ur 

Surmut. . . 

Siihiya 

Pindaro. . . 



') 



"'.) 



Rajpurroo... 

Posheetroo 

Aramroo... 

Bet 

Kutcligur under the Rao. . . 
Roopuu bunder. The Port of 

Dwarka. . . 
Mudee... 

Bhogat... 

Mceanee... 

Poor or Poorbunder 

Nuvee or Nuvee Bundur. .. 
Madoopoor 

Seel 

Mangrol... 

Chorwar... 

Billawul or Verawxd 

Heerakot... 
Sootrapara. . . 
Dhamlej... 

Mool Dwarka, tlie bunder of 

Koreenar 

Weluu or Welun bundur 

Wunagbaroo 

Gogla... 1 

Diu or Deeo ... 



DiSCRIPTION. 



Good. 



Good. Extensive trade 

Closed. 

For lisliing craft. 

Ditto. 

Small craft. 

Closed. 

Ditto. 

Considerable traffic. 

Small craft. 
Considerable traffic. 
Fishing craft. 

Ditto. 

Small craft. 
Ditto. 

Pretty good. 
Boats touch. 

Not much traffic. 

Boats only. 

Ditto. 

But little traffic. 
Good. Extensive trade. 
Considerable traffic. 
Mere boats. 

Closed. 

A bad Port, but exten- 
sive traffic. 

Boats only. 

Good, and extensive 
traffic. 

Small craft. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 



Bad ground, small traffic. 

Petty trade. 

Boats. 

(iood, but little trade. 



82 



Under. 



TheNuwab 

The Zunjcera Sec- 
dee 



Babria 

Aheer 



JGrassia ( 
of ] 

Babriawar.. i 



Jaffrabad... 



The Thakor of f 
Bhaonuggui* \ 



The Thakor of 
Bhaonuggur. . . 



The Hon'ble Com- 
pany... 

Do 

The Thakor of 
Bhaonuggur. . . . 



Do.. 



Names of Ports. 



DiSCRIPTION. 



Nuwabuudur. . . . 

Jaffrabad ... 

Blierac... 

Rampurra 

Kuthee Wuddur. 

Sheealbet. . . 



Clianch.... 
Dewallia. 



With reserved rights 
to the Hon'ble 
Company. 

The Thakor of 

Bhaonugi^ur 

Do. Do 

Dewanee Grasia, the ( 
Puchegam Bhayad... \ 



Mowa... 
Kutpur. .. 
Kulsar... 
Kotra. ., 

Ghudoola 

rSultanpoor, the port of Tullaja 

Nhana Gopnath 

Meethee Yeerco 

Koora... 



Gogo... 
Ewanioo.. 



The Hon'ble Com- 
pany. . . 



-;( 



Ukwaroo. . . 
Bhaonuggur. 



Udelac... 
Goondaloo... 

Kaloo Talao.. 



Bawulialee.. 
Dholera... 



Goodj lut little traffic. 
Good, Extensive trade. 

Insignificant. 



IVtty traffic. 
Closed. 

Con.siderablo traffic. 
Insignificant. 

Closed. 



Closed. 

Good. Extensive trade, 
Closed. 

Good. Extensive trade. 



I :!.'<: o-nific ant. 



Insi'onificant. 
I Considerable traffic. 



(Signed) G. LlG. Jacob, 
Aciinq Political Apent. 



83 



(Enclosure No. VIII.) 

Estimate of Uie produce of Cotton in the undermentioned Talookas under th« Katteewar 

rolitical Agency. 









Tlie ^alne con- 














Local Maund 


vt'tttd into the 












Talookas. 


at various 


Goojrattee 






Remarks. 




G 




rates. 


Mun, viz 40 R--. 










^ 






I Seer, 40 Seert 
















1 Mun. 












PUOVINCE OF 






















Jhalawar. 




















1 


Ilulwud Draii^cLra. 


20000 ... 




11)000 






38 Rs. to sr.,& 40 srs. 


to Mun. 


2 


liiiuree 


200!)0 ... 




24500 






28 


do. 


70 


do. 


'6 


Ivuiitliaria. . . 


320i»!... 




3300 






28 


do. 


(>0 


do. 


A 


Karol 


1(140 






2000 






28 


do. 


70 


do. 


h 


Kumalpur 


100 






100 ... 




40 


do. 


40 


do. 


c 


Kuniblao... 


2000 






2450 ... 




28 


do. 


70 


do. 


7 


<»orco 


2aoo|... 




3430 ... 




28 


do. 


70 


do. 


8 


CImcliaua... 


132 47 




1(;2 20 


30 


28 


do. 


70 


do. 





Chulala... 


}u;ol... 




107a ... 




28 


do. 


70 


do. 


10 


.lak'mm 


87--.!... 




1)H;'30 




28 


do. 


(10 


do. 


11 


Kliaudia... 


i4oo;... 




1715;... 




28 


do. 


70 


do. 


\1 


Tiilsana... 


2400 






2U40 






28 


do. 


70 


do. 


V^ 


Taveo... 


1320 






1(117 






28 


do. 


70 


do. 


1 ; 


Dewlia... 


220! » 






2(;!»5|... 




28 


do. 


70 


do. 


i:. 


I>iir(><l... 


8;io ... 




lo7«j-.. 




28 


do. 


70 


do. 


Ki 


INilaloc 


400 ... 




4IM» ... 




28 


do. 


70 


do. 


17 


liho^'ka... 


2000 ... 




2450... 




28 


do. 


70 


do. 


Ui 


Bliutlian... 


12{;(»;... 




15081... 




28 


do. 


70 


do. 


i;t 


Bliulj^amra 


3200 






3:120'... 




28 


do. 


70 


do. 


20 


Hlmdwaua 


2250 






2302 l2l» 




28 


do. 


GO 


do. 


•il 


Laliad... 


1(150 






1732,20 




28 


do. 


(50 


do. 


_'•_' Wiinala... 


1<MM» 






1000 ... 




40 


do. 


40 


do. 


■2'.\ 


>^innla... 


2o:i(»i... 




2450 ... 




28 


do. 


70 


do. 


•24 


Saooka... 


lOOii 






UHlol... 




28 


do. 


70 


do. 


2'» 


Ooniree... 


lO'M) 






IDCO ... 




28 


do. 


70 


do. 


20 


Aiik«nvalia 


2oOO 






3430 






28 


do. 


70 


do. 


27 


Wild wan... 


2501 M» 






28000 






28 


do. 


04 


do. 


o;j 


.Ihampodiir 


375 ... 




420 










do. 




21)| lv«'ral«'0... 


750... 




840 










do. 




:)(»'( ioondliocalcc 


1500 ... 




1575 


:::...i 


28 


do. 


(10 


do. 


31 •) liunimer. . 


455|50 Il)| 


510 25 31 1 


28 


<lo. 


04 


do. 


\V1 I>0(Milirt'j. .. 


3500 ... 




3075!... 




28 


do. 


00 


do. 


3:i IJIialora 


750 ... 




787 20 




28 


do. 


00 


do. 


34|Iv.ijpura... 


1250 ... 




1400 






28 


do. 


04 


do. 


3.-. 


Wiirod... 


2004142 27 


2i:;7 


30 


1) 


28 


do. 


02.1 


do. 


3(5 


Wwna... 


23iM (1 ••■ 


2(175; 


1 




28 


do. 


04" 


do. 


37 


NVankanocr 


1(110 ... 


l» 


1221 


7 20 i 


2(; 


do. 


45 


do. 


3» 


Than Liiktur 


5500 i... 




5775 






28 


do. 


00 


do. 


39 


Kosvria... 


14!}, 40 ...| 


1 50 


4 




28 


do. 


00 


do. 


40 


.Mooloe.. . 


15000... ... i:,7->() 










do. 




41 


Mo<3njpur. . . 


350...l...| ;^<;- 


20. ..I 






do. 




42 


Sacla 


20!Ht!... ... -Jioi; 




I 






do. 




43 


Clioora... 


1150( ... ...[ 12075 




j 




do. 




44 
45 


Kiinnur. . . 
Dussara... 


12(M 

132H 


......1 1200 

14 ...! i;;24(i 




' ' ' 1 
1 


10 


.lo. 


do. 

40 


do. 


i-li. ' 


46 


Bujann ... 


50; H 


IS ;i7i 4751 


7110 38 


do. 


40 


do. 


47 


Pa'tree... 


1 5< M M » 




15000 


..1. . 40 


do. 


40 


do. 


48 


Jhiujoowara 


20000 




. ..' 20000 


1 


tO 


do. 


40 


do. 


W) 


Wiinod... 


450 


..:...: 450 


."!'''. 


{() 


do. 


40 


do. 


50 


Tunkara 


2520 


•I 1701 




24 


do. 


45 


do. 


51 


Bharejra. . . 

Race 


150 


.1 157 


■>o 


28 


do. 


00 


do. 


52 


500 


..■..-! L'. 


...i.:' 


28 


do. 


04 


do. 


53 


Sanklco... 


500 


,..|...| :m 






■in 


do. 


04 


do. 


_ 


Jhalawar TotaV 




.7.1 r 


227531 





.. . 











84 







Local Maund 


The same con- 














at various 


verted into the 












TaLOOKAS. 


rates. 


Goojratte© 




Remarks. 




6 






Maund. 










^ 


















Province of 
























Katteewar. 






















1 


Amrellee... 


55000 






55000 






40 Rs 


tosr. 


& 40 srs. 


to Mun. 


2 


Jetpoor Cheetul... 


15001. 






1125«) 






30 


do. 


40 


do. 


3 


Beelkha 


250(1 






18/5 






30 


do. 


40 


do. 


4 


Buggusra. . . 


133:i 


13 


9 


900 


20 


20 


29 


do. 


40 


do. 


5 


Babra. . . 


1500 






lOli 


20 




27 


do. 


40 


do. 


6 


Kotra Poctliana... 


351 






245 


28 




28 


do. 


40 


do. 


7 


Kanpor Esliwiiria. 


250 






lOH 


:>i.i 




27 


do. 


40 


do. 


8 


Kimer. . . 


5 






3 


15 




27 


do. 


40 


du. 


9 


Katlirola. . . 


5 






3 


15 








do. 




10 


Kheejria. .. 


7-> 






50 


J 5 








do. 




11 


(rurumlee Mliotee. 


100 






07 


■ht 


.[[ 






do. 




12 


Griiruinlee Nhanee. 


50 






3;^ 


30 








do. 




13 


(iudheea. .. 


50 






3:^ 


30 








do. 




14 


Churka. .. 


531 


20 


17 


385 


18 


\ ! -2:* 


do. 


40 


do. 


15 


Jamka. . . 


232 


30 


12 


157 


8 


24.27 


do. 


40 


do. 


IG 


Dholurwa 


100 






07 


20 








do. 




17 


Bhulgam... 


125 






84 


15 








do. 




18 


Manawao... 


50 






33 


:;o 








do. 




10 


Loharia. . . 


5 






3 


15 








do. 




20 


Lakliapadur 


100 






C7 


20 








do. 




21 


Wagiiia 


375 






25;i 


:i 








do. 




22 


Wagliasrce 


75 






50 


25 








do. 




23 


.Seelaua. . . 


250 






10{; 


3!^ 


".[ 






do. 




24 


Halria. . . 


402 


20 




312 


t 


"Jft" 




do. 




25 


Jusdlmn... 


18083 


20 


17 


13288 


22 


25, 2H 


do. 


40 


do. 


20 


Kotee... 


150 






105 










do. 




27 


Kooiidnee 


150 






105 










do. 




2b 


Kessria. . . 






















29 


Jussapur.,. 


250 






175 










do. 




30 


Modhooka 


250 






175 










do. 




31 


^yllrja Teerutli.... 


100 






70 










do. 




32 


Seetoolioo 


50 






35 










do. 




33 


Ilurmutioo 


50 






35 










do. 




34 


Auoealee... 


100 






70 










do. 




3r, 


Bliudlee... 


435 






330 


\'A 


5 


27 


do. 


45 


do. 


3r; 


Kurroeana 


247 


11 





187 


;^o 


4 






do. 




37 


Annundpoor 


r>i) 






35 






I'd 


do. 


40 


do. 


3B 


Choteela 


100 






113 


30 




28 


do. 


05 


do. 


39 


Khumbala 


33 


44 





25 


li'J 


'J 


27 


do. 


45 


do. 


40 


Paliad... 


300 






341 


Ml 




28 


do. 


05 


do. 


41 


Blieeinora 


212 


7 


1 


241 


m 


37 






do. 




42 


Bamunbor 


5 






r 


27 


20 






do. 




43 


Mewassa. . . 


98 


28 


12 


111 


'A\l 


:u\ 






do. 




44 


Matia Timba 


50 






35 






.>j:i 


do. 


40 


do. 


45 


Sunosra. . . 


3 


8 


3 


^ 


•y: 


"7!21! 


do. 


65 


do. 


40 


Ectria Gudhala. . . . 


100 


22 


13 


83 


il 


2,27 


do. 


45 


do. 


47 


'hobaree... 


5 






5 


27 


20 


28 


do. 


65 


do. 


48 


Kalasur. . . 


10 






11 


15 








do. 




49 


Xeelwra. . . 


25 






18 


39 


15 


27 


do. 


45 


do. 


50 


Atkot... 


500 






300 






24 


do. 


40 


do. 


51 


Bhadla... 


1000 






000 










do. 




52 


Santhlee... 


900 


.'.■.l-l 


540 










do. 




53 


Burwala. . . 


800 


480 










do. 




54 


Summiindhiala. 


200 


120 










do. 




55 


Panchuwra 


200 ...i... 


120 










do. 


. 



85 







Local Maund 


The same con- 














at various 


verted into the 












Talookas. 


rates. 


Goojraitee 




Remarks. 




o 








Maund. 










Province of 






1 














Katteewar. 






















56 


Ujmer. . . 


600 






360 






24 Rs 


. to sr., 


& 40 srs 


to Mun. 


5/ 


l)lianduljx)or 


464 


23 


21 


528 


8 


25 


28 


do. 


65 


do. 


58 


Soodamra. . . 


400 






455 










do. 




|o*J So jukpoor & Mor- 






















war. . . 


200 


... 




227 


20 








do. 




r»0 Raiiijuirda 


25 






16 


35 




27 


do. 


40 


do. 


CI Wussawur 


200 






14-i 






29 


do. 


40 


do. 


i\l Dhussa... 


1024 


15 




742 


26 


35 






do. 




63 Oecp^iLsaran 


201 


22 


13 


136 


2 


7 


27 


do. 


do 


do. 


64 Ankria... 


25 






18 


39 


15 


27 


do. 


45 


do. 


65 


Kerala. . . 

Katteewar Total... 
Province of 


50 






5(; 


11 


23 


28 


do. 


64 


do. 








92750 
















MucHoo Kanta. 






















1 


Morvee... 


10285 






6171 






24 


do. 


40 


do. 


2 


Mallia... 

Miirlioo Tvniit'i 


217 


31) 


lo 


228 


21 


22 


28 


do. 


60 


do. 




Total... 
Province of 


10502 


30 


10 


6300 


21 


22 




















IIallar. 






















1 


Xu-waniiegur 


45000 






35100 






24 


do. 


52 


do. 


2 .1 orcoa Balimiba. . . 


2000 


... 




1200 






24 


do. 


40 


do. 


3 Ilurretana 


1250 


... 




75(» 










do. 




4 


Uharookia 


<;<»(» 






360 










do. 




') 


Aniriin. .. 


(;i)i> 






360 










do. 




6 


r)rapha... 


2801 


10] 10 


20-24 


1 


22 


28 


do. 


40 


do. 


7 


\'('<Tpur. .. 


500 






337 


20 




27 


do. 


40 


do. 


8 


Kliurt'dec 


500 






337 


20 








do. 




y 


Moolceraderee 


200 






135 










do. 




10 


Satodur A\'aorce.. 


620 






542 


20 




28 


do. 


50 


do. 


n 


Sersang Cliaudlce 


200 i... 




120 






24 


do. 


40 


do. 


1*2 


(iondul Dhorajee.. 


25353 '23 




213!>2 


1 




30 


do. 


45 


do. 


13IM('nj,mcc... 


737 12 13 


407 


27 


17 


27 


do. 


40 


do. 


14 Kotra Saiiganee... 


560 16 24 


378111 


16 






do. 




15 lihadwa. .. 


loo|... 




67 


•20 








do. 




lOiUajpiira... 


07|24 


12 


65 


35 


20 






do. 




1 7 1 Raj cote Swdhar. . . 


1400 ... 




945 






24 


do. 


45 


do. 


18'i<»o\vreedur 


200 ... 




130 




.■::i26 


do. 


40 


do. 


10|Kotliaria 


lool... 




65 ... 






do. 




20lZodheeka 


150 






97 20 








do. 




21 Pal... 


50 






32 20 








do. 




22Gutka... 


50 






32 20 








do. 




23 AVudalee 


30 






25 i 12 


21 


7 


do. 


50 


do. 


24; VetTwa... 


H! 






6 20 




!6 


do. 


40 


do. 


25 Shapoor... 


50(. 


1 


437 '20 




-'8 


do. 


50 


do. 


26 KaDgseealee 


2r 


'".}".'.. 


16 35 






do. 


50 


do. 


27 


Muwa. . . 


1< 




8|l7 


20 


>j 


do. 


50 


do. 


28 


Dhurol... 


7' 




61 


35 




22 


do. 


60 


do. 


29 


Sunipdur. . . 


12! 


8|l8 


74 


21 


10 


24 


do. 


40 


do. 


30 


Kheerusra 


20i 


_ 




150 






•24 


do. 


50 


do. 



86 









The same con- 














Local Maund at 


verted into the 












Talookas. 


various rates. 


Goo.iratteo 




Remarks. 




6 






Mauiid. 










-^ 


















Province of 




















Hallar. 






















31 


Jallia Dewanec... 


400 






337 







27 


Rs. to sr. 


& 50 srs. 


to Mun. 


3-2 


Kotra Nayajee. ... 


50 


... 




3i 







20 


do. 


40 


do. 




Hallar Total 








Gol21 


18 


5 










Province of 










SORUTH. 






















1 


Joonaghur inclnd- 
























mg Mangrol. ... 


57200 






44818 






24 


do. 


52 


do. 


2 


Baiitwa. . . 


11512 


37 


1. 


10381 


22 




)»2 


do. 


45 


do. 


3 


(Jmrapur. . . 
Soruth Total 


1500 


— 


— 


1170 


22 


— 


24 


do. 


52 


do. 




58147 


Province of 










BURDA. 






















1 


Poorbunder 

Province of 

GOHELWAR. 


coooo 






5850 






30 


do. 


52 


do. 


1 


Rliaomio^s^ur 


6000 






GOOOO 






40 


do. 


40 


do. 


2 


Uutuiipur Dlia- 
























iiiinika... 


458 


22 




425 


18 


4 


27 


do. 


55 


do. 


3 


Wula... 


4000 






3712 


20 








do 




4 


Cliiimardee 


200 






185 


25 








do 




5 


Jora. . . 


120 






111 


15 








do 




f; 


Katoria. . . 


80 






74 


10 








do 




7 


Pancliowra 


40 






37 


-, 








do 




8 


Waoree Waclia- 
iieo... 


80 






74 


10 








do 
do 




9 


Sonpiiroe... 


40 






37 


5 








do 




10 


Pu<;h('o;am 


400 






371 


10 








do 




11 


Clieotrawao 


255 


47 


•-•4 


237 


10 


8 






do 




12 


l^imunka... 


1040 


54 


24 


1»71 


20 


32 






do 




13 


Wiirod Dcwauce.. 


824 






570 


8 








do 




14 


Alumpoor... 


80 






55 


•27 


20 






do 




15 


Dhola... 


80 






74 


10 








do 




IG 


Latlicc... 


2001 > 






1858 


10 








do 




17 


Kajpecplcc 


80 






74 


10 








do 




18 


Vcerree... 


40 






37 


. 5 








do 




10 


rTliudalee... 


728 


1\ 


24 


878 


3 


32 






do 




20 


riaillioola... 


180 






148 


20 








do 




21 


Dedukree... 


120 






111 


15 








do 




22 


Kheojrioo 


80 






74 


1(» 








do 




|2o 


Bochowra 


80 






55 


27 


20 






do 




124 


Blloja^vadur 


120 






111 


15 








do 




25 


Summundhiala 


145:; 


2 


21 


1348 


24 


20 






do 




20 


Loenira. . . 


3<MI 






278 


17 


20 






do 




27 


Waoree... 


180 






148 


20 








do 




(28 


Wagdra... 


80 






5 .5 


27 


20 






do 




!21) 


Paleo Tana 


8000 






7425 










do 





30 
31 



Ta LOOK AS. 



PUOVINCE OF 
Gi^IIKLWAR. 

Klicijria... 
Patiia Miiljee... ., 



G oh el war Total.. 



Provin'ce or 

OOND 8UKWEYA, 



1 Ilathsanec... 

2 Kawoj... 

3 A'oeqmr. . . 

4 Siuiala... 
Scroda. . . 

C Ilajpur... 

Kaiieoijam. . . 
8 Paudria... 
Pa-a... 

10 Dedurda... 

11 Jallia Bajoo.. 

12 Jallia... 

13 Chok... 

14 Kunghurda... 
h' SatauoiRi^s... 
IC > iiual... 

17 Torohopna... 

18 ilumdaria... 
10 iodanuness... 

20 looiiaj>adur... 

21 vanpurda. .. 
>owree\vadiir 

23 volioos;«la... 

24 Sunuindhiala. 
2.5|r»undliol... 
2G Kootia... 

27 Jessur... 

28 Jookla. 
2'J 
30 



Doj)la. 

Waoree... 
3l|Satwra... 
32 Kantroree... 
33JDatha... 
34 Wejanoncss. , 



Ooihl 
Total. 



Sunvova 



Province of 
Babriawar. 

Sundry Villages. 



Local Maund 
at various 
rates. 



80 
201) 



10 
10 
10 

2,-) 



oOi 



10 

10 . 



It 



lo 



500 



The same con- 
verted iiite the 
Goojrattce 
MauiiJ. 



74110.. 

iu:» 2:. .. 



7uooa 



11 l< 



42 20 



8 JO 

8 -iO 

8-0 

21,10 



42 20 



42 
21 



12 



12 

12 

21 

42:. 



7o; 



100 



Remarks. 



?7 K>^. to sr.. v"t r>.") srs. to Mun. 
do 



34 Rs. to sr., & 40 srs. to Mun. 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
<lo 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
d.> 



88 
ABSTRACT. 



No. 

1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 

7 

8 
9 


Provinces. 


Goojrattee Maund 

viz. 
40 Rs. 1 Seer. 
40 Srs. 1 Mun. 


Jhalawar 


227531 

92750 

6399 

66121 

66147 

5850 

79608 

705 

100 


6 
11 
21 
18 
22 

11 

20 


35 

23 

22 

5 

16 


Katteewar . . 


Muchoo Kanta 


Hallar 


Soruth 


Burda 


Gohelwar 


Oond Surweya 


Babriawar 


Grand total Goojrattee Mauiids.... 

Grand total in Indian mannds of 80 Es. to the seer, and 
40 seers to the maund ........ 


635213 
267606 


31 
35 


21 
61 





(Signed) G. LeG. Jacob, 

Acting Political Agent. 



89 



(Enclosure No* I X.J 
STATF.MENT showing the different rates of Bajree in the undermen- 
tioned years, taken from Sahookars' books of the periods referred 
to, during the Months of February to April of each year. 









Price of HHJree calculated in Ahuiedabad 








Sicca Kb. per Goozrattee 


Xumbcr. 


Suraviit. 


A. D. 


Mun— 40 H5«. \ <oi^r 


._.10 Soers 1 Mun. 




wuivte. 1 


SaeiH. 1 Le-mree. 


1 


1850 


1793-94 


^ 


9 


8 


1 


2 





— 


12 


9 


2 


1851 


1794-95 


— 


15 


7 


^ 


13 


6 


— 


10 

10 

6 

6 


8 
4 
8 


3 


1852 


179.V96 





^» 


— 


— 


9 


— 


•— 


4 


1853 


1796-97 





5 


6 


— 


4 


— 


— 


5 


1854 


1797-98 





7 


5 


— 


3 


6 


— 


4 


6 


1855 


1798-99 


1 


— 


6 


— 


7 


6 


— 


10 
9 


1 
7 


7 


1856 


1799-1800 


~-«. 


13 


4 


— 


10 


— 


— 


8 


1857 


1800-1 


—-« 


15 


11 





9 


--, 


— 


12 


9 


9 


1858 


1801-2 


— » 


11 


3 





13 


— 


— 


12 


9 


10 


1859 


1802-3 


1 





8 


— 


14 


— 


— 


8 


6 


11 


1860 


1803-4 


1 


6 


3 


1 


15 


— 


•^ 


14 


11 


12 


1861 


1804-5 


1 





8 





14 


— 


— 


13 


3 


13 


1862 


1805-6 


.— 


14 


2 


— 


10 


6 


— 


9 
11 
10 


7 
2 


14 


1863 


1806-7 





15 


3 


1 


— 


— 


— 


15 


1864 


1807-8 





12 


10 


— 


8 


— 


— 


8 


16 


1865 


1808-9 


1 


4 


2 


I 


— 


— 


1 


— 


— 


17 
18 
19 


1866 
1867 
1868 


1809-10 
1810-11 
1811-12 


1 

2 


15 

1 


8 
3 

1 


1 


11 
11 


6 


^ 


10 
10 
14 


1 
8 
4 


20 


1869 


1812-13 


4 


8 


2 


3 


— 


— 


4 


1 


— 


21 


1870 


1813-14 


2 


1 


4 


I 


12 


— 


1 


5 


22 


1871 


1814-15 


1 


14 


4 


1 


3 


6 


1 


5 

11 

10 

10 

8 

7 

14 
12 
10 


4 
8 


23 


1872 


iai5-16 


1 


2 





1 


— 


— 


-— 


24 


1873 


1816-17 


*««. 


13 





-^ 


12 


6 


— 


8 


25 


1874 


1817-18 


— «. 


11 


1 


— 


14 


— 


— - 


5 


26 


1875 


1818-19 


-— 


13 


10 


1 


8 


— 


— ' 


— 


27 


187G 


1819-20 


1 


11 


9 


1 


4 


— 


I 


5 
7 
9 
8 


28 


1877 


1820-21 


1 


4 


10 


1 


— 


— 


— 


29 


1878 


1821-22 


1 


1 


8 


.^ 


5 


— 


— 


30 


1879 


1822-23 


1 


3 


5 


— 


14 


6 


— 


31 


1880 


1823-24 


-— 


13 


10 


— 


11 


— 


— 


10 

2 

10 

10 


8 


32 


1881 


1824-25 


2 


7 


— 


2 


— 


— 


2 


~8 


33 


1882 


1825-26 


1 


2 





1 


4 


— , 


— 


34 


1883 


1826-27 


-— 


9 


8 


— 


13 


— 


— 


5 
10 


35 


1884 


1827-28 





9 


— 


— 


10 


-^ 


— 


7 

1 o 


36 


1885 


1828-29 





8 


2 


•^ 


7 


— 


-^ 


1 z 
9 
6 
6 
8 
1 
1 

12 


37 


1886 


1829-30 





10 


9 


— 


8 


— 




4 
7 
8 
6 


38 


1887 


1830-31 


■— 


9 


8 


— 


7 


— 


— 


39 


1888 


1831-32 


~— 


6 


11 


— 


12 


-— 


— 


40 


1889 


1832-33 


~— 


10 


5 


— 


12 


— 


~~ 


41 


1890 


1833-34 


1 


7 


7 


1 


10 


— 


1 


— 


42 


1891 


1834-35 


-~-. 


15 


11 


1 


— 


— 


1 


^ 


43 


1892 


1835-36 


»«M 


11 


9 





15 


— 


— 


44 


1893 


1836-37 


„^,^ 


11 


9 





13 


6 


— 


10 
10 


8 
8 

1 


45 


1894 


1837-38 


~— 


9 


8 





14 


— 


— 


46 


1895 


1838-39 


1 


9 





1 


12 


— 


1 


'- 


47 


1896 


1839-40 


~^ 


14 


5 





13 


6 


— 


12 


9 
9 
9 


48 


1897 


1840-41 


~^ 


13 


2 





13 


— 


— 


12 


49 


1898 


1841-42 


— 


14 


7 


— - 


12 


6 


^ \r^ 



(Signed) O. LeG. Jacob, 
Acting Political Agent 



[)0 

Index to the several States of Katteewar now forming Separate 
Jurisdictions. 









No. IN 


No. 


Talookas. 


Prants. 


THE 

Table. 


A. 






1 


Akria^ 


Katteewar^.> 


50 


2 


Amrellee — — — 


Dittos. _. _ 


1 


3 


Ankewalia, — — — 


Jhalawar^,. .^> 


26 


4 


Animdi>oor — — — 

B. 
Babra Chumardee,. -^ 


Katteewar — — 


30 


5 


Katteewar 


4 


6 


Balaneewao — - — — 


Babriawar «.. 


15 


7 


Bamimbor 


Katteewar.. ^ — 


35 


8 


Bantwa,,.. 


Soruth _. _ 


2 


9 


Bheelka 


Katteewar.,,.^ 


3 


10 


Bhada^ _ ^ 


Babriawar.^ — ^, 


17 


11 


Bliadwa 


Hallar _ _ 


10 


12 


Blialora — — — 


Jhalawar 


33 


13 


Bhaonuggur — — — 


Golielwar ^^ 


1 


14 


Bliarejra — — — 


Jhalawar_ — — 


52 


15 


Bheemora 


Katteewar .^ 


34 


16 


Bhoeka^ _ 


Jlialawar 


17 


17 


Bhojawudur — . — — 


Gohelwar, .. — 


22 


18 


Bhoondree ,^ 


Babriawar 


5 


19 


Bliudlec — — — 


Katteewar — 


27 


20 


Bhudwana.^ — — 


Jhalawar 


20 


21 


Bhulgam— .^ 


Katteewar 


18 


22 


Bhulgamra 


Jhalawar — 


19 


23 


Bhundaria — — — 


Ooud Siirweya — — — 


14 


24 


Bhutlian — 


Jhalawar 


18 


25 


Bhutwudur — — 


Babriawar — — — 


16 


26 


Bochurwa — — — 


Gohelwar 


21 


27 


Bodanoness — — — 


Oond_ _ ^ 


15 


28 


Buggusra ^, — 


Katteewar — 


6 


29 


Bujana — — — 

C. 
Chitrawao,^ — 


Jhalawar — — — 


48 


80 


Gohelwar — — 


11 


31 


Chobarec — — — 


Katteewar , 


40 


32 


Chok ^ _ 


Oond<_ _ ^ 


9 


33 


Choora.,.-. 


Jhalawar — — — 


45 


34 


Choteela — — ^ 


Katteewar .^ .^ 


31 


35 


Chuchana — -^ -~- 


Jhalawar — — 


8 


36 


Chulala-- 


Ditto , ,., 


9 


37 




Gohelwar,,,^ 


4 


38 


Churkha 

D. 
Datlia_ ^ ^ 


Katteewar -^ — — 


15 


39 


Oond _- ^ 


22 


40 




Babriawar .* 


1 


41 


Dedukree — ^^ — 


Gohelwar,^ — — 


29 


42 


Dedurra-^ — — 


Oond_ ^ ^ 


6 


43 


Derree Janbaee — 


Katteewar.^ — — 


5 



91 









No. IN 


No. 


Talookas. 


Prants. 


THE 

Table. 




D. 






44 


Dewkawudur 


Babriawar 


23 


45 


Dewlia 


Jbalawar — — 


14 


46 


Dhaudulpoor ,^ 


Kattcewar 


43 


47 


Dhola-^ ^ _ 


Gobelwar. . . . 


15 


48 


Dboladree 


Babriawar . — 


20 


49 


Dbolurwar 


Katteewar — — — 


17 


50 


Dhurol Surupdur., 


Hallar^. ^ ^ 


23 


51 


Doodliala.>.. 


Babriawar ^^ 


18 


52 


Doodlirej.^, 


Jhalawar,-^ — — 


32 


53 


Drapha.^. .. 


Hallar_ _ _ 


2 


54 


Diilieeroo., .^. 


Katteewar 


48 


55 


Durod 


Jbalawar — 


15 


56 


Dussara.^ .. 

E. 
Eawej and Veerpur 


Ditto ^ ^ 


47 


57 


Ooud_ _ ^ 


1 


58 


Eblmlwur . 


Babriawar 


28 


59 


Etria Gudliala 

Ganjawudur 


Kattecw^ar , . — 


39 


60 


Babriawar — — 


30 


61 


Geegasanm — 


Katteewar — — — 


49 


62 


Geree 


Jbalawar 


7 


63 


Gheshpur . 


Babriawar 


31 


64 


Gondul Dhorajee 


Hallar_ _ _ 


7 


65 


Goondeealee — — — 


Jbalawar — — 


30 


66 


Gowrcedur 


Hallar_ _. ^ 


13 


67 


Gudhalee 


Golielwar -<^ 


17 


68 


Gudliea . 


Katteewar,^ — — 


14 


69 


Gudlioola 


Gobelwar 


18 


70 


Gundhol . 


Oond_. _ ^ 


20 


71 


Gurumlec Mliotee,^ 


Katteewar — 


12 


72 


Gurumlee Nhaiiee 


Dittos, _- ^ 


13 


73 


Gutka _. _. ^ 

H. 
Hindorna 


PIallar_ _ _ 


17 


74 


Babriawar 


25 


75 


Ilulwud Drangdra 


Jbalawar,- 


1 


76 


Hunnuntia — 

J. 
Jaffrabad 


Babriawar-^ — — 


26 


77 


Babriawar 


33 


78 


Jakhun — 


Jbalawar — 


10 


79 


Jallia Beejoo „^ 


Oond , . _ _ 


7 


80 


Jallia Dewanee .^ 


Mallar^ _ _ 


25 


81 


Jallia Umrajeenoo 


Oond_, _. _. 


8 


82 


Jeekadreo 


Babriawar — — 


14 


83 


Jetpoor CheetuU 


Katteewar — — — 


2 


84 


Jbamka — __ 


Ditto-_ ^ ^ 


16 


85 


Jbampodur 


Jbalawar — 


28 


86 


Jbinjoowara 


Dittos ^ ^ 


50 


87 


Jbatnnr 


Ditto_ ^ 


31 



92 





1 




No. IN 


■ 


No. 


Talookas. 


Pbants. 


THE 

Table. 




88 


J. 
Joonaglmr 


Soruth — — 


1 




89 


Joonapadur .^ 


Oond_ ^ _ 


16 




90 


Jusdhnn.,^ 

K. 
Kagwudur 


Katteewar — — — 


26 




91 


Babriawar — 


10 




92 


Kankseealeo .-_ 


Hallar^ _ _ 


21 


, 


93 


Kanpor Esliuwuria — — 


Katteewar .^ .^ 


8 




94 


Karol 


Jhalawar 


4 




95 


Kathrola 


Katteewar .^ 


10 




96 


Kutoria.. , 


Gohelwar ^^ 


6 




97 


Katroree «^ ,^ 


Oond_. ^ _- 


21 




98 


Katurdliur 


Babriawar-^ 


7 




99 


Kesria 


Jhalawar 


41 




100 


Khandia «-. -^ 


Dittos _ ^ 


11 




101 


Kheejria — — 


Katteewar.^ .^ ^^ 


11 




102 


Klieejria 


Dittos. ^ ^ 


55 




103 


Kheejria 


Gohelwar<*«. .^ 


20 




104 


Kheerusra . 


Hallar... _. _. 


24 




105 


Kheralee.,,. ^^ 


Jhalawar,-^ 


29 




106 


Khnmbala.,,^ 


Katteewar 


32 




107 


Kliuinlao,..-v. --«. , 


Jhalawar .-^ »^ 


6 




108 


Kooba-^ -_ 


Katteewar . ^^ .^ 


53 




109 


Koondliala — .^ 


Babriawar . 


2 


r 


110 


Kotharia .^ .^ 


Hallar 


14 




HI 


Kotra Nuyajeo.,.. 


Ditto^. _ _ 


26 




112 


Kotra Peetha .^ 


Katteewar 


7 




113 


Kotra Sanganee^^ «^ 


Hallar_ _ _ 


9 




114 


Kotree — .^ 


Babriawar — 


9 




115 


Kowaya-^ .^ 


Ditto_ _ _ 


29 




116 


Kumalpoor,-^ ^^ .^ 


Jhalawar 


5 




117 


Kumundhia & Waoree 


Katteewar .-^ •^ 


42 




118 


Kuner--^ ^^ 


Ditto-_ _ ^ 


9 




119 


Kunjhurda 


Oond Surweya — — — 


10 




120 


Kuntharia — 


Jhalawar — 


3 




121 


Kuntharia Kysa 


Babriawar .^^ .^ 


8 




122 


Kuntharia Coolee.<«- 


Dittos ^ ^ 


11 




123 


Kureeana^^ 


Katteewar «^ 


29 




124 


Kiirmur,^ ..^ 

L. 
Lakhapudur.^.. *^ 


Jhalawar.^ .^ 


46 




125 


Katteewar.^ .^ 


20 




126 


Laliad_ _ _ 


Jhalawar-^ .«^ ,^ 


21 




127 


Lathee — ^« — 


Gohelwar •^ 


16 




128 


Leemra-^ «^ ^^ 


Dittos. .^. _ 


24 




129 


Liraree ^^ 


Jhalawar.^ ^, 


2 




130 


Lodheeka — — 


Hallar^. _. _ 


15 




131 


Loongia «-- 


Katteewar--- ,^ 


23 




132 


Lor .^.. «^ 

M. 

Mallia .^. _ 


Babriawar,-^ k,., 


19 




133 


^uchoo Kanta-^ ^* — 


2 




134 




^anawao — 


Katteewar — — 


19 





93 







No. IN 


No. 


Talookas. 


Prants. 


THE 










Tablb. 




M. 








135 


Mansa 


Babriawar 


13 


136 


Matra Timba 


Kattecwar ,^, .^ 


37 


137 


Mesbria .^, .^, 


Jhalawar — ^, 


38 


138 


Mehwasa 


Katteewar „^ 


36 


139 


Mungnee ^ -~v, ,-«. 


Hallar _ _ _ 


8 


140 


Mouwel & Ruwanoft„„ 


Katteewar .^. 


21 


141 


Moolec . 


Jhalawar «^ .-^ , 


42 


142 


Muoleeraderee>^ .^ 


Hallar __._._ 


4 


143 


Moonjpoor ^ ^ ...^ ,,^ . 


Jhalawar ,^ 


43 


144 


Morehopiia — 


Oond _ _ _ 


13 


145 


Morvee ..^^ 


Muchoo Kanta.. 


1 


146 


Muwa 

N. 


Hallar -___,_ 


22 


147 


Xagsree 


Babriawar «^ ,^ 


6 


148 


Neeluwra,^. 


Katteewar,-^ .^ ..^ .-^ 


41 


149 


Neengala — — 


Babriawar ..^ «^ 


24 


150 


Nuwanuggur ,^ 

0. 


Hallar__ _ _ _ _ 


I 


151 


Okharaundul 


Okhamundul 


1 


152 


Oontiawadur 


Babriawar 


27 


153 


Oontreo 

P. 
Pa-a 


Jhalawar 


25 


154 


Oond 


5 


155 


Pal 








Hallar 








16 


156 


Pp.leetana 








Gohelwar 








27 


157 


Paliad 








Katteewar 








33 


158 


Panchuwra 








Gohelwar 








7 


159 


Patree 








Jhalawar 








49 


160 


Peechree 








Babriawar 








3 


161 


Pachrioo 








Ditto 








4 


162 


Poorbunder 








Burda 








1 


163 


Puchegam 








Gohelwar 








10 


164 


Pulalee 

■o 








Jhalawar 






16 


165 


K. 

Raee Sanklee 


Jhalawar 


53 


166 


Rajkot Surdhar. . . 








Hallar 








12 


167 


Rajpur 








Jhalawar 








34 


168 


Rajpura 








Hallar 








11 


169 


Rajpura 








Oond 








4 


170 


Rajiipurda 








Katteewar 








46 


171 


Ramunka 








Gohelwar 








12 


172 


Randliia 








Katteewar 








54 


173 


Roheesala 








Oond 








18 


174 


Rutunpur Dliamuuka. . . 






Gohelwar 








2 


175 


Saela 


Jlialawar 


44 



94 







1 No. IN 1 


No. 


Talookas. 


Prants. 


THE 


176 






Table. 


S. 
Sakria 


. Babriawar 


21 


177 


Saooka... 


. Jhalawar 








24 


178 


Sangana 


. Babriawar 








32 


179 


Satanoness 


. Oond 








11 


180 


Satodur Waoree 


. Hallar 








5 


181 


Seesang Chandlee 


. Ditto 








6 


182 


Sejukpoor 


. Katteewar 








45 


183 


Sewreewudur 


. Oond 








17 


184 


Shapoor 


. Hallar 








20 


185 


Slieroda 


.Oond 








3 


186 


Silaua & Halria 


Katteewar 








25 


187 


Sonpuree 


. Golielwar 








9 


188 


Soodamra 


. Katteewar 








44 


189 


Sumla 


. Jhalawar 








23 


190 


Summimdliiala 


. Katteewar 








28 


191 


Siimmundliiala 


Oond Surweya... 








19 


192 


Suniinundliiala & Chubaria 


. Golielwar 








23 


193 


Suiiala 


. Oond 








2 


194 


Simosra 

T. 
Tavee 


. Katteewar 








38 


195 


. Jhalawar 


13 


196 


Than Luktiir 


. Ditto 








39 


197 


Timbee 


. Babriawar 








12 


198 


Tora 


. Golielwar 








5 


199 


Tulsana 

U. 
Uliunpur 


. Jhalawar 








12 


200 


. Golielwar 


14 


201 


Umrapur , 


. Soruth 


3 


202 


Urjunsook 

V. 
Yocrpur Khurcreo 


. Katteewar 


51 


203 


. Hallar 


3 


204 


Vcerwao 


. Ditto 


19 


205 


Vekria 

W. 


. Katteewar 


22 


206 


Wagdra 


. Gohelwar 


26 


207 


Wagwree 


. Katteewar 








24 


208 


Wankaneer 


. Jhalawar 








37 


209 


Waoree 


. Golielwar 








25 


210 


Waoree Wachanee 


Ditto 








8 


211 


Weechawur 


. Katteewar 








52 


212 


Wejanoness 


. Oond 








23 


213 


Withulghur 


. Jhalawar 








40 


214 


Wudal 


. Oond 








12 


215 


Wudalee 


. Hallar 








18 


216 


Wudwan 


. Jhalawar 








27 


217 


Wula 


. Gohelwar 








3 


218 


Wuna 


. Jhalawar 








36 


219 


Wunala 


Ditto 








22 


220 


Wunod 


Ditto 








51 


221 


Wurod 


Ditto 








35 


222 


Wurod 


Gohelwar 








13 


223 


Wuroonchya 


. Babriawar 








22 


224 


Wussawur 


. Katteewar 








47 



95 





SUPPLED 


[ENTA 


L 


INDEX. 


Index to the several States of Kattecwar absorbed in, or imited with other 


States since the Permanent Settlement. * 








o 

C3 ^ 


States in which absorbed, or 


No. 

1 


Talookas. 


Prants. 


'i^ 


with which united. 


A. 

Ambla 


Katteewar. 


3 


• Under Amrellee. 

do. Nuwanuggiir. 
do. Jusdhnn. 


2 


Ambulree 


Ditto. 


2 


3 
4 


Amrun. . . 
Aneealco 


Hallar. 
Katteewar. 


5 
73 


5 


Atkot 

B. 


Do. 


87 


do. Nuwanuggur. 


fi 


Barputolce 


Babriawar. 


2 


do. Dedan. 


7 


Bhadia 


Katteewar. 


90 


do. Nuwanuggur. 
United with Katurdhur. 


8 


Bhakodur 


Babriawar. 


16 


9 
10 


Bharookia 

Burwala 

C. 
Chulala 

D. 
Deetulwudur. . . . 


Hallar. 
Katteewar. 


4 
92 


Under Nuwanuggur. 
do. do. 


11 


Ditto. 


30 


do. Amrellee. 


12 


Ditto. 


33 


do. do. 


13 


Deola 


Ditto. 


32 


14 
15 


Depla 

Dhabalee 


Oond. 
Katteewar. 


29 
13 


do. Bliaonuggur. 


16 


Dharee 


Ditto. 


15 




17 


Dhareejugance . . . 


Ditto. 


34 


> Under Amrellee. 


18 


Dharugnee 


Ditto. 


16 




19 


Dhulkhanioo 


Ditto. 


14 


do. do. 


20 


Dhussa 

G. 


Ditto. 


101 


United with Raee Sanklee. 


21 


Ghanla 

H. 


Babriawar. 


33 


Under Bliaonuggur. 


22 


Ilalria. . . 


Katteewar. 


62 


United with Silana. 


23 


Ilathsimee 


Oond. 


1 


do. Datha. 


24 


Ilemal 


Babriawar. 


23 


do. Katurdjiur. 


2r. 


Ilolree... 


Katteewar. 


26 


Under Amrellee. 


20 


Hureeana 


Hallar. 


3 


do. Nuwanuggur. 
do. Jusdhnn. 


27 


Ilurmuntia 

I. 
Ingorala 

J. 
Jeera. . . 


Katteewar. 


72 


28 


Katteewar. 


63 


do. Amrellee. 


29 


Ditto. 


10 


do. do. 


30 
31 


Jesur. . . 
Jhur 


Oond. 
Katteewar. 


27 
52 


do. BliaonuGfgur. 
do. Anuvllcc. 


32 


Jhurnkhla 


Oond. 


2« 


do. BhaonnjjfG^ur, 


3S 


Jinkeealee 


Katteewar. 


11 


do. Amrt'lh-e. 


34 


Joria Balumbha. . . 


Hallar. 


2 


do. Nuwanuggur. 
do. Jusdhun. 


35 


Jnssupur 

K. 
Kalasur 


Katteewar. 


68 


36 


Ditto. 


87 


United with Bhoemora. 


37 


Katuwree 


Ditto. 


7 


Under Amrellee. 


38;KeraIa 


Ditto. 


104 


do. Wudwan. 


39|Kerala 


Ditto. 


4 




40 


Khakbaee 


Babriawar. 


32 




41 


Kheecha Nhana 


Katteewar. 


8 


> Under Amrellee. 


42 


Kheejrioo the 2d 


G oh el war. 


30 




43 


Khumbalia 


Katteewar. 


9 


^ 


44 


Kurereo 


Hallar. 


8 


United with Veerpur. 
Under Amrellee. 


45 


Khoobra 


Katteewar. 


6 


46 


Koondnee. . . 


Ditto. 


66 


do. Jus<Uinn. 


47 


Kootia 


Oond. 


26 


do. Bliaonuggur. 



y6 









65 


States in which absorbed, oi 




No. 
48 


Talookas. 


Prants. 


with which united. 




K. 

Kothee 


Katteewar. 


Under Jusdhun. 




49 


Kotra 


Ditto. 


5 


) 




50 


Kumee 


Ditto. 


28 


> do. Amrellee. 




61 


Kumeegbur. . . 


Ditto. 


27 


/ 




62 


Kunesra 

L. 
Lampalia 


Ditto. 


67 


do. Jusdhun. 




63 


Ditto. 


36 


do. Amrellee. 




54 


Loharia 

M. 

Mehwassa 


Ditto. 


57 


United with Jetpoor. 




65 


Ditto. 


19 


V 




56 


Menduwra 


Ditto. 


18 


I Under Amrelleo. 




57 


Meree. . . 


Ditto. 


35 






58 


Modhooka 

N. 
Nagdhuree... 

P. 
Panchaora 


Ditto. 


69 


do. Jusdhun. 




59 


Ditto. 


29 


do. Amrellee. 




60 


Ditto. 


94 


do. Nuwanuggur. 




61 


Pandria 


Oond. 


8 


United with Chok. 




62 


Patna Maljee... 


Gohelwar. 


31 


Under Jusdliun. 




63 


Pepraloo 

R. 
Rajpeepla 


Katteewar. 


17 


do. Amrellee. 




64 


Gohelwar. 


17 


do. Lathee. 




65 


Raneegam 


Oond. 


7 


United with Datha. 




66 


Ranpurra 

S. 


Ditto. 


21 


Half under Datha and half 
under Rajpur in Jhalawar. 




67 


Sanklee 


Jhalawar. 


53 


United with Raee. 




68 


Sanunthlee 


Katteewar. 


91 


Under Nuwanuggur. 




69 


Satpura 


Oond. 


31 


do. Bhaonuggur. 




70 


Seewur 


Katteewar. 


23 


do. Amrellee. 




71 


Setulioo 


Ditto. 


71 


do. Jusdhun. 




72 


Sirumbra 


Ditto. 


24 


do. Amrellee. 




73 


Sumundhiala. . . 


Ditto. 


38 


do. do. 




74 


Sumundhiala. . . 


Ditto. 


93 


do. Nuwanugffur. 




75 

76 


Sumundhiala Nhana 

Surseea 


Ditto. 
Ditto. 


25 
2*^ 


1 do. Amrellee. 




77 


Surupdur 

T. 
Teekria 


Hallar. 


29 


United with Dhurol. 




78 


Katteewar. 


12 


Under Amrellee. 




79 


Tunkara 


Jhalawar. 


50 


United with Morvee. 




80 


Turwura 

U. 

Ujmer. . . 


Katteew^ar. 


31 


Under Amrellee. 




81 


Katteewar. 


95 


do. Nuwanuggur. 




82 


Vcerpoor 


Ditto. 


21 


' do. Amrellee. 




83 


Veerpur 


Oond. 


3 


United with Eyawej. 




84 


Veerreo 

W. 

Wankia Mbota 


Gohelwar. 


18 


Under Lathee. 




85 


Katteewar. 


37 


do. Amrellee. 




86 


Waoree 


Oond. 


30 


do. Bhaonuggur. 




87 


Wurreeoo 


Katteewar. 


20 


do. Amrellee. 


88 


VVurja Teenith 


Ditto. 


70 


do. Jusdliun. 





N. B. — 8 New Tributaries having been established since the Permanent Set- 
tlement, render the numeric difference only 80, a.s shown in the General Abstract 
Table of the Statistical Returns. 

(Signed) G. LeG. Jacob, 

Acting Political Agent. 
(True Copies) (Signed) J. P. Willououby, Vhief Secretary. 



97 

Continuation of Desultory Notes and ObservatiotiSt on various 
places in Guzerat and Western India, By John Vaupell, Esq. 

[Communicated by the Author.] 
1838. December. — Set out on a Tour through Guzerat, after an ab- 
sence of twelve years : the debilitating consequences of constant appli- 
cation to business requiring a change both of air and scene ; which, add- 
ed to the bracing effects of the cold season, in a more northern latitude, 
with active exercise, promised well for re-invigorating a frame already 
considerably relaxed from long residence (37 years) in an Eastern clime. 
Embarked for Tuukaria Bunder in a botella, differing from those of 
former days by the after part being converted into a roomy comfortable 
cabin, with three ports on each side; Venetian stern windows and 
blinds, a quarter gallery, and lockers all round ; a pannelled bulkhead, 
with two doors in front opening outwards. The size of this vessel is 
about 150 candies, or fifty tons, built three years ago, at Surat, at a 
cost of Rs. 4,000. 

Valentine's Peak. — A remarkable conical inverted funnel-shaped 
Hill, abreast of Danoo, in the North Concan, called by the Natives 
Maha Luxumee. It is ten or fifteen miles inland from the Coast. The 
Peak on the apex of the cone is of considerable elevation, and an ob- 
ject of veneration to the Natives, who have a strange tendency to con- 
sider sacred every object in nature either rare or to them difficult of 
comprehension. An annual Yatra or Fair is held here on the full moon 
of Chaitra (March,) to which a numerous assemblage of devotees resort. 
The spirit of the Devi (goddess) is supposed at this period only to en- 
ter into the Patell of the village (situated at the base of the mountain,) 
and to inspire him with fortitude sufficient to overcome all difficulties 
in climbing to the summit of the Peak. On accomplishing this dange- 
rous feat, he plants a flag with a standard on the apex ; thus announc- 
ing to the wondering crowds below the successful accomplishment of 
his purpose. On this the assemblage set up such a din and clamor in 
honour of the Devi, as would suffice to deprive any sober-minded per- 
son of his senses. It is carefully promulgated, that should any one 
else, not of the favored Patell family, presume to attempt the ascent, 
death would inevitably ensue ; and instances are related of such occur- 
rences. The Peak is noticed in Directories as a useful mark to enable 
vessels to double St. John's point, which runs out to a considerable 
distance Westward into the sea. 

Parneira. — A remarkably high hill, about ten miles north of the 
Portuguese settlement of Damaun, and three miles inland from the 
Coast, terminating, though itself isolated and rising from the plain, the 
range of Ghaut Mountains which line the Sea Coast of the Concans. 
On the top is situated a strong stone Fort : a Military officer's party 
used to be stationed here formerly. It is about two and a half or three 



98 

miles from the plain by the road, which in several places is of difficult 
and devious ascent. There are several extensive reservoirs of good 
water on the top within the Fort. The Hills of the Dhurrumpore range 
are clearly visible^frora it. It would form a cool and pleasant restdence 
for invalids from Surat and its neighbourhood, during the hot season. 
Supplies are abundant and good in the town of Bulsar, about three 
coss north of the hill, on the direct road to Surat. 

Having entered the Gulf of Cambay, formed by Diu point on the 
Western Coast and St. John's Cape on the Eastern, several Native 
vessels of different kinds were observed. It may not be amiss here to 
place on record the different classes of native craft that navigate this 
Coast, from the Indus to Cape Comorin ; and which are the principal 
carriers of the trade of this side of India : they are as follows :— * 

1, The Dow J or Buggelah.^^This is the largest of the lateen or 
shoulder-of-mutton-sail craft, varying from 300 to 1,000 candies bur- 
then ; they have usually one large mast, formed of a single spar, to 
which is hoisted a huge lateen sail, fixed to a long tapering yard 
hung in slings ; two-thirds of this yard remaining behind, and one- 
third before, the mast. They have generally high square sterns, and 
low grab-shaped bows, and are decked ; sometimes they carry guns ; 
they seldom carry jibs or mizen sails. The forefoot or tack of the 
mainsail is made fast to the bow, and the main sheet to the quarter abaft 
the beam. These vessels belong chiefly to, and are navigated by, 
Arabs, carrying from thirty to 100 and 150 men, and are common to 
the Red Sea, Persian Gulf, and Western Coast of India. 

2, The Dingy » — This is the next in size on the descending scale* 
and varies from 50 to 300 and 500 candies burthen. It differs from 
the foregoing in having either a round or square stern, generally very 
lofty, and a mizen mast ; no deck, but open hatchwork, consisting of 
removable beams, laid lengthwise and across the vessel, fitting into 
sockets, so as to admit of a matting of flat split bamboos being laid 
along and upon them, forming a deck sufficiently strong, and possess- 
ing the advantage of being removable at pleasure, which is usually done 
whenever taking in or discharging cargo renders it necessary. Besides 
the main yard, this kind of vessel has a moveable boom, to the outer 
end of which the forefoot or tack of the sail is fastened, and the boom 
shoved out with the attached sail, projecting several feet beyond the 
bows — a most clumsy contrivance ; for every time the vessel tacks 
about it is necessary to take it in and shove it out again. The rudder 
is also hung in a peculiar way, well described by Captain (the late 
Colonel Sir Alexander) Burnes, in his account of his voyage up the In- 
dus. It hangs separate from the stern post, leaving a considerable open- 
ing between it and the vessel. This craft is peculiar to the Coasts of 
Mukran, Scinde, and Cutch, carrying crews of from ten to twenty-five 



[)9 

mon. They usually have two flagstafFs on the stern, from four to six feet 
high, to the top of each of which a weather-cock is fixed, and the head is 
turned up involute, which makes tlie whole boat resemble a native shoe. 

3, Kottiahf Padowy Gulbut — Next in order come the vessels of 
the Katty war Coast and Gulf of Cutch ; they are named either Kotti- 
ah, Gulbut, or Gallivat or Padow, according as they are built with 
angular, square, or round sterns, respectively ; they vary in size from 
thirty to 100 and 150 candies, carry mostly two lateen sails on a 
main and mizen mast, having occasionally a trysail or jib: being of a 
sharp build they usually sail well. It was this description of vessel that 
in former times were used for Piratical purposes, and are still occasion- 
ally, but very rarely, so used. They carry a crew of from six to fifteen 
persons, according to size, one of whom is the Tindal or Master, the 
other the Dongvee or Pilot. Although most of these vessels have a 
compass on board, it is seldom or never used, except during rainy, 
cloudy, or boisterous weather, when the Coast is invisible: these boats 
seldom venturing beyond soundings, and still seldomer out of sight of 
land, accounts for the little use they make of the compass. There are, 
however, exceptions to this general rule in those more adventurous 
characters who venture to the African Coast on trading voyages, 
but who generally keep within soundings as far as they can. 

4, Fourthly. — As we proceed Eastward and Southward, come the 
vessels of the Gulf of Cambay and Coast of Guzerat ; these are 

1, The Dorioh, or ketch square riggid. 

2, The Botella. 

3, The Orioh. 

4, The Padow. 

5, The Gallivat. 

1. The Ketch is named Dorioh, or the one-and-a-half, from its 
having a main and mizen mast, rigged with yards and shrouds like our 
ships ; and having square sails, topsails, and topgallantsails, a driver 
and mizen topsail, with trysail and jib. The only thing remarkable in 
these imitations of Ketches, is a long narrow strip of stern which 
extends several yards from the sternpost, and on a level with the 
Poop, or upper Deck, having a parapet railing two feet high 
running on each side, and closed with plank at the stern : it seldom 
exceeds two to three feet in width, and being planked below, forms a 
sort of projecting gallery from which the whole vessel, when under sail, 
may be viewed. These Ketches are peculiar to Surat — the moulder- 
ing remains, probably, of the once flourishing navy of the Great Mogul, 
whose Admiral's descendants, the Seedee of Junjeerah, of African 
lineage, near Angria's Colaba, still survive the wreck of their former 
grandeur. The town and port of Jaffrabad on the Kattywar Coast, 
belongs to this family as its Jaghire. These vessels will soon be extinct, 



100 

for wlien one is decayed or lost, it is never replaced by a new one of 
the same construction, botcllas or other vessels being preferred. 

2. The Botella may be described as the Dow in miniature, from 
which probably the original model was taken. It has invariably a 
square flat stern, and long grab-like head ; varies from fifty to 300 
candies, and is by far the most numerous of any class of coasters em- 
ployed as carriers of merchandize &c. They have one large and one 
small mast with a jib-boom, to which they hoist a large and small 
lateen sail and a jib. In foul weather they have an oblong square 
sail, which is hoisted to the mainmast by a square yard in slings ; these 
vessels are flat-bottomed, or, which is the same thing, have a broad 
beam. The one I am now writing in is rated at 150 candies burthen, is 
about sixty feet long over all from stern to stern, has a beam of fifteen 
feet, a depth in the hold of ten feet, and a keel of forty five feet ; the head 
and stern posts both diverge from the perpendicular with reference to 
the keel, the latter at an angle of about ten degrees from the meridian, 
the former forty-five degrees. These vessels, from their flat build, make 
much leeway on a wind, especially if in ballast or with a cotton cargo. 
They are manned with from eight to fifteen men, one of whom is Tindal 
or master. They seldom or ever carry a Pilot, the Tindal being sup- 
posed sufficiently conversant with the navigation of the Gulf and 
Coast. They sometimes go down as far as Cochin and Colombo, but 
these are those of the largest burthen, and solely for timber, or arrack, 
their flat build rendering them more peculiarly adapted for this trade. 
They are usually built of teak, and are constructed all along the coast 
from Surat to Danoo. They are navigated by Guzerattee fishermen 
during the fair season from October to June, and laid up high and dry 
during the S. W. monsoon. Many of these fishermen become owners when 
their gains will admit of their building a botella, which course they always 
prefer to purchasing one already built, and no doubt for many and 
wise reasons. These boats are generally speaking safe and commo* 
dious, and now that they are beginning to be fitted up with cabins 
astern, have the additional qualifications of comfort, privacy, conveni- 
ence, and cleanliness. 

3. — 5. The Orioh and Gallivat diff^er from the Botella only in the 
former having a bluff* round head, similar to that of our ships, and 
resembling precisely in model a ship's long boat ; and the latter in hav- 
ing a rounded or angular stern, and being sharper built. The former 
are peculiar to Broach, the latter to the ports on the western shore 
of the Gulf of Cambay. 

4. The Parow now remains. This is precisely the Botella in mi- 
niature, seldom exceeding thirty candies in bulk, and confined to the 
ports in the Gulf north of Bulsar. They go down southward as far 
as Mahim and Bandora with firewood and grain in the fair season ; 
but seldom or ever further south. 



101 

5. The Pattiinar, or coaster to the southward of Bombay, now 
remahis to be described. This, I hesitate not to pronounce from expe- 
rience, is by far the best built, best found, and best navigated, 
native vessel on the whole coast of the Indian Ocean, from the 
Straits of Babelmandel to the Gulf of Manaar. These do not 
vary much either in size or build, being comprised within 100 to 
300 candies in burthen, and of a sharp narrow construction ; 
the timbers used being the strongest and most substantial pro- 
curable — suited, in short, as experience has taught them, to the navi- 
gation of a coast bounded by rocks and rocky reefs, with high 
surfs rolling wherever there is anything like a sandy beach. These 
vessels sail admirably, particularly on a wind ; they have a main, a 
mizen mast, and a jib boom, to which they hoist a large and small 
lateen sails and a jib. The masts of these Pattimars rake consider- 
ably forward, so that the angle formed by the top of the mast with 
the head, and the insertion at the main thwart, is nearly, if not exact- 
ly, a right angled triangle ; the sails are large in proportion to the 
size of the vessel, substantial and well made; the yards to which the 
sails are hoisted, project forward from the head of the mast about 
one-fourth, and three-fourths behind, and they end in a long sharp 
point. But the greatest peculiarity about the construction is that of the 
keel; in other vessels this is generally a straight piece of timber, nearly 
equal on four sides, and of sufficient strength to raise the superstruc- 
ture upon ; but in these Pattimars it consists sometimes of three, often 
of two, distinct pieces of timber : the first one-third of its length inva- 
riably straight, or horizontal, the remainder, whether of one or two 
pieces, a curve downwards, the lower part of which, or what is tech- 
nically called the forefoot, terminating considerably below the line of 
the hinder or sternpost end ; it may be described to form half a semi- 
circle from the commencement to the termination of the curve : this 
leaves a considerable space below the level of the keel to be planked 
up, and answers two manifest purposes — first, it enables the vessel 
to keep its luff (as seamen would say) or sail on a wind without mak- 
ing lee way ; and secondly, in the event of the vessel being near rocky 
ground, on touching, the forefoot gives warning sufficient to shove 
her off, the rest of the keel remaining afloat. The Crews of these 
Pattimars are composed principally of Roman Catholic Christians, often 
of Cooly or Hindoo fishermen, many of whom are owners of them : the 
order, cleanliness, subordination, and even decorum, they manifest, 
is remarkable ; every rope is in its proper place, duly coiled and kept 
ready for use, and every article of the most seaworthy description. 
1 speak from experience and observation, having been down the Coast 
as far as Tellicherry and back again in Pattimars, and haying had 
many other occasions of observing them: they are manned with from 
ten, fifteen, to twenty men, of whom the Tindal is master ; he has fre- 



102 

quently a Pilot to assist him in navigating the vessel, a leadsman, and 
several seaeunnies or steersmen. 

The only other craft used on this coast are the Fishing boats anil 
Canoes. The latter require no description ; of the former it may be said 
that at and from Damaun northward, they are constructed after the 
model of the Botella, and to the southward after that of the Pattimar, 
never exceeding in size that of a longboat of a ship of 500 tons. 

Tapty River. — About 8 p. m. tide and wind serving, got under 
weigh and stood out to sea. There are extensive flats or sandbanks 
at the mouth of the Tapty river (vulgo TapeeJ which it requires 
constant sounding and care to avoid. The channels are two, one 
under the north bank, the other under the south bank ; the river at 
its mouth extends five or seven miles from shore to shore, of which 
space these channels may occupy about a mile or a mile and a half. 
Boats getting on these sandflats are often lost. One which we saw 
on the beach of Bhimpore, with the stump of the mast remaining, and 
a hole in her bottom, had been overset a few miles to the southward 
but a fortnight before, and the cargo, consisting of oil and cotton 
seeds, entirely lost. The night of our entering Bhimpore Creek, one 
of our companions from Bomba}^ laden with bhat ^rice in the husk, J 
and bound to Surat, was likewise lost, from her crew's carelessness 
in not anchoring at the turn of the tide in sufficiently deep water in 
mid-channel ; near the time of low water the vessel rode over her 
anchor while the crew were asleep, and bumping against it drove a 
fluke into her bottom whicii very soon swamped her : the cargo was 
lost, but crew and vessel saved. On enquiry, I find the natives seldom 
or ever take the precaution of ensuring their cargoes — their vessels 
never. It would not probably be a losing speculation to establish an In- 
surance office, with a moderate capital, expressly to assure these country 
craft from the usual risks of the sea ; proportioning the premiums to 
the nature of the risks, which vary at the different ports in the Gulf, 
encreasing progressively on ihe eastern shore as far as Cambay, the 
most dangerous port of all, and decreasing in like manner on the 
western shore in a southerly direction. The capital need not exceed 
1,25,000 rupees, to be raised in shares of rupees 500 each, or 250 
shares, to be vested in Government Securities. No risk, either on 
block or cargo, to be taken to exceed 5,000 rupees on any single ves- 
sel ; with a few other rules, as experience and necessity might suggest. 
The greatest risk to guard against would be native dishonesty ; but 
checks to prevent in some degree this evil might be devised. It will 
be objected, that the natives have already the means of effecting simi- 
lar insurances in the bazaar : true, but it is well known that a loss is 
seldom paid on a bazaar policy without litigation and the expences of 
a lawsuit ; this very reason is urged by owners of vessels why they 



103 

never insure, as recovery in the event of loss is, under present circum- 
stances, a hopeless case. On seeing, however, that they were fairly dealt 
with, it is presumed many would prefer such an institution to the 
bazaar. Of the other improvements in this vicinity, is the establish- 
ment of a light on the point near Vaux's Tomb, and another on the 
Island of Perim near Gogo, both of which were much wanted. In 
the Roads there was but one solitary Brig anchored. What a change 
has come over the commercial destinies of Surat! From one of the 
most flourishing trading ports in the end of last and commencement of 
the present centuries, where the flags of all nations were to be seen 
proudly waving over their respective Factories, it has dwindled away 
to next to nothing ; and, as if in combination with political causes, the 
elements, both of water and fire, have within the last five years added to 
the desolation of this once far-famed emporium, and Surat now re- 
mains but the shadow of what it once was, two-thirds to three-fourths 
of the city having been annihilated. May these judgments of the Al- 
mighty have a salutary effect on the minds of those who remain ! 

Fridaify 2Sth Dec. — Rose shortly after sunrise — northwester still 
b'owing, but much moderated ; felt colder tliis morning than hitherto 
this season — had no thermometer to refer to, but suppose it must have 
stood beteen 45 and 50 degrees Fahrenheit. About 8 A. M., the tide 
serving, got under weigh, and bid farewell to Surat Roads. Even I can 
remember the day when they used at this season to be crowded with 
shipping, now passed away probably for ever. The continued rising 
prosperity of Bombay will account in a great measure for this, in 
addition to the calamities above alluded to, as well as the transfer 
thither of the numerous pilgrims who resort to Mecca and Medina an- 
nually — Sufat having, in consequence, lost the name as well as title to 
the appellation of the ** Gate of Mecca," formerly bestowed on it by 
the Mahomedan Conquerors of India. 

Saw Perum Island distinctly, with the Lighthouse on the hill, 
bearing §outh-westerly distant six or eight miles ; saw also the moun- 
tains of the coast about Gogo stretching north from Perum. This 
Inland has become an object of much interest to the Naturalist, from 
the discovery of the Fossil remains of animals now extinct. It is 
situated close to the western shore of the Gulf, and about three miles 
south of Gogo. 

Gogo. — This port in the days of Mahomedan ascendancy was 
one of the most flourishing in the upper part of the Gulf, and was 
considered as the seaport of Cambay. It derives its name from Gogo- 
bawah, its founder, a Rajpoot chieftain, mentioned by Colonel Todd in 
his annals of Rajasthan. It was sacked and burned, together with Gun- 
dar. Broach, and Hansote, in the middle of the sixteenth century, by 
the Portuguese under Dom Manocl Dc Lima, in revenge for the in- 



104 

vestment of the Fortress of Diu, so ably defended by Dom Joao de 
Castro, fourth Viceroy of India, and his Captain Dom Joao Mas- 
carenhas, against the armies of the Mogul ruler of Guzerat. Gogo 
has never recovered the effects since. It is admirably situated for a 
trading port ; ships of the largest burthen can come up into the roads, 
where there is good anchorage ground about a mile off shore, well de- 
fended from southerly and westerly winds. It vyould answer well to 
have a sett of iron re-pack Cotton-screws here, in which case ships 
might come and take in their lading at this anchorage during the fair 
season, thus saving all costs and charges to Bombay, which has been 
estimated at from 25 to 30 per cent, inclusive of re-pack charges and 
custom duties there. At 8 a. m., a gentle breeze springing up from 
the land, weighed and stood along shore. Deep water, twelve to eighteen 
fathoms close in^ the shore about half a mile distant : kept along this shore, 
with alternate winds and calms, until the entrance of the Dadur river 
leading to Tunkarree Bunder, which was effected about 2 p. m. At the 
distance of about five miles north, the temple and grove of Dew Jug- 
gun was observed — a leading mark for boats entering the Dadur. 
Shortly after the Custom House at Tunkarree was descried, with a 
flowing tide and gentle breeze we reached the Bunder about 3 p. m. 
Landed and proceeded to Tunkarree village, where I was hospitably 
lodged by my old acquaintance Adam Allibhy, Patell of that place. 
The fields of cotton and jowarree bear ample testimony to the deficien- 
cy of last rains. The cotton plants have attained their full growth, 
but have produced little or nothing — many plants nothing at all ; these 
latter, from want of grass, the peasants pull up and give to their cattle 
for fodder. The jowarree fields have in many places dried up entirely. 
A timely supply of grain, rice and naglee, from the coast, has pre- 
served the people here from famine. There is no water in the tanks, 
the people being dependent solely on the supply afforded by wells for 
themselves and cattle. 

Adam Patell. — A few words should be said about Adam Patell. 
He is a hale, healthy, tall old man, of about sixty years of age* He is a 
Mahomedan. and of the tribe of Bhora cultivators — a people common to 
the Broach, Ahmode, and Jumbooseer Purgunnahs. They say they 
are descendants of Abraham by Ketturah, and the progeny of his son 
Ishmael. It is remarkable that they have nothing to do, or in common, 
with the shopkeeping pedlar and Surat tribe of Borahs: they acknow- 
ledge not the authority of their High Priest, nor follow their rituals, 
but in their habits, customs, and manners, resemble more the Hindoos 
than Mahomedans. They say their High Priest resides at Randeir 
near Surat : they call themselves Char Yaree, in contradistinction to the 
pedlar Bhoras, whom they discribe as Teen Yaree. Their women dress 
like Hindoos, and themselves like the Grassias. They area frugal, 
industrious, and hard working race of men. Adam Patell of Tunkar- 



105 

rcc, has for many years past been engaged in the preparation of cotton 
for the merchants of Bombay ; he has also employed himself usefully 
in many other ways, being a kind of general native agent. By his in- 
dustry and frugality, he has laid by between 15 and 20,000 Rupees, and 
as he has more sense than to throw away any part of his hard-earned 
savings in ostentatious works, or frivolous unmeaning ceremonies, 
he has become the envy of all the village, and especially of those of 
his own class* I have known him ever since 1822, and have hid occa- 
sions of dealing with him extensively, and of knowing him intimately, 
particularly when I was engaged in the cotton agency trade, and can 
safely saj* I never found a person more attentive to, and active in, his 
duties, and I always observed that he was strictly correct in his ac- 
counts. So much for Adam— may he go on and prosper ! 

GosAnoD. — This is a large village belonging to the Guicowar, 
well supplied with water from a large tank and also from wells. No 
supplies to be got here. The route from Tunkarree to this place is as 
follows : viz., Jumbooseer six coss, Vowlee two coss, Mahsur four coss, 
Gosahud two coss ; by another route— Jumbooseer six coss, Oochud 
three, Kunjut one, Kooral two, Gosahud two : either way fourteen 
coss, or about twenty one or twenty-two miles. The roads from Jum- 
booseer are mostly deep, heavy, white sand ; the country most fertile, 
scenery most beautiful, the whole face of the land covered with trees and 
fields. The cotton not looking so well as in years of abundance of rain ; 
other crops, raised by irrigation, thriving most luxuriantly, such as 
sugar cane (red), tobacco, hulde^ (curcuma longa), castor oil plant 
(ricinus communis), dholl plant (citysus cdjan^, wheat, barley, brin- 
jals, and other potherbs. The trees observed in this day's route were 
principally mangoe, khirnee also called rayeni (mimusops kauki), 
Salvadora Persica, and linifolia (a new species,) wood-apple trees 
fFeronia elephantumj, ficus I:idica, and religiosa (vurr and pipul,) 
custard-apple (annona squamosa,) on the road side. The trees are 
most lofty, and shew every appearance of being rooted in a most fer- 
tile soil. This was mostly sandy, with occasional patches of black 
cotton land- The manure used is that of cowdung, dead leaves, 
refuse of vegetables, and rich mud scraped from the bottom of tanks 
or reservoirs of water. Some of the trees full grown were fifty to sixty 
feet high, with immense spreading branches. Mangoes and some 
others, from being planted at regular distances, gave the country the 
appearance of a park or preserve. The animals observed were jack- 
alls and monkeys, the latter in great abundance. The birds were 
partridges, peafowl, sarus, duck and teal, blue and green pigeons, 
doves, &c. 

Tuesdai/y \st Januari/, 1839 — A bright moonlight, got under march 
by 5 o'clock, roads not so sandy as yesterday : scenery and fertility of 



the country increasing in interest and beauty ; passed through a forest 
of wood-apple trees, and picked up several ripe ones. Heard plenty 
of partridges but saw none. Passed a large tank on the road side near 
Somapoor, built with brick walls, and steps leading down to the water, 
with circular entrances for the water leading into it from the surround- 
ing country. Upwards of 500 Brinjaree bullocks passed us on the 
road near this tank proceeding to take a lading of salt near Tunkaree. 
bunder, and return therewith to Malwa. Passed several strings of ghar- 
rees laden with Malwa Opium proceeding to Tunkarree bunder, for 
Bombay. I was informed at Jumbooseer that 12,000 chests of Mal- 
wa Opium have already been shipped, and that 3,000 more are on 
their way down. Arrived by 9 o'clock at the village of Latifpoor, and 
put up at a Syud's Peer's Tomb, under the shade of some lofty trees 
by the road side. Breakfasted and spent the forenoon here ; started 
again at 2 p. m. and passed by Padra, a large straggling town, where 
were observed bricks making, and kilns prepared to burn them in. 
The houses in this part of Guzerat are built chiefly of this material, 
and are large, — generally of two or three stories high. The peasantry 
are well looking, well dressed, tall athletic men; they appear to be an in- 
dustrious thriving race, well clothed and well fed ; their country bore 
the marks of plenty and abundance, — most fertile, most productive. At 
the village of Wasna, a large tank with abundance of water, saw a few 
wild teal and curlews ; passed the Race Course, and arrived in Baroda 
Camp near the Residency about 7 o'clock at night, having come about 
twenty-three miles this day. 

Thursday i 3rd — At Baroda. Major F. called to see the Bishop, 
and brought with him a brass image of Parishnath, taken several years 
ago at Balmeer. The date upon it appears to be 1492 of Vikramajut, 
which differs from what Dr Wilson made it out to be by about eight 
hundred years. 

Monday, 7th — Rose at 4 a. m. and prepared for the march ; packed 
up and filled the carts, and started them off for Washud. Left Baroda 
Camp at half past 3 o'clock and arrived at Washud bungalow by 7 p. m. 
The villages on the road are Chawnee, Dusrut, Puddamlah, Fazilpoor, 
Mahi river, and Washud, distant about fifteen miles. 

Tuesday, 8th. — Left Washud at half past 3 p. m. and proceed- 
ed by an excellent road through an open level country to Arass 
two coss, Khurrole two coss, Syudpoor one and a half coss, and 
Anund Mogree one and a half coss, where we arrived just at the 
entrance of night. Nothing of much interest occurred in this day's 
march : we met with a wild hog on the road, but saw no other 
game. The country bears evidence of good cultivation,— tobacco, 



107 

cotton,* sugar cane, wheat and barley, also dlioll (cytisus cajan), 
being the principal products. The predominating trees were the 
kirnee or rayini, (mimusops kauki), the mango, and the tamarind — a 
bawul jungle now and then skirting the horizon in the distance. The 
tanks were some dry, and others drying up fast : the wells however 
contain plenty of water, both for the purposes of irrigation as well as 
for private consumption. They make a coarse dungaree cloth here, 
called gujjeeah, thirty-six to forty cubits long, costing from two and a 
half to three rupees per piece. The people and houses indicate a state 
of prosperity and comfort, the former being generally well clothed and 
in good condition, the latter built of kiln-burnt bricks and mud, often 
coated with chunam, and frequently two or three stories high. Left 
Anund at about half past 3 o'clock, and proceeded on to Lamb well two 
coss, Boreeawee one coss, Bombale one coss, Outrundah one coss, and 
Neriad two coss. A delightful well wooded and well cultivated country. 
Its chiefproducts are tobacco, cotton, and sugar cane, raised by irriga- 
tion, now and then interpersed with fields of barley, jirah (cuminum 
cyminum), and wheat. Roads sandy. Hedges well made, and kept 
in good order, principally composed of euphorbium antiquorum and 
tirucalli ; and near villages the mimosa scandens, whose dense long 
branches and foliage, and thickly studded recurved spines, form an 
almost impenetrable barrier; these latter are found principally in the 
neighbourhood of villages. We reached Neriad after dark about 7 p. m. 
and put up in the Cutcherry in very comfortable apartments. This is 
one of the largest towns in Guzerat ; population estimated at between 
forty and fifty thousand inhabitants. It carries on a considerable 
trade with Malwa and the interior, importing grain, drugs, gums, 
and dye stuffs, and exporting in return cotton, coarse dungarees, 
chintzes, tobacco, coarse sugar or jagree, &c. The lands here are as- 
sessed at a certain rate per beega, but according to the crop raised 
thereon, from five to ten, and as high as Rupees seventeen, per beega ; 
tobacco five at seven, sugar-cane ten, and so on — the most valuable 
crops generally paying the highest rates. It was gratifying to learn 
that Government had already appointed a public officer to make en- 
quiries on this subject, and that it is in contemplation to assess all lands 
according to the qualities of the soil, and not according to the nature 
of the crops raised upon it, and to render the assessment permanent. 
This would be by far the preferable mode as affording room for improve- 
ment. The Ryot, knowing he would have to pay a fixed rental, would 
be left quite at liberty to raise any crop he thought most likely to afford 

* The cotton here is of a different description from what grows in the Kanum 
and western Districts, being a quinquennial plant, cut down annually to the root, 
which tlirows out five to eight long taper stems six to eight feet high. The leaf 
is smaller than any I have seen, and deeply two-lobed. Native name Roree. Not 
irrigated. 



108 

him the greatest return for his labor, and would improve the quality of 
his land preparatory to raising the richest crops thereon, without being 
deterred by the apprehension of having to pay a higher rate of tax for 
them. This would be a decided benefit both to the cultivator and the 
country. 

Wednesday i 9th — Started at daybreak for Kaira, where we arrived 
about 10 a. m. and put up at the Travellers' Bungalow. Visited the 
Church, which is a beautiful building rather out of repair. It is quite 
melancholy to behold the ruins of this once flourishing and extensive 
cantonment. There are very few of the buildings in any kind of order. 
The timber and rafters of the roofs are stated to have been taken 
away to Dersa to construct the European barracks at the Camp there. 
The plough has been at work in the lines, and fields of wheat were ob- 
served in every direction amongst the ruins and rubbish of the old 
buildings. There are several enclosed burial grounds here, all going 
rapidly to decay. There is probably no place that so forcibly reminds 
one of the fleeting nature of sublunary things than a view of the pre- 
sent dilapidated state of this once flourishing military station. It was 
first fixed upon as the frontier station in Guzerat about 1805 : a 
Cutcherry and Adawlut were established here, and a Brigade of Cavalry 
and Infantry ; Barracks, Hospitals, and accommodations for Officers, 
were built at a vast expense — a Church was likewise completed about the 
year 1825. The causes of its abandonment were several, the principal 
being the great unhealthiness of the cantonment, and the consequent 
unusual mortality amongst the European Troops. H. M. 17th Dra- 
goons were first removed to this place in 1812 from Surat, at which 
period the place bore the character of being one of the most salubrious 
stations in Guzerat. This Regiment remained until relieved by H. M. 
4th Light Dragoons. But the great mortality amongst the troops, 
the removal of the frontier to a more healthy station on the Bunnass 
river near the town of Deesa, bordering on the Great N. W. Desert, 
and the transfer of the Troops to Kirkee near Poona, subsequent to the 
capture of the latter place, occasioned Kaira to be neglected and al- 
lowed to fall to ruin. At present the only corps here is the Guzerat Pro- 
vincial Battalion, commanded by Captain Troward, about 400 strong. 

Thursday, lOth. — While here, visited a mulberry plantation on the 
banks of the Siree near the bridge, consisting of about 800 trees, which 
appears to thrive uncommonly well. Dr Burn, the Civil Surgeon of the 
station, deserves great commendation for the ardour with which he en- 
ters into every plan calculated to improve the resources of the country, 
by teaching the natives the mode of cultivating these trees and rearing 
the silk worms. Saw several baskets of worms in various stages of 
growth, which a[)pearfcd in a thriving healthy state. Dr Burn inform- 
ed us that Government allow him Rupees forty per month towards de- 
fraying the expenccs of the concern, which has lately been increased 



109 

to Rupees eighty. He has induced several neighbouring Grassias to try 
the cultivation of the mulberry, and expects to meet with no difficulties 
in obtaining natives to undertake the various departments of grow- 
ing the mulberry, rearing the silk worm, and winding the silk, provided 
sufficient encouragement be held out to them. Dr Burn is also a col- 
lector of coins and antiquities : he very politely invited us to his house 
to inspect them, but circumstances did not permit of our availing 
ourselves of his kindness, which was much regretted. Dr Burn was 
so fortunate as to obtain two setts of copper plates, with ancient 
Inscriptions on them in a character precisely similar to that met with 
in the Cave Temples of Kanary in Salsette, Elepbanta, Karlie, and El- 
lora. A fac simile of one was sent round to Mr. Prinsep, late Secretary 
to the Asiatic Society in Calcutta, by whose key it was deciphered, 
and found to be a Grant of Land to Brahmins, dated in the 3rd Cen- 
tury, at Ketakapoora. Tiiis seems to have been the ancient name of 
Kaira — Ketaka being the Sanscrit name of the Pandanus Odoratissi- 
mus- Valgo-Kewrah ; whence Kairah. This important discovery es- 
tablishes — 1st, the identity of the Character prevalent in the third Century 
of our Era, over a considerable portion of India ; 2nd, that the Brah- 
manical and Buddhist religions were both at that period in existence ; 
and 3rd, that the Town of Kaira is one of the most ancient in 
Guzerat. The Translation, Dr. B. further informed us, is published 
in the last number of the Calcutta Journal of Science. 

Fridayy Wth. — There are several native christians here, the fruits of 
the joint labors of Mr. E. B. Mills, formerly Collector here, and Mr. 
Fyvie, one of the Missionaries at Surat. Of those who were baptised is 
Peter, now a Ghorawalla in the service of the Assistant Judge here ; 
Rajah, at Dharwar, in the service of Mr. Mills now at Dharwar ; 
four in the service of Mr. E. H. Briggs, 1st Assistant Collector, at 
present gone to Bombay sick ; Balloo, who died a short time since, and 
lies buried in the burial ground appropriated for them by Mr. Mills ; 
Khooma Dosee, a poor old widow woman, who supports herself 
by her own labour ; and the ir families. They appear to live in peace 
and quietness among themselves, and with their heathen neighbours. 
We had heard reports prejudicial to their consistency and walk, but 
which on further enquiry proved groundless. 

Saturday^ \2th. — Rose early and took a walk to the Mulberry Gar- 
den. Saw a Persian Wheel which Dr. B. had endeavoured to get the 
Natives to substitute for their leather Coss, but which, after repeated 
trials, was not found to answer. The trees at this season look dry 
and parched, being the time of the fall of the leaf: they stand in rows 
about twelve feet distant from each other, with one single upright stem 
to the height of three or four feet, from which several long straight 
branches issue at various angles of inclination, giving a handsome cir- 
cular head to the plant, which, when in full foliage, must appear lux- 



110 

uriantly beautiful ; they are manured with dry cow-dung, and wa- 
tered in the hot season two or three times a week. The well is situated 
within 100 yards of the River, and a subterraneous communication 
lets the water in at all seasons. Dr. B. purposes extending his plan- 
tation next year. Saw the Senna plant (Cassia Senna,) which thrives 
very luxuriantly. These were raised from Mocha seed, but differed 
not in the least, Dr. B. says, from the indigenous plant. Dr. B. has 
also succeeded in making Colocynth, and asserts that any quantity 
might be manufactured, the plant from which it is made being procu- 
rable by cart loads in the immediate neighbourhood : specimens have 
been sent to the Bombay Medical Board and approved of. In the 
afternoon accompanied Mr. F. on a pastoral visit to the native chris- 
tians : found their houses and persons clean ; they had two copies of 
the Guzerattee Translation of the Bible ; they say they live in har- 
mony and peace with each other, and observe Sunday. Tom's wife 
looked ill ; she had an infant at the breast : his eldest son is baptised. 
Felt much interested in these poor people. 

Monday, Wth, — Rose at four, got ready and set off for Lalee about 
5 A. M. ; reached Lalee at 7 a. m. and changed horses. Started for 
Ahmedabad, which we reached about 11 o'clock. Saw Hemabhy 
Vukutchund, the Head Shroff and Merchant of the place. He recogniz- 
ed me at once ; and in the course of conversation informed me of his 
having erected Iron re-pack Cotton Screws, in partnership with ano- 
ther Soucar of Ahmedabad, at Gogo, but, for want of employment, the 
outlay of near 50,000 Rupees was almost a dead loss to him. It 
is a pity such praiseworthy exertions should be so little encouraged. 

Wednesday^ \^th. — VisitedHemabhy*s Jain's Temple, underground; 
also the Jumma Musjid and the one English and two Guzerattee Schools. 
Saw the Kinkob Manufactory, and passed by the old Dutch Factory, 
now occupied by Mr. Talbot of the Civil Service. Dr. Cunningham, 
of this place, has succeeded in making Raw Silk from Worms of his 
own rearing. — Dr. Johnstone has likewise commenced a plantation of 
Mulberry Trees in the Heera Baug, and mentioned his intention to ex- 
tend their cultivation. 

Sunday y 20iA. — Visited the Shahee Baug on the way. It has been 
greatly altered since I last saw it, by the late Mr. James Williams, 
of the Civil Service — two entire wings added, and several other rooms 
and terraces built ; how far this alteration is an improvement is very 
doubtful, it having entirely changed the character of the building. 

Monday, 21^^ — Left Camp at daybreak this morning and proceed- 
ed to Hursole to breakfast. Visited the Adauleje Well, seven coss from 
Ahmedabad. It is certainly a most magnificent structure, well merit- 
ing being seen. An inscription on a marble slab states it to have been 
built in the Sumvut year 1555 (A. D. 1499) — in the reign of 



Ill 

Mahmoud Rajah Begurrah, who then ruled the province, at a cost of 
5,01,000 Rupees. The water is good, and there appears to be an 
abundant supply. Reached Kullole about 10 o'clock. The country is of 
a more undulating surface than we have yet met with. Saw numerous 
herds of cattle feeding, said to have come from the westward. At 3 
p. M. proceeded on to Kurree, where we arrived about 7 p. m. 
Passed through a fine open country abounding with kirnee and mango 
trees. Noticed tracts of soil covered with salt earth, but could not 
ascertain that the Runn ever communicated with this part of Guzerat, 
from which it is distant fifty or sixty coss. It most probably is a collec- 
tion of Soda on the surface, with which natives manufacture a csarse 
kind of soap ; they term it Oos, and the lands thus covered they call 
Khar. This is the coldest day we have yet experienced. Dined 
late ; retired to rest at midnight. 

Tuesday, 22nd, — At 11 visited Jeejeebah, the Ameen Zamindar of 
Kurree, who entertained us with vocal music by three singing men, after 
which proceeded to the Fort and saw the Palace of Mulharow, once 
the ruler of this part of the country, whose town was taken by a part 
of the British Army in 1802 in conjunction with the Guicowar Troops. 
This place being all in ruins, it is unsafe to proceed without caution 
amongst them. The spot (a kind of Cage Tower) was shewn us where 
Mulharow used to sit and watch the movements of his foes, till a few 
cannon bails being brought to strike the building he quickly decamp- 
ed, thinking, with old FalstafF, " discretion to be the better part of 
valour." It is a strange confused mass of buildings, with very 
confused staircases, narrowing as you advance towards the sum- 
mits. Kurree is but a modern town, not above 200 years old, with a 
population at present of twenty to 25,000 houses. It is surrounded with 
a brick wall much out of repair. The Fort walls are pretty good. 
Saw likewise Mulharow's Artillery, from the largest 22 pounder 
to the smallest swivel — none in good order, several of the car- 
riages much out of repair. Left Kurree at 3 p.m. The Country still 
undulating. After a ride of two or three miles saw the Hills of Edur- 
warra in the N. E. quarter — rather a pleasing contrast to the continuous 
plains of Guzerat proper. Reached camp at Jeytanna about dark ; wea- 
ther still very cold — no thermometer in camp. 



Report on the Mijjertheyn Tribe of Somallies, inhabiting the distinct 
forming the North-East point of Africa. By Lieutenant C. J. 
Cbuttenden, I. N. 

[Presented by Government.] 
The Mijjertheyn * Somallies inhabit the tract of country extending 

* Mijjertheyn means " the beloved one.'* 



112 

from the small port of Bunder Tegadah on the northern coast, to Seef 
Taweel, a flat belt of land in latitude 6° 30' N. and Longitude 48'' 40' 
E. (Owen^ on the eastern side of Africa, where thej' are bounded by 
the Haweea Tribe. The Province of Murreyhan forms their limit to 
the south, and the warlike Tribes of the Dulbahaute and Wursungeli * 
mark their western boundary. 

The country, generally speaking, is composed of continuous lime- 
stone ranges, mostly running E. S. E. and W. N. W., and varying in 
altitude from 1500 to 6000 feet. In some parts, especially at Bunder 
Murayah, the mountains, near their summits, are almost entirely corn- 
posed of pure white marble, from the naked sheets of which may be 
seen the "Luban" or Frankincense tree, growing without any visible 
means of nourishment, or any apparent fissure in the rock to support 
its roots. 

The valleys between these ranges arc uniformly well wooded with 
mimosas and acacias, and exhibit, in the rugged water-courses that in- 
tersect them, strong proofs of occasional heavy torrents from the Hills. 
An ample supply of pasturage for the flocks is affbrded by these val- 
leys during the N. E. Monsoon, but during the hot months they are 
alike destitute of water and grass. 

On the extreme eastern point of Africa, a tract of sandy country 
extends about nine miles to the north of the range of Jerd Hafoon 
(commonly Guardafui,) forming the promontory of Ras Asseyr, which is 
a limestone bluff*, pependicular on its northern face, and gradually 
sloping away to the southward. A few stunted bushes scattered over 
the sand hills, somewhat relieve the eye, and after a few showers of rain 
sufficient grass springs up to support a few half-starved goats and 
sheep. During an excursion that I made up the Jerd Hafoon range, 
I found the frankincense and gum Arabic growing at a very trifling 
elevation above the sea, certainly not more than 400 feet. At 1500 feet 
the dragon's blood tree was found exactly similar to that of Socotra; 
and on the summit of the table land, aloes in abundance, with the gum 
tragacanth, &c. 

The Tribe apparently know little or nothing of thoir origin, : their 
traditions, indeed, give their descent from the noble Arab family of 
Hashem, whose grandson, Jabarti bin Ismail, being obliged to flee from 
his own country, was wrecked on this coast, and falling in with a fish- 
erman of the Haweea Tribe, married his daughter, who, with her 
father, embraced the religion of Islam. Their descendants gradually 
expelled the original tenants of the country, and eventually became 
masters of the soil. 



* Wursungeli means ^' the briiigers of good news.'* 



113 

In speaking of tlioir country they frequently give it the name of 
" Darroud,'' which was one of the names of Jabarti bin Ismail; and some 
two or three houses srill exist in Mecca which the Mijjertheyn affect 
to consider as peculiarly belonging to the pilgrims from their Tribe, 
on account of their baving been erected by their great Arab forefathers. 

They repel with scorn the supposition that they were probably at one 
time a branch of the Galla, but always speak with great complacency 
of their Arab descent, especially dwelling upon their early acceptance 
of the tenets of Islam. 

This is the only Somallie Tribe that I have met with who acknow- 
ledge the name of Sultan; and though some years have elapsed since the 
days when one man governed the entire country, still the title has de- 
scended in the direct line of the eldest son down to its present posses- 
sor, a lad of eleven years of age. 

As in Arabia, so in this country, the people may be divided into 
two classes, viz. those who reside at the different bunders, and em- 
ploy themselves in trade with India and the Red Sea, and the Bedouin 
part of the population, whose only wealth consists in their horses, 
camels, sheep, &c., and the gums which their mountains produce so 
abundantly. 

Regarding the townspeople, they are precisely the same as the 
town Arab — the worse specimens of the Tribe. Intolerant (from 
ignorance) in their religion, avaricious to excess, and (if possible) equal- 
ling the Dunkali Tribe at Tajoora in duplicity and falsehood, they 
lead a life of utter indolence — their only care being to get a good price 
for their gums, which the more industrious Bedouin brings them front 
the mountains, and which are carried for them to the Red Sea and In- 
dian markets in bugalas navigated chiefly by Arabs. 

We had many opportunities of seeing and judging of this class du- 
ring our protracted stay on this coast at the wreck of the Memnon^ 
and every one, I think I can safely say, was more or less deceived. 

Though many of them are men of considerable property, they live in 
the coarsest manner possible; a little jowari bread and a few dates form 
their common food, varied occasionally by a dish of Mangalore rice ; 
and a piece of salt shark meat is too valuable amongt them to form a 
common article of foood, but a sheep is generally slaughtered in honor 
of a guest, who may be reasonably supposed to be able and willing to 
pay for the same by a return present. In the N. E. monsoon they 
have a tolerable supply of milk, which forms an agreeable addition to 
their daily fare. They never smoke, but many chew tobacco to ex- 
cess, and some of these adopt the Dunkali custom of mixing a small 
quantity of wood ashes with the leaf to increase its pungency. 

The Bedouin portion of the Tribe are strictly a race of shepherds, 



114 

with no fixed habitation, and carrying all their worldly goods with them 
they much resemble the Arab of the Nejd. The number of their flocks 
is immense, and they form a large moving population, rarely remaining 
more than three weeks in one place, and regulating their change of pas- 
ture so as to leave the table lands untouched until the end of the N. E. 
monsoon or about the middle of February, by which time the grass 
there has become abundant, and, if a moderate quantity of rain has fall- 
en, sufficient to last them during the hot season, or about the end of 
November. They are, on an average, a mean -looking race of men, not 
to be compared with the Somalis to the westward : nor have their 
women much pretension to beauty. The men, generally speaking, are 
undersized ; of slight but compact make, and the fatigue and priva- 
tion that they will endure without repining is almost incredible. 
Nominally Mahomedans, hardly one in thirty can correctly repeat the 
prescribed formula of daily prayer, and the lucky man who has been 
taught to read and write, steals from hut to hut with a well-thumbed 
copy of the Koran slung over his shoulders in a leather beg, a huge 
wooden ink bottle dangling at his girdle, and a dressed goat*s skin to do 
duty as a prayer carpet. One of these learned individuals whom we 
metatTohen was dignified with the title of "Doctor," but with what 
reason I could not discover. 

The Bedouins live almost entirely upon milk, and prefer it to any 
thing else : so long as they can procure a moderate supply of this article 
from their flocks, they rarely touch any thing else save when they visit 
the coast. Rice, jowar, and dates, are imported in large quantities 
from India and Arabia, but they rarely use them until the dry season 
diminishes the quantity of milk. For the same reason, except during 
the hot season, they are unwilling to part with their flocks, and though 
we experienced but little difficulty in procuring a sufficient and regular 
supply of fresh meat, our success, I imagine, ought to be attributed to 
the magic influence of dollars instead of rice and coarse dungaree 
cloth, which form the common articles of barter on this coast. As the 
season advanced, however, even money began to fail to induce the people 
to sell their fat sheep and goats, and at the time that I am writing this 
we have been compelled to send a man three days' journey to procure 
them. 

The Bedouins rarely drink coffee, and their reasons are rather good. 
" If we drink coffee once," say they, " we shall want it again, and 
where are we to get it from ?*' 

This abstemiousness amongst them, when dependent solely upon their 
own resources, vanishes as soon as a hearty meal is offered at the ex- 
pence of any one else, when they will consume an immense quantity of 
meat, rice, and ghee, on the prudent principle of profiting by the oppor- 



115 

tuDity ; and the man who sells a sheep to a traveller on a journey always 
considers himself fully entitled to a share of the same. 

We made frequent short excursions inland during the operations on 
the wreck, and were never molested by any of these people, though 
I should not feel disposed to place entire confidence in them. That 
they are all arrant thieves we found out certainly to our cost at our 
camp» where a regular system of plunder went on for a short time. 
They were all so miserably poor that anything like Hospitality could 
hardly be looked for, but we always experienced civility from them 
if we approached their huts and entered into conversation with them. 
A few spoonsful of sugar to the children generally had the effect of 
bringing out the females of Ghurrea (a place where the shepherd re- 
sides,) and in a few minutes we were the best friends in the world. On 
one occasion a girl was brought who had lost her foot and ancle by the 
bite of a snake, and who was hopping about with the help of two 
sticks : on Captain Powell proposing that she should have a wooden 
leg, and offering to get one made, the crowd of listeners at first were 
lost in wonder, but when the principle and the advantages of the said 
wooden leg were explained, their were beyond measure delighted, and 
declaring that so astonishing a conception never would have entered 
their thick heads, they begged that the carpenter might be set to work 
directly. A handsome wooden leg was accordingly made, and, under 
the superintendence of the surgeon, strapped on properly, but what 
afterwards became of the young lady I never heard. 

Ignorant and simple as these people are, it is not surprising that 
their jealousy should occasionally have been awakened when they saw a 
strange people so superior in every way to themselves, wandering 
about their country without any apparent reason for so doing. Con- 
tented as they were with their strong mountains, they naturally fielt 
alarmed at the preference we appeared to shew for them ; and the idea 
that we were about to take the country, was seriously discussed. 

I had returned from the Jerd Hafoon range after two or three days' 
stay there, and where, owing to the heaven rain, I had been compelled 
to take a tent, and, in company with Captain Powell, was on my way 
to an assemblage of the Chiefs at a considerable distance from our 
camp when we were overtaken by a party of Bedouins, of whom one, 
byname Noor, was a Chief of some importance at Murrayah. Leaning 
upon his two spears, he in the first place peremptorily ordered us to 
halt where we were, and proceed no further, which, inasmuch as all 
our baggage had gone on, we thought proper to decline. With his eyes 
flashing, and in a towering rage, he then said — *' If you are men, we alsa 
are men, and therefore it is * wajib ' that we should understand each 
other; and now 1 wish to be informed by what right you have built 
three forts on Jerd Hafoon, and what you mean by wandering over tlifi 



116 

coontry as if you were the owners of it." We told him that any thing 
^e might have to say we should be glad to hear at the end of our 
day's march, and requested him to follow us ; to which, after some 
demur, he consented. On the road, however, he made some enquiries 
from one of our followers, which apparently made him heartily ashamed 
of himself, and on our arrival at the halting place he came into our 
tent at once, and said that the Bedouins had seen my tent pitched 
on the Jerd Hafoon range at three different points, and, taking it for 
a chunamed building, had reported it as such to him. We laughed at 
him for his folly, and became good friends again. 

Though the townspeople afiPect to despise the Bedouins, and speak 
of them as a treacherous race, they form the only fighting men in th» 
event of war. Their elders, moreover, are descended from the Sultan^ 
and their voice has sufficient weight at a great national meeting to 
drown the clamours of the arrogant chiefs who reside on the coast. 
The name of the Sultan among the Bedouins is highly venerated, and 
certain customs, handed down from time immemorial, still exist to re- 
mind them of the respect due to the family. 

A short account of the division of the country will serve to shovr 
whence these Bedouins derive their power. 

Sultan Mahomed, the last chief who governed the entire country, 
and whose death took place some 300 years ago, at his death divided 
the country equally between his three eldest sons^ 0th man, Esa, and 
Omar. To 0th man was alloted the northern portion, extending from 
Bunder Ghassim to Ras Hafoon ; to Esa the part between the coun- 
try of Othman and the Wadi Nogai ; and to Omar the belt of country 
from Wadi Nogal to the province of Murrey han.* 

From Esa and Omar spring the Bedouin chiefs whose influence I 
bave just mentioned ; whilst the posterity of Othman enjoyed the bun- 
ders, and the trade with the opposite coast. From Othman we pass 
through four generations, which brings us to another Sultan Moham- 
med, who died twenty-five years ago. 

This chief had had six wives, and seventeen sons, of whom twelve are 
now living. Prior to his death he portioned out his territory amongst 
bis children, alloting a separate village to the sons by each wife, but 
enjoining them to pay obedience to the authority of his eldest son, who 
would be his successor. Bunder Murayah became the residence of the 
Sultan Othman on the death of his father, and the villages of Aloolln^ 
Feeluk, Geyseli, Gursah, and Wurbah, were divided between his bro- 



* Murreyhan means "a pompous man " — "a boaster.'* 



117 

thers. Sultan Othman, in conjunction with a Somali merchant named 
Fatha Abdi, built seven or eight fortified houses at Murayah, and con- 
siderably increased the trade of the port. 

He died at about the age of 50) and was succeeded by his eldest 
son Yusuf, who, after a turbulent reign of two years, was treacherously 
slain by an individual of the Ali Seliman branch of the Mij,jertheyn in- 
habiting Bunder Khor. His only son, a boy of four or five years of 
age, being too young to be considered of much importance, was dig- 
iii6ed with the name of Sultan, which, when he attains to manhood, 
bis great uncles probably will not permit him to enjoy. He is under 
the guardianship of Noor Othman, his uncle, who has also married his 
mother, and who, in striving to maintain the importance due to the 
Sultan, has succeeded in causing a bitter and irreconcileable feud with 
the other branches of the house of Othman. 

To account for the large number of children that are frequently 
found in one family, it must be borne in mind that polygamy, which, 
to the extent of four wives, is tolerated by the Mahomedan law,tis here 
in a powerful chief considered indispensable. Four wives are therefore 
married as soon as possible after he arrives at manhood : any wife 
proving barren, or who has given over bearing, is at once divorced 
and another substituted. In some cases, especially when a chief has 
lost several children in battle, a much greater licence is allowed, and 
the number of wives is unlimited. 

I have mentioned that Sultan Mahommud had seventeen sons, but if 
my information is correct he had also nineteen daughters, who, in ac- 
cordance with eastern custom, do not " count" as part of the family. 

When the Steam Frigate Memnon was wrecked on this coast on 
the 1st August last, the chiefs of Feeiuk, AlooUa, and Geyseli, and from 
their vicinity to the scene of the disaster, were the people who profited 
most by plunder &c., of which the inhabitants of Bunder Murayah could 
not partake, owing to their being at a greater distance. Unable to in* 
duce their greedy brethren to give them a share, they affected a vir- 
tuous spirit, and thanked God they were not robbers of strangers who 
had been cast away on their coast, and that had they only been there, 
not even a copper bolt would have been stolen but most carefully pre- 
served until the English came for it. The less scrupulous chiefs of 
AlooUa and the other villages, perfectly content with their rich booty, 
laughed to scorn the disinterested remonstrances of their brothers at 
Bunder Murayah ; but, to their great astonishment and chagrin, at the 
annual meeting that took place at Ghoraul on the Jerd Hafoon range in 
January last, they were severally fined by tiie assembled elders and 
chiefs of the tribe for daring to appro[»riate to themselves property ca&t 



118 

on the shore by the sea, without the consent of the " Sultan's house," 
and this fine, which consisted of one horse each, they were obliged 
to pay. 

The M\jjertheyn pride themselves upon being a peaceful nation, and 
are fond of speaking of their country as " Urd-el-ainan " — a title which, 
when compared with the Edoor Hebrawul and Esa Somalis, they in some 
measure deserve. Murder is uncommon, and the " Reesh *' or ostrich fea- 
ther in the hair, which to the westward denotes that the wearer has killed 
a man, is by this Tribe considered both unholy (linram) and unmanly. 
The fine for murder, if considered unprovoked, is a hundred she camels 
with young, or a corresponding sum of money. In a case of this kind, 
the camel is reckoned at a dollar. Blood feuds are infrequent, com- 
mutation by fine generally being preferred, and are carefully avoided if 
possible. During their debates, quarrels almost invariably arise, dag- 
gers are brandished, spears poised , and a stranger would expect an im- 
mediate conflict, but the old men generally step in and prevent the par- 
ties from injuring each other, by taking away their arms, which, after a 
descent show of reluctance, are given up with much secret satisfaction, 
as the necessity for fighting "al entrance" is thus avoided. Their arms 
are two light spears, and a shield of rhinoceros' or bull's hide, with along 
straight double-edged dagger. Numbers of the lower class of Bedouins 
carry a bow and quiver of poisoned arrows ; and some few are to be 
seen with marvellously ill-looking swords. Matchlocks being beyond 
their reach, they affect to despise as cowardly weapons, that kill from a 
distance : that very quality, however, considerably enhanced the respect 
paid to our rifles and double barrelled pistols, and one of the Chiefs 
was so captivated with a revolving six barrelled pistol belonging to an. 
officer of the Constance that he offered him a horse in exchange. 

The arrows are tipped with an iron head, just below the barb of which 
they fasten a black glutinous substance made of the pounded bark of a 
tree and the white milky juice of one of the cactus (?) tribe, which forms 
a deadly person. 1 made many frnitless efforts to procure a specimen of 
this tree, which grows chiefly in the lofty ranges of the Jibel Wur- 
sungeli. 

Armed with these tiny weapons, like the bushman of South Africa 
the Bedouin posts himself in a thick bush near the haunts of the large 
antelope called here the " Gurnook :" a companion with a camel takes 
a wide circuit, looking out carefully for game, which, when he sees, he 
contrives to drive up by degrees towards the ambush, always taking 
care to keep under the lee of the came). The antelope, disliking a 
camel, gradually retreats without being alarmed until within twenty 
feet of the bush, when the spin of the unerring arrow through the 
shoulder brings down the quarry, which dies in three minutes. lu this 



119 

way the Bedouins frequently provide themselves with an abundant sup- 
ply of fresh meat, muny of these antelopes weighing seventy and eighty 
pounds. 

The effect of this poison on a man is the dropping off" of his hair and 
nails, and his speedy death. The deep incisions and scars from burning, 
that are so common on the limbs of the men, sufficiently attest the dread 
in which they hold this deadly poison. I tried some of this poison on a 
young sheep but was unsuccessful, owing, as my Somali friends said, to 
the poison being affected by the sea air. The instant a man is wound- 
ed by an arrow, the part injured is cut out with a dagger and applied 
to the wound as soon as possible ; and yet when an antelope is killed 
with one of these arrows they content themselves with merely cutting 
away that part of tlie flesh to which the arrow adheres, and which, in 
the specimen that Captain Powell and I saw, had a deep purple appear- 
ance. 

Marriage with the men takes place at about eighteen or twenty, and 
with the women at fourteen to sixteen. A young man of property wish- 
ing to marry, and not finding a wife to suit him in his neighbourhood, 
sends a trusty messenger to another tribe, who selects a fitting maiden 
and demands her in marriage in the name of his master. If the terms 
are accepted, the young lady is sent to her future husband's encamp- 
ment under the escort of the messenger, and on her arrival there is 
treated with all respect by the family, and her friends and relations are 
invited to celebrate the marriage feast, which generally lasts seven days. 
The sum paid to the father of the bride frequently amounts to 150 
dollars, given partly in money, and partly in kind. The bride is re- 
quired to provide mats for the hut and bed, with a few wicker bowls, 
gaily ornamented with white couries, for milk. Her wedding finery, con- 
sisting of a few beads, is contributed by her friends. In the absence of the 
Cazi, any person who can read the Koran officiates, and frequently, to 
spare the modesty of the bride, her brother, or some near male rela-j 
tion, acts for her during the ceremony as wakeel or proxy. 

In the event of the husband dying, his brother is expected to mar- 
ry the widow, and by many the obligation is considered so imperative 
that one of their own wives is divorced to make room for the new 
comer ; and yet, strange to say, marriage between cousins is strictly for- 
bidden amongst these people. Divorces are common, and not considered 
disgraceful. The triple oath, sworn in the presence of two witnesses, is 
sufficient, and at the expiration of three months the woman is at liberty 
to marry again. On the birth of a child the mother is compelled to se- 
clude herself for a period of seven days, after which she resumes her or- 
dinary daily employment. Circumcision takes place at seven years, and 
they affirm that it was practised before the Ilejira, which is most improba- 
ble. The duties of the women consist in \\atching their flocks of sheep 



120 

and goats, fetching wood and water, doing all the drudgery. The she 
camels are under the care of the men entirely, whose only other em- 
ployment is gathering gums in the hot weather. Great care is required 
in tending the sheep and goats, on account of the number of cheetahs 
that prowl about in the neighbourhood : on one of these savage ani- 
mals being seen, the alarm is instantly given, and the men sally forth 
well armed to dislodge the intruder ; a desperate fight takes place, which 
ends in the death of the tiger after be has fearfully clawed one or two 
of his assailants. 

Some of the principal Bedouin Chiefs possess upwards of a thousand 
she camels, which may be valued at two or three dollars each, located in 
different pastures many days distant from each other, and under the 
care of one of the wives, and a few followers belonging to the family* 
They are generally found in droves of fifty to eighty. The sheep and 
goats in the same manner — a man rarely keeping more than 500 in one 
place ; and thus the life of the chief is spent in continually wandering 
from Ghurrea to Ghurrea visiting the different folds, as well as his differ- 
ent wives. The number of sheep and goats exported from the coast, 
though not one-lenth so great as from Kurrum and Berbera, is still 
enormous, and not less than 15,000 head per annum ; but the sheep for 
export generally come from the Wadi Nogal, and the fertile plains bor- 
dering on the province of Murreyhan. 

They have large droves of horned cattle, the milk of which is al- 
most entirely used for the purpose of making ghee : they are fine ani- 
mals, and one that we purchased at Bas Asseyr weighed above three 
hundred pounds. 

Horses are abundant amongst them, and highly valued. The best de- 
scription frequently selling for 150 dollars (in kind.) They are of a 
small breed, and so villainously treated, that whatever beauty they may 
have when very young completely disappears by the time they are five 
years old. To ride violently to your tent three or four times before final- 
ly dismounting, is considered a great compliment, and the same ceremony 
is observed on leaving. Springing into the saddle (if he has one) with 
two spears and a shield, the Somali Cavalier first endeavours to infuse a 
little spirit into his half-starved hack bj' persuading him to accomplish 
a few plunges and capers, and then, his heels raining a hurricane of 
blows against the animal's ribs, and occasionally using his spear point 
as a spur, away he gallops, and after a short circuit, in which he endea- 
vours to show himself off to the best advantage, returns to his starting 
point at full speed, when the heavy Arab bit ** brings up" the blown 
horse with a shock that half breaks his jaw and fills his mouth with 
blood. 

The affection of the true Arab for his horse is proverbial : the cruelty 
of the Somali to his, may, I think, be considered equally so. 



121 

During the hot season the men and boys are daily employed in col- 
lecting gums, which process is carried on as follows. 

About the end of February, or tlie beginning of March, the Bedouins 
visit all the trees in succession, and make a deep incision in each, peel- 
injjoff a narrow strip of birk for about five inclies below the wound. 
This is left for a month, when a fresh incision is made in the same place, 
but deeper. A tliird month elapses, and theoperation is again repeated : 
after which the gum is supposed to have attained a proper degree of 
consistency. 

The mountain sides are immediately covered with parties of men and 
boys, who scrape off the large clear globules into one basket, whilst the 
inferior quality that has run down the tree is packed separately. 

The gum when first taken from the tree is very soft, but hardens 
quickly. The flame is clear and brilliant, and the traveller is frequent- 
ly amused by seeing a miserable Bedouin family cowering under a 
wretched hovel, or hole in the rocks, eating their scanty meal by the 
light of half a dozen frankincense torches'. Every fortnight the moun- 
tains are visited in this tnanner, the trees prorjucing larger quantities as 
the season advances, until the middle of September, when the first 
shower of rain puts a close to the gathering that year. 

On my first arrival here I made many enquiries regarding the 
quantity of gums annually shipped n-om the coast for the Red 
Sea and Indian markets, but the accounts I received were so sur- 
prising that I placed no confidence in them. As I became more 
acquainted witli the merchants here, I was able to make more 
minute enquiries. I first ascertained the number of boats be- 
longing to the tribe, and their owners. I then, by visiting the different 
ports, found out how many boats had taken cargoes of gums at the 
opening of the fair season, and by comparing their statement with the 
different accounts that I got afterwards from the siiippers, I was en- 
abled to form a tolerably just estimate, in round numbers, of the large 
quantity annually exported from this coast ; and which export trade is 
almost entirely in the hands of those never- failing speculators — the 
Banians of Porebunder and BombA3^ 

At the close of the N. E. monsoon a party of these Banians arrive 
on the coast, and settle at Feeluk Geyseli, Bunder Murrayah, Wurbali, 
and Bunder Khor. The Bedouins from the interior immediately visit 
them, and as there is no one to compete with them, they manage to en- 
gross the greater part of the trade. As the season draws on, tlie Bedouin 
finds that his gums are finished, and he is fain to purchase food to last 
him through the hot weather before the setting in of the grass, on credit ; 
and thus a running account is carried on from year to year, which of 
course the wary creditor takes care never to settle. The people arc 



122 

perfectly aware how much they are pillaged, and earnestly hope that 
some of the ships that they so frequently see passing along their coast 
might be induced to come in and trade with them. A small vessel 
might easily do this ; but to ensure her cargo being ready for her, an 
agent must be established on shore. The articles that should be 
brought for the purpose of barter are rice — both coarse, Mangalore, and 
Bengal — in gunnies, dates from the Gulf, Surat tobacco, double dun- 
garee aud course white American sheeting cloth, with a few Surat blue 
striped turbans and loongees, and a small quantity of the iron called 
**Hindiwan." Money, should it also be forthcoming, is preferred — Ger- 
man crowns (without holes in them) being the only coin; though during 
our stay rupees were often accepted. A vessel arriving at bunder Murra- 
yah about the end of September would be enabled to fill up a cargo of 
gums in three or four days, if the agent had been moderately diligent 
during the hot weather. 

I annex a list of the boats employed, and the quantity actually ship- 
ped in each ; and I now offer a rough estimate of the quantity shipped 
this year, taking the weight of the bohar at ten to the ton. Between 
the 1st September 1843 to the 1st March 1844, the quantity of gums 
exported was as follows : — 

To Bombay 3770 bohars. 

„ the Red sea.. .^ 2350 „ 

„ the Arab coast 1200 „ 

Total 7320 bohars, 

which, at ten to the ton, gives 732 tons. 

The season of 1843 was considered as very unfavorable, owing to 
the drought, and the crop of gums not more than half the average quan- 
tity; and I was assured that three years ago the export exceeded 20,000 
bohars, but taking every thing into consideration, 1 think from 900 to 
1000 tons may be set down as a fJair estimate. 

The trees that produce the Luban or Frankincense are of two kinds, 
viz. the luban meyeti, and luban bedowi. Of these, the meyeti, which 
grows out of the naked rock, is the most valuable, and when clean 
picked and of good quality, it is sold by the merchants on the coast for 
one and a quarter dollars per frasila of twenty pounds. The luban be- 
dowi, of the best quality, is sold for one dollar per frasila. Of both kinds 
the palest colour is preferred. The trees vary greatly in height, but I 
never saw one above twenty feet, with a stem of nine inches diameter. 
Their form is very graceful, and when springing from a mass of mar- 
ble on the brink of a precipice, their appearance is especially pictur- 
esque. 



123 

The gum Arabic, orsummuk, is of three kinds, viz. the adad, wadt, 
and ankokib, of which the ankokib is considered tlie best. It sells at 
bunder Murrayah fproneand a half dollars perfrasila of twenty pounds. 
The tree is found on the mountain sides in a good red soil, and varies 
in height from ten to twenty feet. 

The inferior qualities of gums of course are sold at a much lower 
rate, but when it is remembered that the merchant who resides at the 
bunder purchases two pounds of frankincense for one pound of dates, 
and one pound of summuk for two pounds of dates, the profits may be 
easily imagined. For instance, a man purchaces a bag of Muscat dates, 
weighing 120 pounds, for one and a quarter dollars; with this he pur- 
chases twelve frasilas of luban, which he sells to the traders who call for 
it, at the rate of one frasila per one and a quarter dollars* 

Myrrh is brought from Wadi Nogal and from Murreyhan and Aga- 
hora : some few trees are found on the mountains at the back of bunder 
Murrayah about fifty miles from the coast. It is sold at bunder Murrayah, 
when well picked and clean, for four pounds for a dollar. 1 sent inland 
when at bunder Murrayah, and succeeded in getting two specimens of 
the tree, which is I believe but slightly known. 

The quantity of ghee that is brought down for sale is too trifling 
to merit any remark. It is however singularly clear and good, per- 
fectly free from the disagreeable smell that distinguishes the ghee from 
that of Kurrachee, though the major part of that originally comes from 
Berbera. The Banians from Porebunder, who regularly attend the Ber- 
bera Fair, carry back immense supplies of ghee for the Indian market, 
and as the Somalis are celebrated for melting down sheeps' tails and mix- 
ing the fat with the ghee, to increase the quantit}^, the disagreeable odour 
that attends " ghee, Kurrachee, first sort," may perhaps be account- 
ed for. 

Of the countries to the south and west of the Mijjertheyn tribe, no- 
thing is as yet known, and as what little information I have been able to 
pick up would only swell the mass of hearsay evidence that already 
exists, without establishing any fact, I refrain from making any remark 
on the rivers &c. that have afforded such field for discussion. Of the 
practicability of exploring the course of these rivers* I have no doubt, 
nor should I apprehend any hostility on the part of the natives, if the 
traveller was only duly attended by a Mijjertheyn chief. Repeated 
offers were made to me to visit the stream generally called the <* Wabi " 
(Wabi or VVebbi, in the Somali language, means a river), and I only re- 
gretted that I was unable to do so. 

* Since this was written, I have met a gentleman — Mr. Angelo of Zanzibar — 
who has recently sailed above two hundred miles up the Jub, and suffered nu 
ill-treatment. 



124 

A most interesting journey might be made from a few miles south 
west of Hafoon along the Wadi Nogal to Kurreem on the Berbera coast. 
In this valley the best kind of myrrh grows, and as the inhabitants are 
of the Mijjertheyn tribe, no danger need be apprehended. 

My principal reason for offering this brief memoir to Government is 
to point out the advantageous trade that might be carried on with this 
hitherto imperfectly known country, and I much regret that I was una- 
ble, from other duties, to visit the interior. I would wish to make one 
concluding remark. Though the general character of the Somalis is by 
no means good, 1 much doubt if a vessel were wrecked on any other 
coast inhabited by perfect savages, such as the Mijjertheyn, whether the 
crew would have fared as well as those of the steam Frigate Memnon, 
During a residence of six months amongst them we experienced no op- 
position, and were finally allowed to quit the coast on our own terms, and 
in perfect friendship with all. 

(Signed) C. J. Cruttenden, 
Lieutenant^ Assistant Political Agents Aden, 



Number of Boats laden with Gums during the Season of I8i3, and 
their Owners* 

To Bombay. 

Rabea bin Salem 700 

Lalla 600 

Mahri 600 

Kyeti 300 

Ali Myjee 500 

AyalRocknah 300 

Sheakhan 300 

Aial Farha Hersee 270 

One name unknown 200 



3,770 



To THE Red Sea. 



Shermarkhi 800 

Bon Saloom 250 

Adthuja bin Ahmed 200 

Doongoorna 200 

Several small vessels, 700 

2,150 



125 



To THE Arab coast. 
Vessels — owners residing at Shahr and Maculla. . 1,200 



Grand Total 7,120 bohars, 

which, at ten to a ton, gives 712 tons of gums. 



List of Boats owned by the Mijjertheyn Tribe. 



Aloolla , 

Geyseli 

Gursah 

Murrayah 

Bunder Khor .. . 
Bunder Baad... . 
Bunder Gassim. 



Bunder Zeyada 4 



{ 



boats — 1 All Yoosuf, 1 Esa Fyah. 
boat, Esa Dohel. 

,, Shermarkhi Fyah. 

„ Fathi Abdi. 

„ Farl a Kersee. 

„ Abdulla Farha. 

,, Ahmed Shabhah. 

„ Shermarkhi. 

„ Abdi Ali. 

,, Mohammed Woorsuma. 

„ Naleyah bin Beker. 

(Signed) C. J. Cruttenden. 



126 






02 



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d 
O 



O 



bo 



.a. 





_i 




^ 




W 


■i 1 




'5 3 — 




*<^ J 




» 






^^ 



-2 2(^ 



>^;^o^;^ 



127 

Observations on the Runn, By Captain G. Fulljames. — With a 
rough Sketch of the Camp at Casha, on the north side of the 
Large Runn, 

[Communicated by the Author.] 

I WAS on out-post at the village of Soeegaum, on the east side of the 
Large Runn, and on themoruing of the 22nd of March 1843, just as 
the sun rose, and as I was rid'ng along a sand ridge looking in the direc- 
tion of the Nuggur Parkiir Hill, which is usually to be seen morning and 
evening, I observed something \Uiite near the south end of the hill, and 
immediately dismounted and took my telescope, when I discovered 
^hat appeared to me to be two large Tents at some distance apart, 
with a small tent close to the tent on the right. 

The distance between the place where I stood and what appeared to 
be tents on the opposite side of the Runn, according to my map is 
from thirty five to forty miles, and is reckoned by the Natives at twenty 
to thirty cos. The Nurra Beit, an Island in the Runn, lay to the north 
of the object I saw. On reaching my tents I wrote a letter to Captain 
Munro, who commanded the post of Casba, the place where I sup- 
posed the tents to be, and told him what I had observed : he kindly 
forwarded me in reply a rough sketch of his Camp at Casba, from 
which it appears the objects I saw must have been two Subedars' 
houses, which are whitewashed, and the small tent must have been a 
row of Sepoys* routees. A copy of the rough sketch I beg to enclose. 

We had heavy winds and rain on the 1 2th, 14th, 18th, and 21st; and 
on the 22nd March 1843, a violent wind and dust storm. There was a 
very dark cloud in the eastern sky as the sun rose, on the morning of 
the 22nd, when I observed the object above referred to. 

Captain Munro and myself afterwards endeavoured to signal each 
other by means of large fires ; and at a given time on a certain night, 
we lighted large fires on either side of the runn, but we both 
failed to discern each other's fire ; though a detachment of my men that 
I had on the Nurra Beit reported to me that they had seen both fires 
distinctly. 

1 have often before observed extraordinary objects on the Runn, but 
then they usually appeared inverted, but it was not so on this occasion; 
nor was I able on any other morning, during the six weeks I remained 
there, to discern the object again, though I frequently looked for it. 

Ahmedabad, 6th April, 1844. Geo. Fulljames. 



128 

Account of Collection of Geological Specimens for presentation to the 
Museum of the Bombay Asiatic Society ; and of an Inscription 
from an ancient Jain Temple situated at th^ Falls of the Gulpurbuy 
about three miles southwest of Gokauky in the Belgaum Collectorale. 
By Lieut. C. P. Rigby, 16th Regt. N. I. 

[Communicated by the Author.] 
To the Secretary to the Bombay Geographical Society. 
Sir, — I herewith send you a small collection of Geological Specimens 
—chiefly slate, granite, horneblende, and sandstone— for presentation to 
the Museum of the Asiatic Society. They were collected in the districts 
near Bejapoor, and during a hasty journey through the Southern Mah- 
ratta Country. Some of these districts present most interesting Geo- 
logical formations, fine slate and granite of every variety being found 
in extensive beds. The slate is found principally in the districts to 
the east of Bejapoor ; to the south a formation of red granite extends 
for a considerable distance, and is succeeded by plains of red ferru- 
ginous soil, which extend over the greater part of the Southern Mahrat- 
ta Country. In some of these districts the iron manufactured is al- 
most sufficient to supply the demand, and might be increased to any ex- 
tent. Talikotta, situated in the south eastern corner of the Sholapoor 
Collectorate, bordering on the Nizam's Dominions, possesses a great va- 
riety of slates and granites, and from the neighbourhood of this place 
most of the accompanying specimens were collected. It is the Jagheer 
of the Rastia family, who also possess eight villages in the neighbour- 
hood, producing altogether a revenue of about 20,000 rupees a year. 
It is a large town, surrounded with a substantial stone-wall and round 
towers in good condition. A considerable quantity of cotton cloth is 
manufactured there, and it contains about one hundred families of 
Mussulman weavers and dyers. The town has been much enlarged 
within the last few years, and a stone wall built encircling the new 
quarter, which is also divided by a wall from the old town. It is built 
on an extensive bed of very fine clay slate, which is found of every va- 
riety of colour : scarcely any trouble appears requisite in quarrying it. 
The town and villages in the neigl)ourhood are entirely built of it : the 
Avealthier class of inhabitants have their houses built entirely ol one 
coloured slate, some of purple, blue, or very light coloured. Some of 
the houses are also roofed with large slabs of it, and the great variety 
of colours gives the town a very pretty appearance. Hornestone trap 
rises in large irregular blocks in many parts of the town, and, being 
very hard, no efforts appear to have been made to remove the obstruc- 
tion they cause in the streets. 

Limestone, of a very ?i\\Q hard grain, is found also around Talikotta, 
and would, I have no doubt, be found to answer well for Lithographic 
stones. This place is also famous in Mahratta History as the site of 



129 

the great battle fought in 1564 (corresponding with the Sal. year 
1486) between the confederated Mahommedan Princes of the Deccan 
and tlie great Hindoo King of Bejanuggur — Rama Rayaloo, who had 
assumed the title of Sovereign Lord of the whole Deccan. The King 
Rama Rayaloo was slain in this battle. His son, Tirmul Rayaloo, fled 
towards Chendrageery, but afterwards returned to Bejanuggur, and 
built a Palace at Anagoondee, on the opposite bank of the Kistna, and 
which place he had made his capital. This Palace was burnt by Tip- 
poo Sultan in 1786. In an account given of this battle by Col. Mac- 
kenzie from enquiries made at Bejanuggur and Anagoonde, this battle is 
stated to have been fought at a place called Rachasa Jungada, and that 
it lasted thirty-eight days. Grant Duff calls the place where it was 
fought Rakshitta Gundee ; no mention is made of Talikotta, which is 
about sixteen miles north of the Kistna. 

Another peculiar feature in these districts is the Doon river, which, 
taking its rise near Jutt, about thirty miles west of Bejapoor, flows in a 
south easterly direction, and, passing the walls of Talikotta, falls into 
the Kistna about twenty-five miles beyond. Its water is so bitter and salt 
that no animal, unless accustomed to it, will touch it ; though, strange 
to say, the people who live in its neighbourhood drink its water simply 
filtered through sand, and it appears to produce no bad effect. I have 
brought some of the water of this river to Bombay, and Dr. Giraud 
has kindly undertaken to analyze it : the soil on its banks is through- 
out the richest description of black, and produces most luxuriant crops : 
at Talikotta even during the hot season it is a large stream, and excel- 
lent fish are procured from it. 

The specimens of sandstone were procured from the Gokauk hills in 
the Southern Mahratta Country. The country south of the Kistna to- 
wards Belgaum is almost wholly composed of red sandstone and red 
ferruginous claystone, with plains of rich black soil intervening. 

Bombay, September 1 0th, 1844. C. P. Rigby. 



The accompanying is the copy of part of an Inscription from 
"an ancient Jain Temple situated at the Falls of the Gutpurba, about 
three miles southwest of Gokauk, in the Belgaum Collectorate.'^ It 
is in the ancient Canarese or Jain character : some of the letters are 
the same as those used in the modern Canarese and Telingee langua- 
ges : thei3'de;C7* re;''^ne;^2r'me; oOTye; 2^ je, and their com- 
pound formations, may be easily recognized ; but many of the letters 
appear totally different from those used in the modern Canarese, and 
I believe no one hitherto has succeeded in deciphering inscriptions in 
this character. By comparing this with copies of the inscriptions in 
the Nassuck and Salsette Caves, many of the characters appear similar 
The original from which this is taken, is very Ipng, but the lower part 



130 

is 80 effaced as to be now quite illegible ; the two upper lines are in 
larger characters, and more carefully carved, than the rest of the in- 
scription. The temple from which it is taken is very ancient, and 
by far the finest specimen of Jain architecture I have met with : it is 
most elaborately carved all over the outside, and is built of a fine hard 
sandstone of which the surrounding range of hills is principally com- 
posed ; but is now, in coramoa with most of the ancient Jain Temples 
in this part, converted into a Lingarit Temple, and is much resorted 
to as a place of pilgrimage by the people of all the surrounding country. 

Inscriptions in this character are very common amongst the ruins 
of Temples all over Carnatica, and the villages of the Bejapoor dis- 
tricts, and, could they be deciphered, would doubtless add greatly to 
our knowledge of the ancient history of Southern India : the natives 
call these inscriptions lipi, signifying writing in general ; or hullee, 
ancient Canarese. The plan I adopted in copying this, was by first 
damping the stone, and then placing on the sheets of writing paper 
also wetted ; then by pressing the latter all over with the hand the 
letters became visible and were easily traced on the back of the paper : 
this method will be found very simple and expeditious, and, if carefully 
done, the copy will be a facsimile of the original. 

August 20th, 1844. C. P. Rigby. 



Accounts of Adam*s Bridge, and Ramiseram Temple, with a Map of 
ike said Temple, from actual measurement hij some of the Surveying 
Officers of the Indian Navy, 

[Communicated by Lieut. "W. Ciiristopheb, I. N.] 

ADAM'S BRIDGE. 

I THINK the Bridge is likely to interest the scientific : however, little 
can be said of it except in a general way, with a few remarks on its 
probable formation. 

The survey of the northern side commenced in June, that is when 
the southwest monsoons set in with strength. There was much surf on 
the windward part, and a strong rush of current through the various 
openings between the sandbanks. The soundings of the northern side 
of Ramiseram Island were first taken. Some detached rocks were met 
with off the broadest part of the Island in three fathoms water : 
the line of five fathoms would carry a vessel near enough 
to distinguish the land marks, and at the same time clear of all 
danger : with the Great Temple S. W. by W. half a mile, a bed of 
oysters was discovered accidentally, the anchor and cable of one of the 
Tenders coming up covered with young ones, but they were almost too 
small to determine their nature. The Shark fishery is pursued here by 
boats from Kelicurry and other parts, but not to any extent. In speak- 



131 

iug of the Bridge, it may be as well to premise that Ramiseram Island 
is based on sandstone, which rises occasionally in hills from fifty to 
seventy feet high, which can be traced through the body of the Island, 
and was met with also a little below the surface near the large Temple, 
which no doubt rests on a stratum of the same stone. A long sand 
spit extends towards Adam's Bridge from Ramiseram Island for about 
ten miles before the water at " Tunnicodi" affects an opening through 
it, though in some parts of the ten miles the land is scarcely regained 
from the sea, it being partially overflowed in the northeast monsoon 
when the press of water is on the northern coast, or in to the ** Pamber 
bay," as this side might, with propriety, be called. 

The highest hills of loose sand that I have ever met with are on the 
eastern side of Ramiseram, the sand being particularly fine and carried 
about in showers during high winds, yet the sand heaps reach a height 
of forty or fifty feet, perhaps more. These heaps of fine sand are only 
met with in a circumscribed spot, at what might be styled the termina- 
tion of the " old" part of the Island of Ramiseram, and the com- 
mencement of the sandy extension of it. They are formed, probably, by 
the absorption of all moisture from the coral sand thrown up by the 
constant action of the surf, which leaves the smaller particles free to be 
acted on by the force of the wind, and they are carried away to add 
to the bulk of the hills. The surface of the sandhills presents just the 
appearance of waves of water : no flagstaff could stand in it ; the eddy 
wind round the pole used to lay the staves bare for two feet down, and 
the fastenings of the tension ropes were uncovered in a few hours. The 
sand mounds, which appear to be on the earliest formed portion of the 
sand projection from Ramiseram Island, abruptly decrease in height, 
the remaining part of the land extending to the bridge being but two or 
three feet above the sea's level, with mounds of six or eight feet here 
and there : the whole is destitute of any vegetation, but salt water 
shrubs thinly scattered. The Bridge (contrary to the expectation of 
all on board) is composed entirely of fine sand with a small mixture of 
broken shells : there is no gravel or quartz sand met with, that com- 
monly seen in the beds of rivers having their sources in neighbouring 
granite mountains. From the point of Ramiseram to that near Manaar 
Island is a distance of twenty miles ; between them there is a succession 
of ten or twelve low sand banks of greater or less extent, and five chan- 
nels or ruts, occasionally used by native boats. The strong currents to 
which the whole range of the bridge is exposed must considerably af- 
fect the depths of the channels and disposition of the sands at different 
times of the year, but we have noticed trading boats of fifty or seven- 
ty tons, drawing five feet water, pass through in the month of March, 
without any hesitation, not even waiting to send a boat ahead to sound, 
which argues some permanence of depth in particular places. The surf 
hindered us in our survey of the bridge, and these passages were not 



132 

sounded, the boats of the vessels not being able to pass through them 
without great risk. In Cordiner's time there was a spaee of ten miles, 
without any appearance of land, in the centre of the bridge ; now the 
sands though low are above water, certainly every mile of the distance 
between the shores, and having myself landed in at least twelve places 
during the survey, I should think that the banks never wholly submerge, 
the extensive flats off them receiving the force of the surf. Drift wood 
is met with on the banks of the bridge ; one piece, a crooked branch of 
{ teak, had a sharp flint deeply imbedded in it, I suppose by dashing 

[ down from the hills somewhere. It came from the Bay of Bengal — at 

least its position would indicate so. As a curious fact, it may be men- 
tioned that one of the spars of the ship " Protector,^* wrecked on the 
I Sandheads, was washed on shore at Ramiscram : my informant, the offi- 

I cer in charge of the Pamber operations, felt assured of the reality of 

^ the occurrence, the spar having been identified. Palho bay is shallow 

: throughout ; the Gulf of Manaar is bottomless until within twenty miles 

' of the shore. Adam's Bridge is formed no doubt by the wash of the 

I former, and as the coral insect is pretty active there, in making the 

I water yield a solid substance, time, that mighty changer, may connect 

CeyloD and India again, as tradition informs us they were before. 

Manaar. — In speaking of Manaar, it may interest to know that it is 
based on blue sea mud, not rock as Ramiseram is, and covered with 
brabs and cocoanut, inhabited, almost exclusively, by Roman Catholics. 
A few Moormen, who speculate in the pearl-fishery, either by personal- 
ly engaging as divers, or in the markets of Condateky, congregate in a 
retired village on this Island to pass the remainder of the year until the 
return of the season. A high brick pillar, with internal spiral steps for 
ascending, testifies to the existence of a larger community of them some 
time back : this pillar is removed three miles from all dwellings, over- 
looking well cultivated lands of cotton, jowary, and palms, with a shed 
here and there for a watcher in the open grounds : it no doubt was a 
Moslem's munarh or minaret, as indeed they visit it with religious feel- 
ings and ceremonies at the present day. 

To return to the survey of Adam's Bridge in a professional way. As 
we were there in the first of the southwest winds, we had hazy weather, 
and diflicult work: landing on the lee side even was found at times impos- 
sible, from the rush of the current in the shallow water when near the 
banks. The excellent canoes we met with at Manaar subsequently would 
have saved us several days, and have well paid their hire, or even pur- 
chase; hours were always taken up in effecting a landing, which in the 
middle of the day are of much value. 

Between Manaar Island and Ceylon, there is a considerable space at 
high water, amounting to two miles and a half, the deep channel passing 
close; the Fort on the Island having a width of 200 yards, the remainder 



133 

of the space Is very shallow, dryinp; in many parts at low water spring 
iulea. The Causeway which the present Governor of Ceylon has project- 
ed, is to extend quite across this Hat, thereby connniii:; tlic passage for 
the tides and current to the deep rut washin.^ the Fort wall. From this 
spot as a centre the channel winds very much in communicating with 
the northern sea, but presents itself in one bed, whereas on the south it 
throws off a branch about midway between the Fort and the outlet: 
both of these have shallow bars of three or four feet at high water. 
As the vellard spoken of must affect these entrances, it was suggested 
to close up one and endeavour to lead the water down parallel to the 
coast fifteen miles as far as Aripo. 

Aripo. — Tiiere is now a back water some distance along at Aripo : 
the coast is protected by coral reefs in the olang, and it was sup- 
posed that the absence of surf and swell would leave a deep channel, 
permanent if once dredged. The channel on the bridge side of Manaar 
Island has one deep entrance, its southern mouth; but an extensive 
flat of three and four feet on its northern. The south bar has eight and 
nine at high water. This is attributed, or rather appears to be caused by 
the stream from the north, after rounding the west end of Manaar 
Island, taking a bend to the eastward and running a short distance 
parallel with the beach, being confined by a bank of sand several feet 
above the water at a few hundred yards from the Island, and in conse- 
quence of the surf not meeting direct, the force of the stream, which 
is turned by the sandbank referred to, the sand held in suspension is 
distributed over a wider space, as the water gradually by dilfusion loses 
its velocity, the roll and tumble of the southerly swell being of the 
sideling course of the current in some degree evaded, and the south en- 
trance is permanently deeper than any other about the bridge. To se- 
cure a slanting embrasure for a stream conveyed or influenced by arti- 
ficial means, digging should be a primary object, that is, the current 
should not be brought out meeting the swell and roll of the ocean, but 
at right angles to it, running in the trough of the swell as it were. 



TEMPLE OF RAMISERAM. 

The peculiar structure of the Pagoda of the Plains of India, as dis- 
tinguished from the Cave Temples of the Dekhun, is very fairly shewn 
in the extensive flat-roofed Temple of Ilamiseram. The South of India 
has its full share of religious edifices, and as the palaces of its Rajas 
are in a great measure imitations of the style followed in their pagodas 
and choultries, there must be, from such repeated opportunities, some 
room for the discovery of talent: however, the characteristic Hat roof 
of the Brahminical buildings perhaps heightens thcdifiiculty of an artist 
in giving a good effect to his designs. 



13G 

These are all carried in processiong. The jewellery is very rough, and 
not valuable : the strings of pearls are perhaps of the best kind, and there 
are a large number of them ; golden birds, with jewelled wings, and 
other fanciful forms for depositing money in, were an evidence of the 
devotion and liberality of the rich. The whole assemblage is valued at 
Rupees 50,000 only. The well known custom of presenting a boat in 
the pearl fishery season of Ceylon to several famous Temples, supplied 
the pearls to this. The present Governor of Ceylon, after enquiring, 
has, I believe, determined on discontinuing the custom, finding it to 
be without warrant, and when coming from the labor of Roman 
Catholics, as the divers principally are, a very questionable offering. 
The Revenue of this Temple, derived from villages appropriated 
by the Rajah of the province of Ramnaad to its support, was 
lately in great confusion : the Collector interfered, checked em- 
bezzlement, and by reduced expenditure relieved the temple from 
a load of debt incurred through the avarice of the last Pandaram 
or superior of the temple, who, by the bye, it is well known among 
other austerities is bound to live in celibacy. The plan of the 
Ramiseram pagoda will hardly be seen without strikingly reminding 
a person of the temple of Jerusalem in its court, entrance, sanctum, &c. 

Ramiseram Village. — In the village there are two large Tanks 
near to one another, of about five hundred feet square, each with flights 
of stone steps on all sides leading down to the water, the depth being 
twenty-five to thirty-six feet. In their centres small elegant pavilions aro 
raised : one is most beautiful in its ornaments and proportions, being a 
pagoda spire with a covered court around, the roofing being profusely 
ornamented with various animals carved in stone, and supported by 
pillars of the neatest workmanship ; and were it not for the tawney na- 
tives bathing near, I could almost have fancied myself gazing on a classic 
retreat, surrounded by a lake, in a more genial clime. The pavilions are 
for placing the idols in when their uncouth majesties take an airing on 
the water. 

The following: notes may serve as data for companions hereafter : 
they were translated from a Tamil memorandum by a young Hindoo 
educated at Madras :— . 

In the Town of Ramiseram there are 

Brahmins' dwellings >•• 250 

Houses, all castes 950 

Retail Bazaar Shops 20 

Chowkicd for distributing alms to pilgrims. 20 

Chowkics for aiTording shelter only 17 

Population of Brahmins 1,130 

Other castes 5,200 

Boats, passage and trading , , . . .. IG 



137 

The third or outer cloister cost 5,43,000 Rupees, but is not finished 
yet in the painting and ornamental sculptures. They number three tanks 
and twelve wells of holy water in the inner enclosures called Teerura. 
They have five idol cars with the usual obscenities figured on them 
(teyroo. J The lamps nightly lit are hve thousan(f. 

There are five yearly festivals or carnivals held in February, April, 
June, July, and August, the one commemorating the marriage of the 
God and Goddess Rama and Letchimy. The July- one is the grandest- 
Two hundred Brahmins are employed daily in temple duties, and three 
hundred persons as servants. The annual income my informant said was 
50,000 Rupees, and the expenditure somewhat less. They have two 
elephants to assist in processions : a horse, and also a peacock, are among 
the dedicated animals. The water of Tunnicodi is represented as pos- 
sessing every virtue — imparting immorality, purity of mind, &c. The 
Tunnicodi, or simply " Water-point" in English, is the extreme of 
Ramiseram Island first met in former times, before the Pdml)er chan- 
nel was burst open in 1442, The junction of rivers is peculiarly holy, 
as we well know ; and perhaps the same feeling has led to the perform- 
ance of worship at this place, though I cannot recall any other instance 
just now where the meetings of two seas is regarded in that light. It may 
be remarked of the larger Pagoda, that it is entirly built of standstone, 
the largest slabs being about eighteen feet long by two and a half square : 
the high towers over the principal entrances are exceptions, being 
raised from the foundation with small oblong bricks, or bars of Madre- 
pore rock, with beams of wood laid horizontally at intervals. The 
eastern one is an immense pile, and does not appear to have been 
finished, wanting the crowning ornaments of the summit: it is remark- 
able as being divided into buildings, one third down from the top, in 
this particular resembling the Propylou of Edfoo at Thebes : the whole 
structure, indeed, its use and appearance, are nearly similar. I can only 
conclude with a remark that I have heard from persons whose office 
brings them in connection with the managers of the Temple revenues, 
that the very name of the most famous Pagodas would pass away and 
be forgotten if the Salt of English character and principle was not the 
ingredient of their preservation. And on reflection, a system that has 
enjoyed so long a reign, and such an undisturbed sway, over myriads of 
men, ought to have some results to fall back on as it were ; if not, it has 
had its trial ; and why should we, with a purer faith, and superior know« 
ledge, regret its decline ? 



138 

Continuation of Desultory Notes and Observations^ on various places 
in Guzerat and Western India. By John Vaupell, Esq. 
[Communicated by tlio Author.] 

{Continued frontpage 111.) 

Bassein. — The Island of Bassein is from ten to twelve nailes long, 
and from four to six broad ; it is separated from the main-land by a 
narrow channel which connects the Bassein and Duntoora creeks, run- 
ning nearly North and South, and over which two bridges are thrown. 
The Island is low and flat, and the soil is rich, chiefly laid out in Plan- 
tain and Sugar-cane gardens, in which rice is also grown, and the Pan 
(Piper BetlCf) which is an article of universal use, and general expor- 
tation. When Bassein was taken from the Portuguese by the Peishwa 
Mahdowrow, it was established as a Sir Soobah, and was the 
chief place or Capital in the extensive tract of country from the Ban- 
kote river on the South to the Mahals which lie immediately North of 
Damaun. The Portuguese Government had been the means of expelling 
from this neighbourhood most of the higher class of Hindoos, who 
were not permitted by that intolerant Government openly to perform 
their heathen ceremonies. To remedy this defect, the Peishwa off*ered 
the greatest encouragement to Brahmins and Purvoes of other districts 
who would come and settle here ; lands were granted free, both for 
building and cultivation, and the place was soon as thickly peopled with 
the higher Castes as his Highness could desire. There is according- 
ly a greater medley of Castes here than in most up-country places. 
Banians and other traders flocked in from Guzerat. Brahmins in abun- 
danoe from the Southern Konkan and the Deccan. The Portuguese 
•eem to have left the place entirely when they could no longer hold out 
against the Mahrattas, and excepting the Fort itself, and the numerous 
ruined Churches, and other religious buildings, which it contains, there 
are few vestiges of a Christian Government, excepting the Native 
Christians, who are to be found here in abundance, and the few ruinous 
Churches, which are still in usey in diff'ereut parts of the Town, and 
occasionally a Cross at a place where roads meet. The Native Christi- 
ans are generally very poor, ignorant, and drunken ; they are mostly 
Gardeners or Carpenters. When rich enough to possess any clothes, 
they are of a half European cut. Their language among themselves is 
bad Mahratta : their Clergymen or Padres affect to talk Portuguese, and 
some even know a word or two of Latin : but their ideas, as well as 
their education, color, and birth, are entirely Native. The Hindoos af- 
fect to consider these people as mere polluted Hindoos^ and a tax was 
instituted by the Mahratta Government for the support of Brahmins, 
whose occupation was to purify these people previous to their reception 
into their former Caste* I do not believe that yery many were re-con- 



139 

verted in this manner, though since our Government an attempt at ex- 
tension of prerogative on the part of the Priest, tempted a great num- 
ber to declare themselves no longer within the pale of the Church, and 
these people continue to be considered a separate Caste of Hindoos. 
It was the policy of the Roman Catholics to have a great many 
half Christians, rather than a few whole : they accordingly gave ad- 
mittance to many Hindoo superstitions ; they celebrated Mass with 
firing of guns and fireworks, and used torn torn and other native music, 
to make the change the more imperceptible : they were, as they said, 
all things to all men. The present Christians are a singular instance of 
this: they believe in all Hindoo ideas of enchantments, of being seized 
with devils, and of the power which almost any man possesses of 
plaguing his enemies with sickness, or even death ; and many people 
have been murdered in Bassein, merely because they were supposed to 
possess this extraordinary power over the lives and fortunes of their 
neighbours. The town of Bassein, called generally Bajeepoora, has 
the chief bazaar in the Mahal ; the shops are mostly held by Guzerattee 
Banians : there are a few poor Mussulmans. The Brahmins chiefly in- 
habit the village of Papree, which is about a cannon shot from Bajee- 
poora ; here are the homes of some natives, persons who in the late 
Government held high situations, and many of whom still enjoy pen- 
sions from Government. Among the Brahmins, the Chitpawuu or Con- 
cany, is perhaps the most numerous : there are also Deshust, or Dec- 
cany, Goojerattee, &c. The Pulshey and Panchkulshey Castes also are 
numerous here, who call themselves Brahmins, but who (especially the 
latter, who are generally carpenters by profession) are much looked 
down upon by the Brahmins. The next Caste of consequence is that 
of the Kayusth Purvoes. On the first establishment of our Govern- 
ment, when the Brahmins (who were so enthusiastic as daily to expect 
the return of Bajeerow, and the overthrow of the English) refused 
service, the Purvoes gladly accepted it, and they have thus obtained an 
ascendancy in the Northern Concan which they have not yet lost. The 
Purvoes are accused of eating meat ; this they stoutly deny, but I 
believe the charge is well founded : one of them confessed to me, that 
his whole family daily feasted on goat's flesh, but he affected that he 
abstained from such a degradation. There is endless rivalry and ani- 
mosity between the Purvoes and Brahmins. There are Sonars, Kan- 
sars, &c., here, sufficiently numerous ; but in Bassein most articles, 
whether of use, wear, or consumption, are imported from Bombay. 
Bassein plantains are procurable in Bombay cheaper than in the gar- 
dens in which they are produced, so that there is a general dulness of 
trade in this once important place. The Coolies or fishermen are nume- 
rous in the villages of Moolgaon, Rowlar, &c. These people all under- 
stand Mahratta, but among themselves they talk a gibberish which even 
the higher caste natives do not understand unless they are initiated. 



140 

Their diet is fish : they drink freely, and they are sure to suffer in 
in a season of cholera. They are dirty in their houses, and very sub- 
ject to cutaneous diseases. The Mahrattas are also pretty numerous here: 
they are sometimes sepoys or peons, sometimes servants in the houses of 
rich natives, sometimes landholders. The Mahrattas are a Ionv caste, 
and come under the division of Soodras : they have, however, several 
sub-divisions, and the highest of these call themselves the military class, 
ever since the accession of the Rajahs of Sattara and Kolapoor, who 
are of their caste. Under this general head comes that of the Koolum- 
bees, who are generally the actual cultivators of fields — people who live 
from hand to mouth, and are generally allowed by their masters one 
half of the produce of the land which they till. The Island contains two 
Mahals of Bassein, consisting of eighteen villages ; that of Manikpoora 
which consists of six, and Agasee of twelve. Agasee is the northern 
extremity, situated on the Duntoora Creek ; it is probably the largest 
town on the Island. Sopara is also a large place in the Agasee mahal, and 
contains a considerable Mussulman population, as well as Christian and 
Hindoo ; but the most celebrated place is Nirmul, sometimes Vimul. 
Here there is a Yattia yearly, which is well attended by Pilgrims ; 
there is also a celebrated Pagoda, which is endowed by Government; 
and an Unnachutti or storehouse, in which grain is kept for the sup- 
port oipoor Brahmins who come that way, and which is also very 
largely endowed. The whole p^ace is under the Goroo Shunker Acha- 
ria Swamee, a person who is looked up to something in the light of a 
Pope, who lives in the Deccan, but occasionally visits Nirmul and the 
rest of the Concan, to keep up his authority if necessary, and collect 
fines and money given in charity, and to settle disputes about caste. 
Nirmul is situated on about the centre of the island ; all the land about 
is rich, and chiefly laid out in gardens ; brab and cocoanut tress are 
numerous. Here there is also a population partly Christian partly 
Hindoo. There is also a church and a padre, who however told me 
that the faith was suffering of late years, in consequence of the hea- 
thens ; that the ministers were poor and the churches beggarly ; " and 
(said he) how can it be expected that ministers will reside in a place 
where the compensation is so small ?'' At Agasee there is also a 
church and a clergyman ; and a large Christian as well as Hindoo popu- 
lation. Both here and at Sopara there is a good deal of trade : grain, 
salt, and garden produce, are exported to Guzerat and Bombay, 
and timber imported. Very good fishing boats and country vessels 
are built here. There is here a good deal of Goozeratee spoken by the 
Banians, the Koomars ( or potters,) the Peiduts (or Masons — a Por- 
tuguese word,) and the Beldars — or stone-cutters, most of which class are 
emigrants from the northward. The Mahratta is however the pre- 
vailing language, and is understood by most, if not all, of these. About 
Agasee there is a good deal of rice cultivated, and the Mahrattas and 



141 

Kolumbees are accordingly more numerous than in Bassein. In A<'a* 
see there is a considerable Brahmin population, but the manners of the 
people seem very corrupt ; they are notorious thieves, and, like all the 
others, are great liars. As far as Government are concerned, there is 
more fraud carried on in this Mahal, than in any of the surrounding 
ones, though perhaps its immediate neighbour Sag wan is not far be- 
hind it in this respect. 

This neighbourhood is considered healthy at all seasons : from the 
Duntoora creek however, north, I do not exactly know how far, is 
called the Kinker country, and is considered by the natives unhealthy. 
On the coast however, as far as Damaun, I do not think there is any 
danger to Europeans, but the inland Mahals of the Sunjan Talooka, 
the whole oftheKolwua Talookas of Mahim, the Mahals of Koze, 
Munore, and Poulbary, and in Bassein the Mahal of Doogar, are 
dangerous from August till the end of December or January, and 
during these months a large part of the population of these districts 
suffer from a low fever, which generallly goes off in the spring months. 
From February till May, these inland parts are very hot, but more 
healthy perhaps than those immediately on the sea ; the water at least 
is better, and the nights are cooler. In the Mahals far from the sea, 
the Brahmin population is scarce, and Christians are not to be found ; 
and as the land is poorer, and the jungle thicker, the people are wilder, 
blacker, more ignorant, more poor, and if possible more drunken, than 
those on the coast. Here a person who can write is a prodigy, and 
few of them could tell the amount of the fields which they cultivate, 
or the assessment that they pay yearly to Government. In Kolwun, 
the Kathowries or Katkurries are numerous 5 they are perhaps the 
most wild and uncivilized of all the classes : of a deep black, they 
wear long uncombed hair, and look more like monkies than any race 
of men that I ever saw. This district was during the late Govern- 
ment a nest of robbers and other outlaws, and its numerous mountains 
were held as fortifications by its inhabitants, who are said generally 
to have made their stand good against the forces that were sent to 
subdue them. No difficulty was however experienced by the Eng- 
lish troops in taking possession of this tract of country, and it is now 
safe for travellers, and not often disturbed by robbers. The Jowar 
Raja, himself of this low class, obtained a tract of country in Kol- 
wun. By way of ensuring his obedience, and that of the numerous 
banditti over whom he had established himself as a sort of leader, he 
continued at; a subsequent period to enlarge his territories very con- 
siderably, but these were retaken from him by the Peishwa, and he 
now holtis the small barren tract in the heart of Kolwun, of which he 
was in possession when we obtained this Zillah in 1817. The size and 
populatioD of the villages, and more especially their wealth, decrease 



142 

in proportion to their distance from the Sea ; on the Coast and in the 
richer Mahals, towns are to be found whose revenues are from ten to 
fifteen thousand Rupees : in the jungle Mahals, five hundred is a large 
town, and from fifty down to five are not uncommon. In the Sun- 
jan Talooka, which is the most northerly, Parsees are pretty numer- 
ous. They deal largely in Toddy, which they sell in Bombay at an 
enormous profit. They are disliked and feared by the Natives. They 
talk Guzerattee, and to the north of Tarrapoor this language is 
perhaps as much spoken as the Mahratta. 

From Bassein to Mahim is generally considered a distance of twelve 
coss, or twenty -four miles : the Duntoora creek, however, which inter- 
venes, and which is about three miles broad, is a considerable cause of 
delay to travellers. To the north of this the country has a much 
wilder and more barren aspect than on the Bassein island. About the 
villages immediately on the Sea Coast, there is some garden cultivation, 
but inland little is to be seen but forests of brab trees, and the villages 
are more distant from each other, and large tracts of land lie waste ; 
that which is cultivated, chiefly produces rice. Mahim is a large town, 
with extensive gardens ; the population chiefly Hindoo. Two 
miles to the South is the village of Kelwee, which is also a populous 
place ; and about the same distance to the North is that of Sirgaon, in 
which there are many poor Mussulmans, and a large proportion of the 
Warwal (or gardener) caste. 

The Mahim Talooka extends on the Coast from the Duntoora to the 
Sautputtee creek, which is about five miles north from Mahim. Thence 
to Damaun, a distance of sixty miles, the Sunjan (or St. John) Talooka 
extends. The Chief towns north of Mahim are Chinchnee and Tarra- 
poor, Danoo, Oomergaon, and St. John. In these towns there are 
fewer Brahmins and Christians than to the Southward. Parsees and 
Guzerattee Mussulmans, and Hindoos of every caste, are more nuraer- 
rous. Garden cultivation is scarce ; a great part of the country lies 
waste, and the prospect is bounded by brab and date trees. 



A RAMBLE IN SALSETTE. 

Mondat/t Sth May, — Left home about 4 p. M., after a light dinner, 
on a ramble in Salsette, in search of a suitable spot for a Sugar Cane 
plantation, &c. &c. Got into a horn-grey coach, with bag and bag- 
gage, and drove through the little town of Bandora. Came to the Tank, 
which, though shallow, and at this season containing but little water, is 
pleasantly situated by the road side, and affords to the weary traveller 
the luxuries of a grateful shade under the noble trees which line its 
banks, and of quenching his and his cattle's thirst. The space cover- 



143 

ed with water was easily discernible, from tho dense foliage of the large 
rose-colored water lily, whose leaves, resting on its glassy surface in lux- 
uriant profusion, were adorned at intervals by the handsome flowers 
protruding on their gracefully waving footstalks : thus adding to the 
variety, freshness, and beauty, of the scene even at this parched season 
of the year. I pity the man who can travel from Dan to Beersheba, 
and say ** all is barren." At every turn, the attentive observer sees 
something either to gratify the taste or call forth sentiments of grati- 
tude and praise to the Creator. The Christian can look up to the 
vaulted heavens, or abroad on earth, and read in Nature's book the 
vast variety of objects presented to his view, all bearing the impress 
of their mighty Maker — all evidencing the truth of revealed religion. 
To these the humble Christian can turn his attention, and say, with 
feelings the envious worldling can never know, all these has my Heaven- 
ly Father made ! has called out of nothing into being : all these are 
standing evidences that " He is a revvarder of them that diligent- 
ly seek Him." But to return. Our Auriga having watered his 
cattle, we started afresh and paced it merrily along ; passing 
through the little hamlet of Kharr, where a couple of stone crosses, by 
the road side, bearing the remains of the colored paper and tinsel deco- 
rations, the spc^t of the evening breeze, with which the village swains 
had recently celebrated the festival of the Invention of the Cross (an 
invention, by the way, which the Romish Church find it as profitable to 
keep up as it was easy to originate,) indicated the class of inhabitants 
it contained. 

We now came to an open plain, expanding to some extent, to the 
left of the road, and overflowed periodically by the tides. Through 
this plain the high road to Gorehbunder passes. A few scattered Pee* 
loos (Salvadora Persica,) to the right served as an agreeable contrast 
to the otherwise barren vista ; but even here, the provident hand of 
Nature finds work for the industry of man, and rewards his exertions 
in the shape of a species of Madrepore, found by dii^ging a few feet 
from the surface, of which, on combustion, a good kind of chunam 
(lime) is manufactured; five pice a cart-load is not much certainly, 
but a diligent workman may fill two carts in a day, and gain his ordi- 
nary wages of ten pice. A mile further on, brought us to some 
stone quarries in the plain, from which a soft kind of sandstone rock, 
which hardens after exposure to the air, is excavated, and turned to 
many useful purposes : chiefly however for constructing handmills of a 
large size, used for separating the husk from rice. We were told that 
a good mill, consisting of the upper and nether millstone, would or- 
dinarily sell for Rupees two and a half to three Rupees, but that they 
ranged from Rupees one and a half to five Rupees according to quality, 
and the pains taken to finish them. Several workmen were engaged 



144 

quarrying. Heaps of the chipped stones and shinglei lined the road on 
each side, for a considerable distance, preparatory to mending it on 
the first fall of the annual rains. Proceeding further we crossed a 
wooden bridge, thrown over a mountain torrent, supported on stone 
buttresses : it seems sadly out of repair. We now entered a more fer* 
tile and picturesque country. Those artists who have introduced 
groups of trees into rustic and garden scenery, have certainly hit upon 
the right taste, for it is a true imitation of nature. The clumps of 
mangoe, curunje, and other trees, which adorned both sides of the road 
for a considerable distance, added to the undulating and increasing hilly 
aspect, were very gratifying. Where does there exist a garden that 
presents such grand features, both of ornanipnt and scenery, as one of 
Nature's own planting? The ever-varying landscape, bounded in the 
distance by the high land of Kenery, added to the grateful and pleasing 
variety of tints of green exhibited by most trees now puttinj^ on their 
vernal robes for the ensuing year, left nothing to be wished for in this 
species of enjoyment. To add to the pleasures of the evening the hum- 
ble but brilliant scarlet Zrora, justly termed by the venerable Rum- 
phius, Flamma Siflvarum, lined the road side. The only other plant 
noticed to be in bloom was the lilac-coloured and fragrant Dalbergia 
Karunji, from the seeds of which an oil is expressed. The carunda 
bushes, as usual at this season, were laden with fruit. As the shades of 
evening began to fall, the heated air became cooler, and a gentle breeze 
from the Ocean rendered the weather pleasant and refreshing. The only 
drawback was the roughness of the road, which increasing as we pro- 
ceeded, caused the seat in a vehicle without springs to be any thing but 
easy. We progressed without meeting anything further worth notice, 
(save a wile-away story from a travelling companion^ till we arrived 
at our resting place for the night — being a Hall of Charity (Dhurrum- 
eala) built for the accommodation of wayfaring men, by a rich Parsee 
merchant of Bombay (C. C, Esq.) The teller of the story was a grey- 
headed old man, who having weathered sixty monsoons, still preserves 
sufficient stamina for a daily walk to Bombay from Mahim and back 
again ; he had the whitest and most complete set of masticators of his 
owrit any Sexagenarian could wish to boast of, and only complained of 
a slight dimness of vision, which prevents his threading a needle with- 
out the aid of glasses, he being by profession a knight of that useful 
implement. He began his tale — which, by the way, the dusky shades of 
night recalled to his remembrance — by saying : " Some twenty years 
•• ago when in the service of General C, I was directed to make a 
<' purchase of several thousands of cadjans for roofing a house ; but 
« before they could be delivered, the General was called away, on im- 
<* portant duty, from the Presidency, and the purchase thrown unex- 
<< pectedly upon my hands. What was I to do, being a poor man ? 
«« The damage, coming between sixty and seventy rupees, was more 



145 

^ than I could afford to lose. Understanding some one at Pan well 
^< required such an article, I posted oBT across the harbour, through the 
<* rising surges of the S. W. Westerly gale, and reached Panwell nt 
*« midnight. Having found out ray customer, he readily agreed to take 
*< the bargain off my hands, provided I had no objection to an order 
*< on Poona for the amount : this was more than 1 had bargained for, 
** but as my host continued firm, there was no remedy but submission. 
" Away I started, therefore, next day, and reached that far-famed 
« capital, without accident by the way. Obtaining cash for the order, 
<* for convenience sake I changed it into gold, and retraced my 
*^ steps with all speed. I had not proceeded far when by some 
«* mishap I lost the way, without knowing it. Towards the dusk 
•* of the evening T observed I was closely followed by two wild-Iookiog 
«' women, with dishevelled hair, and suspicious looks. On enquiring 
« my route, they said they were travelling the same way, and informed 
*< me I had come six coss out of the direct road. They guided me 
«< to a village, where we passed the night ; but stated the place to 
« be a den of robbers, and be^^ged I would take them under ray pro« 
" tection : — to say the truth, I was more afraid of them than of any 
<* one else, knowing, if they found out that 1 had treasure by me, they 
•* would probably have taken my life to obtain it. Seeking the pro- 
•* tection of God, the night passed away without harm. Next day, 
« by dint of hard travelling, and without a halt, we found ourselves 
«< attain at Panwell, where only I felt somewhat at ease. It being near 
** midnight the ferry boat was on the point of starting, when, without 
<< bidding adieu to any one, and my female companions having dis- 
«* appeared, I got once more on board, and after buffeting with a rough 
" sea for the remainder of the night, and narrowly escaping foundering, 
" by sunrise we landed safe in Bombay; therefore, friend cartman 
<* (addressing our driver,) never place any confidence in strange faces 
« while travelling, especially at dusk, and if you happen to have any 
«* thing valuable about your person, by all means keep your own 
•« counsel, as you value your life." After a refreshin^^ dish of tea 
without milk, and commending our souls and bodies to Him who gave 
ibem, our pains and pleasures were forgot in sound repose. 

Tuesday, ^th May, — Rose with the early dawn, and after morning 
devotions, I mounted my tattoo, and proceeded to Manpesir. Nothing 
particular occurred to attract notice on the road, save now and thea 
the wild woodland note of the Indian Cuckoo (koel) came dropping 
on the ear from the woods which skirt the base of the hills. The 
morning was serene and cool, the road not over-dusty, the country oq 
each side of the way a level plain to a considerable distance, the 
principal tree growini^ on which was the babool or gum arable tree— 
a pretty good iudicatiou of the poor quality of the soil. By 8 o'clock 



14G 

we reached tlie ruins of Manpesir Cliurcli and College, the approach to 
which was agreeably variegated by groups of trees and shrubby vegeta- 
tion, and by the nullah of Dhynsur, over which there is a substantial 
bridge, and which, though dry at this season, must be a pretty large 
stream during the rains. The banks on both sides, for a considerable 
distance, appeared lined with trees, indicative of the superior fertility 
of the ground: the soil hereabouts, though intersected with stony 
patches, appears good; and with a sufficient command of wafer, might 
be turned to good account; all the good land, and most fertile vallies 
and plains, seem to be in the hands of Parsees. The descendants of 
Dady Ardaseer possess seven villages with their lands, the head of 
which is Mullar, where the steward (a knowing Purvoe) resides. The 
whole range of hills, with their woods and forests, as far as the parallel 
of Dhynsur, including the Keneri cave hills, belong to this family ; so 
that actually but a very small portion of the Island remains for selec- 
tion : on what tenure they hold this extensive portion of Salsette, is 
uncertain, but supposed to be farmed to their ancestors in Governor 
Duncan's time. The remainder of the fertile part is portioned out be- 
tween Cursetjee Cowasjee, Esq., and Luximon Hurrichundjee, Purvoe ; 
■0 that a European Colonist stands but an indifferent chance of succeed- 
ing, surrounded by so many more powerful and richer rivals. They 
do not appear to make the most of the land, except a small portion 
laid out in the culture of paddy, and the produce of the palm-trees in 
toddy and for thatch ; two-thirds are permitted to run to waste. There 
are several secluded and fertile vallies, which would well reward the 
labour of cultivating them; but who would wish to labour in places 
where the whim of caprice of the landholder is one's only tenure, or to 
join in the exclamation of the Mantuan Bard — 

" Vos non vohis mellificates apes.'^ 
The ruins of Manpesir consist of a largo church and tower, dedicated 
to N. S. de Conceicao, and a quadrangular court adjoining, the stone 
arches of which are in a good state of preservation. The church con- 
tains one noble stone arch of fifty feet span near the entrance, a carved 
baptismal font sufficiently large for pedo-immersion, and a figure of 
the Virgin as large as life, standing on the altar : below there are a dead 
Christ, without arms, and the Virgin-mother supporting a dead Christ, 
all in wood. From the expression of the countenances of these figures, 
which excels any thing of the kind I have ever seen, they would seem 
to be of European workmanship. Over the altar, the arched roof is inlaid 
with richly carved work, in square compartments. Adjoining the quad- 
rangular building there are several others of various sizes, intended, 
probably, for Students' apartments and the residence of the venerable 
Jesuitical professors: these are terminated at the north end by an 
herraite or chapel of ease. From the wall of this hermitary, a gentle- 
man (Mr. J. Forbes) met his death some years ago. He it seems 



147 

impruilently climbed the wall at a corner with his boots on, where the 
roots of a peepul tree served as a ladder : he got safely to the top, and 
after sitting for a while on the wall aduiirio:^ the surrounding prospect, 
in the act of rising, it is supposed, part of the crumbling wall giving 
way under his feet, he slipped, and was precipitated into the court of 
the temple below, a height of between sixty and seventy feet. He 
never spoke afterwards, but was carried home to Bombay senseless, 
and died the same evening. The fatal spot was pointed out to me by 
a Patell of the neighbouring village of Dhynsur, who was at the place 
watering his cattle when the gentleman fell. He did not see him 
fall, but heard the noise of his coming in contact with the ground, when, 
turning round, he saw him lying, and blood streaming from his head, 
on which, it appears, he pitched: he gave the alarm immediately, when 
the other g^entlemen of the party forthwith came to his assistiince, and 
though medical aid was at hand, it was of no avail ;— so true it is that 
" in the midst of life we are in death; of whom may me seek for suc- 
** cour, but of Thee oh Lord, who for our sins art justly displeased.*' 
The College is raised over an ancient Hindoo temple, carved out of 
the solid rock, which is still in pretty good preservation: it consists of 
one long room, supported upon pillars, and one room on each side, 
except the east, facing which is the entrance. The northernmost 
room is the largest, and in the best order ; it appears as if 
lately fitted up for some one's residence : on the south is 
the tank, or well of water, which is delicious, and refreshingly 
cool. I could not find out whether it proceeded from a spring, 
or was the collection of last rains. Over the door of the College 
is an inscription in Portuguese, with the arms of Portugal above 
it, purporting that the erection was made in 1623, by order of 
the Infant Dom. John III. of Portugal, as an appendage to the Church 
N. S. de Conceicao. On a hill adjoining to the south stands the 
tower, built of a circular form, with a dome about twenty feet high ; 
the platform has a parapet wall running round, and the shaft below 
contains several chambers in its circumference, for soldiers : it ap- 
pears to have been a watch-tower. Gorebunder, Bassein Fort, and 
Dharvy point, were clearly seen from the top, and Sion Fort is dis- 
cernible in a clear day without ditiiculty. After examining the re- 
mains of an old garden, built by the river side, from which it was 
watered, and seeing the pool of water in the bed of the rivulet, we 
returned to Poynseer to roost for the night. 

Wednesday, \Oth J/cty. — Rose at 4 A. M. and set out for the Caves 
of Keneri, situated in an easterly direction about five or six miles. As 
we approached the hills we entered a noble forest of palm trees, covering 
a large expanse of ground as far as the eye could reach : there was 
something truly enchanting in the view of this noble assemblage of 



148 

stately columns of Nature's planting ; each tree rearing Its lofty head, 
terminating with a tuft of large lively green fan-shaped leaves, repre- 
senting a Corinthian pillar, with its ornamented capital, was ia it- 
self no mean object. The vast number scattered over the plain added 
to the solemnity of the scene ; while the great variety of tones, deep- 
ened by the echo, and mellowed by the mildness of the morning, 
proceeding from the feathered choristers of the woods, as they greeted 
with their orisons the return of day, gave no small zest to the enjoy- 
ments of the moment. The woodmen were already at work, and 
the sound of the axe portended the fall of some noble inhabitants 
of the forest, whose spoils were about to be added to the overflow- 
ing coffers of their wealthy proprietors. As we approached the 
eaves, the cocks of the mountain hamlets welcomed us with their 
cheering call : though not a human being was to be seen, it was pleasing 
to find even these wild forests were not without inhabitants. We met 
a solitary deer, which, though fired at by an attendant, got off; at which 
I was not sorry. We got to the caves by 8 o'clock, and visited the 
grove of lovely Asocas, in their sequestered retreat near the mountain 
top, at this season in full bloom ;— returned to breakfast at King the 
Pirate's cave. The rest of the morning passed in exploring the en- 
Tirons. These caves have been so often and so well described, that it 
would be superfluous to say more about them than that next to Salts, 
the account of Anquetil du Perron, in his Discours Preliminaire 
to the Zend-a Vusta, is the most accurate and full I have met with. 
The piles of loose stones over this cave, and at several other points, 
have often puzzled me ; they are evidently subsequent erections, and 
for a temporary purpose. They appear most probably to be intended 
for cannon batteries, and were, perhaps, constructed for defence by 
the European rovers who took up their abode here in the commence- 
ment of last century. The only names I could decipher were the fol- 
lowing, cut in the rock on the wall of the verandah of this cave between 
the entrances : — 

J. Hammer, W. Aislabie. 

1697. E. Baker, 

Wm. Tomson, 1708. 

97 (on a Pillar.) P. Orberry, 

Wasse. 1735. 

King, Douce Dickinson, 

1710. 1705. 

On the breast of the image, in the recess on the left^. 
H. King, 
1715 (doubtful) 
or 
1705. 



149 

There were several other names which baf&ed my endeavours to make 
them out. There were the profiles of several countenances, evidently 
European, cut out on the rock, one with a beard and pointed cap, the 
costume of those days ; but this last may be imaginary. The attitudes 
of many of the figures in the Durbar cave seemed particularly graceful : 
the drapery appears so well imitated that, at first sight, you forget it 
is cut in the solid rock ; there is ** much of a muchness*' in the expres- 
sion of features, but all of a mild pleasing nature. It is singular, amidst 
all the variety of figures, there is nothing in anyone cave obscene or 
*'contra bonas mores*' to be met with ; the only thing is the exposure of 
the breasts of the female figures, that can be considered reprehensible 
by modern refinement. About 4 p. M. we set out on our return to 
our place of rest, which we reached by sunset, without any material 
adventure by the way. 

Thursday, llth May — Rose with the dawn and set out in a southerly 
direction for A up VVarrah, near to which we were informed there was 
another Asoca(lonesia Asoca R.) grove. This place is distant from Pain- 
seer, south west, about five miles, and two miles and a half east of Mullar. 
It is nothing but an assemblage of three or four huts, and a long cattle- 
8hed,on an elevated hillock ; below which a fertile sequestered valley ex- 
tends north and south for some distance : the south end is enclosed by 
an amphitheatre of hills, while the west is bounded by a barren rocky 
hill of a rounded form at one end, and gradually sloping off to the north. 
The prevailing description of rock abounding in this vicinity, seemed 
to be basalt — a pretty sure indication of the existence, at some remote 
period, of volcanoes not far distant. The landlord of the VVarrah came 
forth to welcome us to his sequestered retreat. He is a Concanist 
Brahmin, a native of Bankote, and has been in his present residence 
about ten months ; he purchased the Warrah and forty head of cattle 
for 500 Rupees. He has cleared away a good deal of jungle, and is 
converting it into arable land. Shortly after his first arrival, a tiger 
sprang upon and carried off a cow, close to his shed, since when, several 
parties of the Tannah Rangers and gentlemen have destroyed between ten 
and a dozen tigers of different sizes (who harboured in the valley and 
neighbourhood) : and as the clearing away the shrubs and underwood is 
progressing daily, not a tiger or other wild beast has been heard of or 
seen for some months past. The Brahmin raises paddy and naglee 
on his cleared lands, and derives no inconsiderable profit from the pro- 
ducts of the adjoining forests. Leaves of the wild plantain, which grow 
on the rocks in great abundance, are sent to Bombay, where they are 
used by Parsees and Banians as platters to eat off : bamboos, tatties, 
wild mangoes for pickle, 8rc. &c. In the afternoon the Brahmin con- 
ducted nne to the brow of the hill in his vicinity, and on the way, 
pointed out several pucka built dams or bunds thrown across the duU 
lab that skirts his property to the east> with stone sluice gates ia 



150 

them to admit or exclude the water, as the abundance or scarcity of the 
supply, from the monsoon rains may render necessary. We passed 
through a dense jungle which overhangs and adorns the banks 
of a mountain torrent, whose dry rocky bed we ascended 
to its source near the top of the mountain. About half way up the 
hill there appears to be a fall of twenty-five or thirty feet, 
whence in the rains a cascade of some beauty must descend 
somewhat precipitously. The average breadth of the bed of the 
nullah is ten to fifteen yards ; the ascent at about an angle of 
forty-five degrees with the horizon. After leaving the nullah, we came 
to a thick, dense, bamboo jungle, which continued all the way to the 
top of the mountain. The ascent though laborious, was fully repaid 
by the noble view from the summit. Bombay, Bassein, Tannah, lay as 
it were under our feet, and though the haze in the weather prevented 
an extended view sea- ward, still we could clearly discern the mountains 
of the Concan, rising pile upon pile one over the other in endless 
ridges. There is something indescribably elevating in the contem- 
plation of Nature^s works in her solemn grandeur ; the mind rises 
with pleasurable awe and emotion to the Great Creator, and one fancies 
that HE can be more acceptably worshipped in such spots than 
elsewhere : this, though a delusion, easily accounts for the propensity 
to groves and hill altars, so manifest amongst heathen nations from 
time immemorial. About sunset we returned home. This neighbour- 
hood promises fair for establishing an experimental farm upon, for 
raising foreign products. The soil is good, water abundant and near 
the surface, and exposure to the saliferous breezes from the west com- 
pletely defended by the surrounding hills. 

Friday^ 2Qth May — Set off over the hills in a north easterly 
direction, for a second visit to the caves, by a nearer road than the 
former. The path, impracticable for any beast of burthen, led over 
the northern brow of the hill behind Appachi Vara, which we left at 
daylight this morning. A walk of a couple of miles brought us to the 
ascent of the mountain, the footpath narrow and rocky, and the hill 
on both sides covered with bamboo jungle and other low brushwood ; 
the larger trees indicating by the remains of their stumps, having 
been felled for firewood and other domestic purposes. A mile further 
brought us to the top of the hill, the view from which towards the 
west was grand and extensive, but to the east intercepted by the 
rising of mountains higher than the one on which we stood. We 
now began to descend rather rapidly, the road being more steep and 
perpendicular on this side. We bounded along from rock to rock, 
rather than walked, and on reaching half way down, a little mount«i^ri 
hamlet of about a dozen dwellings burst at once upon the view : it con- 
sisted of straw-covered huts, each surrounded with an enclosure con- 
taining mangoe,jack, and tamarind trees; with a few gourds trailing 



151 

their lengthy stems over the fence and roofs of the huts. They produce 
the bottle-shaped gourd, used by the Bhundaries or toddy-drawers 
when they ascend the lofty palm, who suspend it behind by a hook 
fixed to a leathern waistbelt ; it is a species of cucurbita — the lagenaria 
most probably. We observed heaps of bulbous roots collected within 
the enclosures, which at first we mistook for onions, but on enquiry 
they proved to be the bulb of a species of amaryllis or crinum, with 
white and red striped flowers, very common about the cave hills. 
They told us they were used medicinally, and taken to Bombay for 
sale to the Native druggists : they are called bhooi conda. The Tha- 
kores could not inform us what their effects were. These hill people 
seem to be a very pigmy race, differing both in limb and feature from 
the inhabitants of the plain.* They worship Waghoba, or the Tiger- 
demon, and have habits and ceremonies peculiar to themselves. The 
race is pretty extensively scattered over all the hills of the Concan ; they 
approximate most to the Bheels of Candeish and Guzerat, and are 
probably one of the aboriginal races of India. They set fire to a portion 
of the jungle a month before the rains, and after the first fall scatter 
the seeds of naglee, buntee, kodra, and other mountain grains, realiz- 
ing their crops without much additional trouble. They raise sufficient 
for home consumption during the year. Besides this they cut firewood 
and carvees ( i.e. tatties) and take them for sale to the nearest market 
towns. They generally go almost naked, are of very dark skins, and 
are very poor ; their women having only a few brass ornaments, with 
glass beads and shells, to adorn their persons. They have usually pro- 
tuberant bellies, and appear a weak and sickly race ; owing most pro- 
bably to the malaria generated by the jungles whereby they are sur- 
rounded, and in which they live. The present appears to be the most 
healthy season of the year ; from September to January the jungle fever 
prevails,which carries of! numbers of them. The wild colocynth abounds 
in this part of Salsette : there is also a sweet kind, which the natives 
cultivate and use as a vegetable, and which is quite free from the bitter 
drastic qualities of its wild congener. At half-past seven o'clock we 
reached the caves somewhat wearied, but well pleased with the morning's 
walk. After resting during the heat of the day, and admiring for the 
hundredth time these stupendous works of industry and superstition, 
we set off about 3 p. m. for Veear, the road practicable for carts, led 
by a steep ravine between two hills, which in the rains must be a con- 
aiderable mountain torent ; in a retired spot in the valley was observed 
a stately Cassia fistula tree in full bloom— the long pendulous racemes 
covered with vivid yellow blossoms, contrasted with its light green 
foliage, presents one of the most charming and lovely of natural objects. 



* Vido Dr. Wilson's account of this race, published in the " Oriental Christian 
spectator." 



152 

The juice of tlie long cylindrical pods of this tree is well knowD) both to 
Europeans and Natives, as a useful and mild purgative. A walk of a mile 
or two brought us to the village of Toolsee, near the road to which was 
noticed the remains of what had once been a tiger trap : these animals 
are becoming daily more rare in Salsette, though one is now and then 
heard of ; the only other wild animals we heard of were deer, monkies, 
hyoBnas, jackals and hogs ; the latter nre very destructive to plantations z 
the porcupine and civet cat are occasionally met with, but are very rare. 
Of game birds, the partridge, quail, peafowl, wild pigeon, and jangle 
fowl, are met with, and in the rainy and cold seasons, wild duck, teal» 
snipe, and flamingos, but not in abundance. By sunset we reached 
Veear, and continuing our route eastward, got to Poway — the well 
known improved estate and experimental farm of Framjee Cowasjee, 
Esq. — just as the night set in. It was too late to go over the grounds, 
or we would no doubt have met with something both interesting and 
instructive. It were greatly to be wished that other influential and 
raonied Natives would follow the liberal example set by this Parsee 
gentleman, who has been mainly instrumental in introducing many 
valuable and useful foreign products into Western India. After some 
refreshment we took our repose for the night. 

Saturday^ 27th May. — At daybreak we embarked on a boat in the 
Tannah Creek, intending to sail round to Gorahbunder by the Tannah 
and Callian river. As we neared Tannah the hills on either side approach 
each other and form raihera narrow but picturesque valley. Abreast 
of the town and fort the rocks in the channel at half tide form rather 
dangerous rapids, so that the best time of passing is about three quarters 
or full tide. — Tannah is rather an ancient town. The first mention we 
find of it is in a grant of land engraved on a Copper plftte, found in dig- 
ging foundations for some new works in the Fort ; and which was for- 
warded to Sir William Jones, President of ihe Asiatic Society, by Ge- 
neralJ. Carnac in February 1787, the father of our late Governor Sir 
James Carnac. The grant is dated A. D. 1079 (An. Shuk. 9-39,) at 
which time a Hindoo Raja named Aricesari-devaraja was sovereign of 
the city of Tagara (supposed to be the present Deeghur, alias Dow- 
lutabad) and Lord of the Western Sea. He addresses " all who in- 
habit the city Sri Sthanaca (or the mansion of Lachsmi,) his own 
kinsman, and others there assembled, &c. &c. Thus he greets all the 
holy men and others inhabiting ilie ciJy of llan Yiuuanai'^ ^c. (or 
the abode of Hanuman, the Monkey Gut!,) [iHer bathing i:i the Sta, 
&c. &c., have granted unto him &g. kv... wImi ialiabits the city of Sri 
Sthanaca &c. &c., the domestic, priest Set;, &ls, — Sri Ticcapaiaya, son 
of Sri Chich'hintapaiya, the astrunamer SiC, &c,, the village of Cha- 

^ Can this be Konery ? for monkeys aWuud in the adj^went woods to Uua day. 



*( 



153 

vinara, standing at the extremity of the territory ofVatsaraja, and the 
boundaries of which are, to the east, the vlHage of Puagaraba, (probably 
Poway village) and a water-fall from a mountain; to the south, the 
villages Nagamba, and Muladongarica ; to the west, the river Samba- 
rapalica ; to the north, the villages of Sambive and Cabyalaca ; and be- 
sides this, the full (district) of Tocabala Paliica, the boundaries of 
which are to the east, Sidabali ; to the south, the river Mothala ; to the 
west, Cac^deva, Hallapalica, and Badaviraka ; to the North, Talavali, 
Paliica, and also the village of Aulcnja, tiie boundaries of which are 
to the east, Tadaya; to the south, Gavini ; to the West, Charica ; to 
the north, Calibalayacholi, &c. &c. &c — As. Keg. I., pp. 363 and 
364." 

It appears from Arrian's Periplus, that on the arrival of the Greeks 
into the Deckan, above 2,000 years ago, Tagara abovementioned was 
the Metropolis of a larjjje district called Ariaca ; which comprehended 
the greatest part of Subah Aurungabad, and the Southern part of the 
Concan ; for the Northern part of that district, including Damaun, 
Callian, the Inland ofSalsette, Bombay, &c., belonged to the llaja of 
Larikeh or Lar — an ancient name of the peninsula of Guzer.it (see 
D'Anville's India Antiqna) •* who according to Arrian and Ehn Said 
al Magrebi, &(•." In speaking of Taj^'ara, Arrian says that the 
Greeks were prohibited from l.mding at Callian and other harbours on 
that coast. *' It may appear astonishing thattiioni;h the Raja of Tagara 
was possessed of a large tract on the sea coast, yet all trade was carried 
on by land." 

" Formerly it was not so. On the arrival of the Greeks into the Dec- 
can, goods were brought to Callian near Bomb?iy, and then shipped 
off. However a Rajah of Larikah or Lar, called Sandanes (Chan- 
dan ?) according to Adrian would no longer allow the Greeks to trade 
either at Callian or at the harbours belonging to him on that coast, 
except Baroaoh ; and whenever any of them were found at Callian or in 
the neighbourhood, they were confined, and sent to Baroach under a 
strong guard." ** Arrian, boin<; a Greek himself, has not thought pro- 
per to inform us what could induce the Rajah to behave in this manner 
to the Greeks ; but his silence is a convincing proof thiit they had be- 
haved themselves amiss ; and it is likely enough that they had attempt- 
ed to make a settlement in the Island of Salsette in order to make them- 
selves independent, and facilitate their conquests into the Deccan." 
Ibid, pp. 374-375. 

The first trace and notice of the Island of Bombay is to be found in 
Ferishta, as translated by Briggs, vol. 4, p. 28, where he says — •* In the 
tame year ("1428 A. D.) Kootibkhan, the Governor of Mahim, dying 
—Sultan Ahmed Shah Bahmuny thought this a favorable opportuaity 



154 

to obtain possession of that Island, which he efFecled without loss«'' 
In a note, Colonel Brigj^s says — ** Bombay. — This Island seems at 
this time to have consisted of two parts ; the one denominated Mahim, 
from the village of that name in the N. E. corner, and the other Mum- 
bye, from an idol, &c. &c., which Europeans have corrupted into Bom- 
bay." ** The separation of the two Islands, (he adds,) would again be 
complete, if the dam called Breach Candy were removed, which keeps 
out the Sea from the West face of the Island," Ibid in loc. citat. 
** Tannah was taken at the same time. Among the articles captured on 
the Island of Mahim were some beautiful gold and silver embroidered 
muslins, with which vessels were laden and sent to Abmedabad." Ibid> 
p. 30. 

" In 1526, during the administration of the Governor Lopo Vas de 
Sampayo, Mangalore on the Malabar Coast, and the Island of Mahim 
or Bombay, were taken possession of by the Portuguese." Ibid, p. 27. 
— <* In 1529, Nunho de Cunha succeeded as Governor, and took the 
cities of Bassein or Bagam,and of Damaun, from Bahadur Shah, King of 
Guzerat ; and afterwards the stronghold of Diu on the Coast of Kat- 
tywar, after a long and memorable Siege. Afterwards he concluded 
peace with Bahadur Shah, whom the Portuguese authors call King of 
Cambay, which was his chief Seaport. He made a formal cession to 
them of Bombay, Chawl, Bassein, Damaun, and Diu." — Ibid, p. 28. 
— " In the year 900, A. H. (says Ferishta,) (A. D. 1494) one Bahadur 
Geelany, an otficer of the Deccan Government, revolted from bis 
Master, collected a force and fleet, and not only seized on the Ports 
of Goa and Dabul but afterwards landed and took possession of the 
Island of Mahim f Bombay), giving up the Town to plunder." Vol. IV. 

p. 71 " The King Bahadoor (A. D. 1532) shortly after returned to 

Guzerat to expel the Europeans who had occupied the Island of Diu : 
upon his approach, however, the enemy fled, leaving their guns upon the 
Island, one of which was the largest ever before seen in India, and re- 
quired a machine to be constructed for conveying it to Champanere.** 
Ibid, 123. — Since the aforementioned period Salsette has thrice changed 
masters. The Portuguese about the middle of the 16th century 
obtained it from the Moguls ; the Mahrattas in tlieir turn subsequent- 
ly drove out the Portuguese ; and finally the Mahrattas gave way to 
the triumphant Banners of Great Britain, which have been proudly 
waving over the Fortress of Tannah since A. D. 1775. After leaving 
Tannah you proceed N. E. down several reaches of the river 
before it joins the Callian River at the base of a remarkably bluff 
high mountain ; which here seems to rise out of its bed.— 
After its junction the united streams take a westerly course, and 
roll along for eight or ten miles till you approach an amphitheatre 
of hills surrounding a large expanse of water three or four miles 
in circumference, resembling a lake, into which another arm of the 



155 

same river runs from the East from the direction of Bhewndy. 
The scenery hereabouts is remarkab'y grand and picturesque ; but to 
see it toadvantatjeit should he visited in September or October, when 
the whole space from the mountain fops to the water's ed^e is covered 
with dense verdure, amonj^st which the wild plantain, gracefully 
waving bamboo, and the great variety of creeping plants with flowers 
of every hue, are readily discerned. On the Salsette shore of this lake, 
are the ruins of an old Portuguese Cliurch and Government- House, 
said to have been erected by the Portuguese rulers of Bassein when in 
the zenith of their power, as an agreeable and cool retreat, where they 
could relax occasionally from the monotonous and ever-recurring la- 
bors of a town life — as well as admire the beautiful surrounding scenery 
prepared by the bounteous hand of Nature for their recreation and en- 
joyment. There are few places in Western India superior to this love- 
ly spot; gentlemen who have visited it, and are competent judges, 
say it fully comes up to, and reminds them of, the Lakes of Killarney 
in Ireland, and their adjacent scenery. The waters of this lake find 
their exit in a narrow Gut, between two ranges of Hills, extending 
for several miles, till they unite with the head of the Bassein river, 
abreast of Gorahbunder ; the depth of Avater in the narrows, as they 
are termed, varies from ten to seventeen fathoms; in the lake five or 
six fathoms in the centre, is about the average depth. As the tides from 
the Ocean come up there, it is admirably calculated for a retreat for 
Invalids and a watering place, where sea-bathing might be securely en- 
joyed without fear of being annoyed by the monsters of the deep. 
As an excellent made road runs through Salsette from Bandorah to Go- 
rahbunder, N, and S., the intentions of the late Sir Robert Grant, of 
connecting Salsette with Bombay, by a causeway or velard at Mahim, 
and a quay at Ghorahbunder — have not been lost sight of, as the for- 
mer work is under construction at the sole cost of the munificent pub- 
lic spirited Knight Sir Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy, to whose liberality Western 
India is indebted for many useful public works.* It is to be hoped 
that ere long we may have the gratification of beholding a watering 
place added to the recreations and enjoyments of the Bombay Com- 
munity. All-engrossing Mahabuleshwur is too far for many per- 
sons to go to who have much business to look after, but a drive or ride 
to Gorahbunder can be performed in a few hours, and a constant com- 
munication kept up with Head Quarters : this desirable spot, especially 
during the heats of April, May, and October, would alwaj^s afford a 
pleasant and convenient retreat for the lovers of rural felicity and 
rational enjoyment. We reached Gora'abunder by 4 p. m., and return- 
ed home in a country conveyance, without mishap or accident, much 
gratified by the week's excursion. 

(To be continued.) 

* This magnificent causeway has since been completed, at a cost of Rs, 1,80,000, 
and was opened to the public on 10th June 1645, 



156 

Memoir on the Charts of Ehutnageriafi, Rajapoor, Viziadroog^ and 
Dewghurr, Drawn up by Lieutenant C. W. Montriou, I. N. 

[Presented by Government] 

The Plans of Rajapoor Bay, and Dewghurr Harbour, are con- 
structod on a scale of four inches to a thousand yards ; the others are 
on half that scale. 

From the nature of the country, I was only enabled to measure one 
Base line on shore, and that of trifling extent, but every care was 
taken in measuring the bases by sound, the mean of several observa- 
tions at each base being taken, and the different positions on shore 
were laid down by the mean of a great number of angles taken at 
each. The theodolite and sextant being used, the whole of the 
soundings are laid down geometiically from angles taken with the 
sextant.* 

The mean variation of the compass during our stay on the Coast 
I found to be 0° 18' 30" East: this was in the months of March, April, 
and May. The weather was very fine, land and sea breezes prevail- 
ing, the land wind decreasing in strength as the South West Mon- 
soon approached : occasionally in March we had strong breezes from 
the N. Wd., attended with a heavy swell, but they did not last long : 
towards the latter end of May the winds were li^'ht and variable, 
vith calms, and dark threatening appearance over the land to the S. 
Ed., with occasional squalls and rain, with vivid lightning and heavy 
dews during the night. The mean maximum range of the Thermo- 
meter was 86°, and the minimum 82°. 

During the whole of the abovementioned months, when about two 
to three miles off shore, we experienced a southerly set of from half 
a knot to a knot per hour. 

Rhutnageriah — Vessels frequently touch at this place for water, 
and other supplies, but there is neither shelter or good anchoring 
ground, the bay being completely exposed ; and the bottom is for the 
most part hard sand, with rocky patches here and there. 

The Plan is on a scale of two inches to a thousand yards, and the 
soundings are in fathoms for low water-sprinix-tides, and it is high- 
water on full and change about 11 h. 30 m. The rise and fall is about 
9 feet: the variation here, in April, was 0° 19' 00" East, and the 
greatest velocity of the Tide observed was two knots per hour. 

With any breeze from the Westward, there is a heavy ground " 
swell in the bay of Rhutnageriah, and very heavy breakers on the 

* A Theodolite by Gilbert, and Sextants by Troughton, Jones, and Fayrer. 



157 

bar at the entrance of the river, and also along the whole line of coast 
of the bay ; the native boats always wait for the top of high water, 
or when the rocks off the south point of the Southern Fort of llhut- 
nageriah are covered, before they attempt to cross the bar and run 
into the river : for want of taking proper precautions, several boats 
have been lost on the bar in attempting to run into the river. The 
landing place for ships' boats is on the East side of the Fort, near to 
Ihe small Tower close to high water mark, but a good look out must 
be kept for rocks. 

Vessels touching at Rhutnageriah should anchor well out, in a- 
bout seven or eight fathoms water, with the Sudder Adawlut on the 
southern brow of a hill, bearing about N. E. by E. ^ E. Tliere is no 
shelter in the South West Monsoon, for small vessels, in eitiier Khut- 
nageriah Bay or in that of Meria-Donghur, the bay to the Northward 
of the Fort of Rhutnageriah. 

The river runs for some distance inland, and the Native trading 
boats run up the river at high-water springs for about twelve miles. 
Horsburgli places Rhutnageriah in Latitude 17° 02' North ; the Fort 
I believe is meant : our survey places the Soulh Bastion oi the Fort 
in about 16^ 57' 10" North Latitude. 

Rajapoov — in Horsburgh's Directory, and in the chart of the 
coast after McCluer, is placed in Latitude 16° 47' 00" North, which 
is erroneous. The description of the locality in Horsburgh answers to 
Poorunghur, and it must be the place marked in the chart as Rajpoor. 
The small Tower on the point forming the Northern side of the en- 
trance to Rnjpoor Bay, is in about 73° 22' 22" East Longitude, and 
16° 37' 50" North Latitude. No mention is made either in the chart 
or Horsburgh's Directory of the reef off" Ambolghur close to Ra- 
japoor. 

The reef above mentioned is situated off^ the North point of Am- 
bolghur, and the centre of it bears true N. 39° West from the North 
point of Rajapoor Bay, from which it is distant about 1800 yards. It 
is 560 yards in length, and in the broadest part about 250 yards. 
There is a passage betwpen it and Ambolghur point, about 400 
yards broad, with from A\ fathoms low-water springs, close to the 
reef, to 3^ fathoms close to the rocks off* the point. The reef is steep, 
too, having four and five fathoms close to the edges on either side, and 
six and seven fathoms about three or 400 yards off to seaward. There 
are two or three dry patches on it at low-water springs. For some 
distance from the reef on every side, we found nothing but rocky 
bottom : even in seven fathoms water it appears to be a complete pave- 
ment all round the reef, the soundings being very regular. In light 
breezes or calm weather, at high water, the reef does not show itself, 



158 

but there are always breakers on it at half flood, and in any breeze it 
breaks heavily at all times. It has been proposed to have a buoy or 
beacon on it, but I am of opinion that it would be a matter of great 
difficulty to moor a buoy so as to hold in all weathers : the sea runs 
very high here in the S. W. Monsoon, with very heavy breakers and 
rollers on the reef: our leads caught several times in fissures of the 
rocks, in six and seven fathoms, but they were of no extent. As before 
mentioned, the ground round the reef resembling a pavement or table, 
were a beacon or buoy placed here, in case of its being washed away, 
or breaking adrift, there are no means in the vicinity of replacing it, 
and no native boats would venture near it during the prevalence of 
the S. W. Monsoon. 

Several large Pattimars have been wrecked on this reef, but from 
informatior. gathered f n m the natives, these accidents have been prin- 
cipally owing to ignorance of the localities, the Commanders of the 
Pattimars mistaking the Ambolghur punt for that of Rajapoor; and 
there is an opening in the cliffs, at the bottom of the bay formed by 
the above named points, on the southern side, up which the salt 
marshes are situated, which appears like the entrance of a river : this 
also has tended in a great measure to mislead strangers to the place. 

I would propose that a Beacon, or Landmark, should be erected 
on Rajapoor North point, at the place marked in the plan ; it would 
not cost much, as the principal materials are close at hand : a heap of 
stones, piled in a pyramidal form, and kept chunamed, would answer 
the purpose. Should this not be done, tliere is a small Octagonal Tower, 
about eighteen feet high, and about six hundred yards inland from Ra- 
japoor North point, which should be whitewashed and a small Flag- 
staff erected on it ; this would mark the proper point of Rajapoor, and 
prevent the native traders mistaking the entrance to Rajapoor river. 
The native craft only run on this coast in the fine season, or N. £• 
Monsoon. 

The entrance to Rajapoor Bay is about 1800 yards broad, and in 
case of a vessel running in for shelter or otherwise, the best anchorage 
is near to the southern shore, in about 3^ or four fathoms water, hav- 
ing the mouth of Toolsoonda cove well open. With a westerly breeze, 
there is a very heavy short swell running in the bay : the bottom is 
for the most part sand, and in one or two places near the entrance, 
nearly in mid-channel, we found rocky bottom, covered with a deposit 
of mud and sand for about two feet. In the N. E. Monsoon, a vessel 
would have no difficulty in getting out to sea from Rajapoor, as the 
land breeze springs up about three or four o'clock in the morning, 
lasting until about 9 or 10 A. M., and decreasing in strength as the 
S. W. Monsoon approaches. The shore is bold and steep too, but it 



159 

must be borne in mind that as rocks extend off from both the Points 
forming the entrance, those off the south point to a distance of about 
three hundred yards, the greatest attention must be paid to keep the 
lead going. The greatest velocity of Tide we observed in the bay of 
Rajapoor was about 1| knots per hour, the Ebb Tide tiie strongest, 
but in the river two to three knots. Wiien the wind was from the 
S. W., Wesr, or N. W., tlie Tide of Ebb seemed after leaving Jeyta- 
poor to be impeded in its velocity, the swell in the bay keeping it 
back, which may account for the large sand bank that is formed (and 
from what I learnt on the increase) off the point forming the soutiierii 
side of the river nearly abreast of Esswentghurr, and filling up the 
greater part of the bay. 

Toolsoonda Bay or Cove, is narrow and shallow, but a small vessel 
in distress might run in and lay on the mud to repair damages ; she 
would be in perfect smooth Avater, and sheltered from all winds. I un- 
derstand a Grab ship belonging to a native, once laid here during the 
whole of one S. W. Monsoon. 

When the wind is contrary for getting up to Bombay, or when it 
blows fresh, a great number of native craft run into Rajapoor Bay to 
wait for a favorable change, and anchor in a small bight round the 
northern point. 

The Soundings in the chart are for Low Water springs, and it is 
high water on full and change, at 1 Ih. 50m. : the rise and fall is about 
9 feet. 

Should Iron Steamers ever be sent up the Rajapoor River, it will 
be necessary to employ native Pilots. 

We procured good water at Jeytapoor, but vessels rpquiring it 
must employ the natives to draw the water, as they are all Hindoos, 
and would not permit our men to use the well. Supplies are procured 
from Rajapoor, which is situated about twelve miles up the river, 
on its northern bank ; it is a place of considerable trade, and is a large 
and populous town ; the greater part of its merchandize for exportation 
18 brought down by bullocks from the Ghauts, and from thence 
transhipped in boats for Doonghurr, and Jeytapoor, to the large 
Pattimars. The Mamlutdar of Rajapoor informed me that the roads 
leading from Rajapoor to the Ghauts are very bad, and totally unfit 
for wheeled carriages. 

There is a hot spring about a mile from the Town of Rajapoor, 
which is much frequented by the natives, and is celebrated for its 
virtues in curing ail rheumatic and cutaneous affections. The water, 
which issues from the side of the hill on the south bank of the river, 
and about three hundred yards distant from it, is received into a 



160 

small tank about ten feet square paved wiih stone, and from thence 
rnrirt into the river : it in led through a short pipe, at the end of which a 
lUxli'n iioad id carved in stone, and from this the water pours in a fall 
strrau) into the tank : it has no peculiar taste or smell, aad the 
leniperalure was about 120°. * 

The naiivo morchants complain that the river is filling up, and that 
tlu'y are |)ut to considerable expense in having to hire boats to 
transport their goods to the larger Pattimars, which are prevented 
getting up to Hajapoor : they are most anxious that the Government 
should iulo[i)t some means to deepen the river. 

Dredj^'ing has boon proposed as a means of improving the naviga- 
tion of (he U;ij;»p(H>r river, but I should say, from my examination of it, 
that it would be all but iuipracticable. The bottom, from Raja poor to 
Donnghur, is ocuuposed of gravel interpersed with large boulders of 
^tl)Me, and iu vari(»us })laees large rooks covered with a thin deposit of 
graNel and mud. From Doonghnr to Jeytapoor, it is principally mud, 
Miih a deposit of sand, small stones, and occasionally, as before men- 
tioni'ii, in several places there are large banks of mud, covered with 
nianLiroNes, which the natives s»y are ir. creasing ; and also in many 
j)lae« > lilt* lumks of the river are high and composed of alluvial soil and 
graxil unilrr euhivaiion, and ap[)t'aring to have been recovered from the 
lixfr, the loot of the hills Ix ing some three or four hundred yards back. 
One cause to wliieh the tiiliiig up of the river is attributed, is the break- 
ing up of tin* soil ot'ihe hills Avitli the ploui^h, which during the rainy 
season is carried down to the river or creek : such cause will always be 
iu aetieu. 

I \xas unable to obtain any information as to the quantity of water 
in the ii\er during the rains, but the scouring power during that sea- 
Stu>. jiJ»l,:;ing \\o\n a|>pe.\ranoes, does not seem to be very powerful, and 
lh<* lu.uv sea ilirowu \\\ the bay during the prevalence of the South 
West Monsoon o\erpv>\\ers ih<» current setting out of the river, thereby 
prexenini;: tae s.vn»l and otiu^r soil iTou^ht down by it being carried 
out to sea. Tiie tiiiing up of the river appears to have been going on 
for a nu;nber of \ ears, auvi any attempt to reniier the river navigable up 
10 K ] p.>or tvM' i:io l,\ri;e native craft, wou'.d not only be attended 
\M,;> au t,i\.\Kus<^ c\pen>o. but wl:h every uuctrtainty of success. 

Ihx^ u\er At K japoor is \ery narrow, and there is only one or two 
feet \\\ \\. At K \x \>,\ur» olv^>e to the Town, the rise and fall on the 
spi.,\;;s \> A'.>vnu si\ oi sex en fet t. ai.d it is hiiih water on full and 
c^u i;c^ A\ Ou. •«\Hi. l.Ar;:e Pa:: nwrs c.^n lay at Jeytapoor, sheltered 
f.o.u .4.1 \x ;, vis : r.v it^ is ,i:) <\vV ..c:A iaudng place for their cargoes, and 



I \.* Ui.- >i ;4t;,:\^ .^:^ c^^ svr/.-^ w.\* obKTvcd in May lASt to be lOJJ**.— 



161 

it must under existing circumstances be the port of Rajapoor. At high 
water large boats can get up as far as Doonghur, about three miles 
from Rajapoor. 

Ships not intending to run into Rajapoor Bay, should not come under 
ten fathoms, either off Rajapoor points or Ambolghur point. 

Viziadroogy or Geriah. — This place was surveyed in 1756 fat the 
time of its capture by Admiral Watson and Lord Clive) by Sir Willi- 
am Hevvett, then first Lieutenant of the flag-ship: in 1819 it was 
examined by Lieutenant Donioniceti, and afterwards by Lieutenant 
Jeremiah Robinson ; and it does not appear that any material change 
has taken place in tiie harbour. It is safe to approach, the entrance be- 
ing wide, and there is no b;ir. Vessels may anchor in a good birth in 
three and a half to four f'atlioins nuui and sand, with the Fort flag staff 
bearing about South West by West, and the remains of the Mahratta 
Battery marked No. 1 on the cliart, which is a low black looking wall of 
small extent, nearly <>n tiie edu^eof the cliff, bearing about N. N. W. ^ 
W. ; or in three fathoms, with the Fort flatistaff bearing W. S. W., and 
distant about one thousand yards from ihe outer or sea wall of the 
Fort. 

Should a vessel be oblii^ed to take refuge in Viziadroog, in the S. W. 
Monsoon, from stress of weather or other cause, supplies may be pro- 
cured by giving a few days' notice: they are brougiit I believe from a 
large town named Karripnttam, situated some distance up the river, 
and, by taking advantage of nu)derate weatlier, it would not be difficult 
for a ship to get a suflicient otiing to prosecute her voyage. 

In the event of a War with a European Power, and should 
the Government not place the Fort in thorough repair, a few 
heavy guns mounted on two or three of the principal points, 
would render the harbour an excellent place for a ship hard press- 
ed by an enemy to take refuge in, as no enemy's vessel at 
stich an immense distance from her resources, would venture (by fol- 
lowing her in under the fire of such gunsj to incur a loss of either per- 
sonal or material, which could not be replaced. I have marked on a 
separate plan the points on which, in my opinion, it would be feasible to 
mount guns, together with a diagram of th(-ir ranges at different elnva- 
tions : the guns 1 propose are the 8 or 10 inches — General Millar's 
guns. 

The Fort of Viziadroog is situated on a neck of land on the south- 
ern side of the harbour, and is of considerable extent. The walls are im- 
mensely strong, but the work of decay is going on : there are several 
places, where trees have sprung up and fastened on the waMs and tow- 
ers, which must cause their destruction, in spite of their solidity, at no 
distant period. There are several breaches, two or three of which are on 



162 

the western side close to the water's eclget apparently occasioned by the 
action of the sea, which if not repaired, will endanger the bringing 
down of a great portion of the wall from the crest : but the repair of 
these breaches would be attended with some difficulty, as the sea beats 
heavily against this face of the fort when the westerly winds prevail in 
any strength, anil also on the spring tides. The lower part of the 
Fort hereabouts seems]_constructed out of the original rock. 

The Fort is commanded by the two hills on which the remains of the 
Mahratta batteries are situated, and in moderate weather a line-of-bat- 
tie-ship could take up a position (even at low water) within six hun- 
dred yards of the N. W. and Northern face of the Fort. 

There is the remains of a Dock built by Angria, in which he used 
to repair his piratical vessels : it is about two miles from the Fort on 
the same side ; is excavated out of the rock ; it dries at low water ; the 
entrance to it is faced with large stones, but there is no appearance of 
there ever having been gates. 

The soundings are in fathoms for low water spring tides ; the rise and 
fall is about 9 feet, and it is high water at 11 h. 40m. on full and change. 
The greatest velocity of tide observed during our stay in the harbour, 
was from 1| to 2 knots per hour, the ebb being the strongest. The west- 
erly and southerly breezes occasioned a very heavy swell in the har- 
bour, and there was at times a very heavy surf over on the N. E. 
side, rendering it dangerous to land in boats, but on the Fort side of 
the harbour there is no difficulty in landing at all times. 

It will be here necessary to correct the error Horsburgh has been 
led into, regarding the Flagstaff, which is stated to be on a hill to the 
southward, whereas it now stands in the centre of the Fort, is up- 
wards of seventy feet high, and is of importance as a landmark, but 
the mast is entirely without rigging or other support ; there is a small 
pole on a hill to the southward, but which can only be seen at a very 
short distance, and only then in a few positions. 

The Latitude of the Flagstaff at Viziadroog is about 16© 34' 04" 
North, and the Longitude 73° 22' 12" East. 

Deivghurr, — The harbour of Dewghurr is formed by a narrow 
and somewhat flat rocky Peninsula, about eighty feet above the level 
of the sea ; to the Westward or to the Seaward, the cliffs are steep 
and nearly perpendicular, but on the other side towards the har- 
bour, the land slopes down like steps, varying in its declivity from 
25 to 40 degrees. The fort is in ruins, and is situated on the above 
mentioned Peninsula, which is connected with the main land by 
a low sandy Isthmus, on which is a large village thickly studded 



ir>3 

with cocoanut trees, and bearing the same name as the harbour: there 
is a custom house ehokey here. In Ilorsburgh's Directory, Dewghurr 
is described as an island, and in all the old charts, as well as in those 
after McCluer, issued by the Hydrographical Office of the Admiralty, 
it is so represented. 

The entrance to Dewghurr harbour is narrow, and the north shore 
must be avoided by ships, as rocky ground projects a considerable 
distance off, having sudden overfalls, and in many places very shoal 
water, and there is foul ground off the whole line of the seaface of 
the Fort up to 6J and 7 fathoms, but the soundings here are regular : 
the anchorage in the harbour is very limited in extent, and is only 
fit for small vessels. 

There is no Flagstaff in the Fort, and on account of its being in 
ruins, and the great sameness presented by the land about Dewghurr, 
renders the entrance to the harbour difficult to discover at any distance 
from seaward. The hills on the northern side of the entrance are 
covered with a low jungle, and there is a round hill to the northward 
of the Fort appearing over the flat table land, as seen in the sketch. 
The point on which the Fort is built presents to view a nearly straight 
and long line of dark-looking cliffs, with little or no vegetation : on the 
northern end of it two or three ruined towers are seen, and likewise two 
conspicuous cocoanut trees about ten feet from the water's edge. Near 
the northern end of the Fort, there is a cluster of the same trees, 
with a patch of vegetation, but a vessel must be close in to discern 
the latter. A saddle- shaped hill will also be seen over the Fort 
point, and when the mouth of the harbour is well open, there are 
two or three dark-looking round trees on the slope of a hill to the 
Eastward some distance up the river. 

The Latitude of the N. W. Tower of Dewghurr Fort is 16° 23^38'' 
North : the soundings are in fathoms for low- water spring tides : the 
rise and fall is about nine feet, and it is high water on full 
and change at 11 H. 25m. : the greatest velocity of the tide observed 
was one knot and a half per hour. 

The River at Dewghurr runs up for some distance inland, but it is 
very shallow, and only navigable for boats of any size at high water 
springs, and that only for a distance of about ten miles. 

A vessel would have a difficulty in procuring supplies at Dewghurr, 
and unless on any very emergent occasion, I would not advise a vessel 
to run into the harbour. 

(Signed) Charles William Montriou, 

Lieutenant^ Indian Navy. 



164 

Remarks on a singular Hollowy twelve mites in lengthy called the 
" Boke^' situated in the Purantej Purgunnah of the Ahmedahad 
Collectorate — with a Sketch of the Boke near Purantej Kusha large 
Lake, By Captain G. Fulljames. 

[Communicated by the author.] 

1. — During the month of November 1842, 1 had the opportunity 
of examining the Saburmuttee and Hautmuttee Rivers at the junction 
of the latter with the former, as also the mouth of a singular Hollow 
called tlie *' Boke," which is nearly at right angles with the course of 
the latter river. My curiosity was much excited on discovering on 
the North Bank of the Hautmuttee, and nearly opposite to this Hol- 
low, evident indications of Volcanic Agency, which, together with the 
impracticability of preventing two large rivers, flowing at such angles, 
from cuUing through a mass of earth such as must have existed had 
these two rivers been separate from each other, at once removed from 
my mind tlie impression it had imbibed — that the course of the Haut- 
muttee had been diverted by human agency, as was generally supposed 
to have been the case by the people of the country, and attrihuttd — as 
will be seen by the following Extract from the Revenue Survey re- 
port of the Purantej Purgunnah by Lieutenant (now Colonel) Melvill, 
dated Ahmedabad, 1827 — to Sooltan Ahmed, the founder of the City 
of Ahmedabad. 

2. — " The Boke, supposed by the people of the country, and ap- 
** parently with truth, to have been the original channel ot the Haut- 
•* muttee river, from which the stream was diverted into its present 
** course by means of a Bund or embank mrnt thrown across. This 
** act is ascribed to Sooltan Ainned, the founder of Ahmedabad, whose 
** intention it was to increase the rpianlity of water in the Sabur- 
** muttee, upon the bank of which he had founded his new city. 
** Though no trace of the Bund can at present be discovered, and af» 
** ter a lapse of oOO years it were vain to expect it, still the tale 
** appears probable, and indeed it is ditticult, if not impossible, to ac- 
« count for this singular Hollow in any other way. The Town of 
** Purantej stands upon it, and it is not likely that such a position 
** would have been chosen had not the Boke, at tlie remote period when 
** the place was built, contained a flowing stream." 

3. — Whence the name of this singular hollow, the ** Boke," has been 
derived, I have been unable to ascertain : it may be from the Mahratta 
word " Boke" ( HfC " Bhoke," a " perforation or hole") — a cavern 
or hollow. It extends south, in nearly a straight line, twelve miles 
toils junction with the Kharee river; and from the Hautmuttee to 
the village of Purdol on the Kharee, where the last traces of high 



165 

banks are seen, is about thirty miles. Successive Pools or hollows, 
containing water, are met with at intervals in the 6rst twelve miles: 
the larj^est, which forms a kind of lake, is about a quarter of a mile 
north of the Town of Purantej, and has never, I believe, been known 
to become dry. The formation of the banks of the B<)ke is composed 
of a loose friable soil, containing a larire proportion of sand, with small 
nodules of knnkur or limestone, easil}' acted on and eroded by the 
rain water during tiie monsoon, by which agency deep ravines are 
formed on either side. 

4. — In none of the different Native manuscripts written during the 
Mahomedan dynasty, many of which I have had access to, can I find 
any thing to throw liglit on the point under investigation. Had the 
undertakir?g of turning the course of a river suf^h as the Hautmuttee, 
by means of a Bund, taken place during Sooltan Ahmed's life, or 
those Kings that folh)wed after him, some record would surely have 
been made, especially as events of far less importance are recorded 
with great minnteness. The turbulent character of the inhabitants, 
even in the present day, in the neighbourhood of this locality and a- 
long the banks of the Boke and Kiiaree river, is opposed to this idea, 
as it is very doubtful whether any power would have induced them 
to submit to see a work erected which was to divert the water of 
their river from its true ciiannel. 

5.— To the Geological formation of the Banks of the River must 
we look to enable us both to ascertain the vicis>itudes that have taken 
place, and to furni>li us with data whereon to found an argument. 
In support of which I bei; to eiilose a Map of the Country around 
this spot, as also Sections of the Banks of the River, from an inspection 
of which it will appc^ar more pruhibie that the chai;ges wliicii have 
taken place have not been etrcctcd by human power, or within a pe- 
riod of time of which any written records are likely to be found. 

6. — The Hautmuttee River takes its rise among the hills near Paul 
in Waughur, and after a course of sixty miles joins the Saburmuttee 
in the singular-shaped basin called the *' Koonclla." Its greatest length 
and breadth is three miles by two miles. Nearly the whole area of this 
basin is under cultivation, as the soil, from its situation, is very rich, 
and the large trees now growing on this alluvial land would indi- 
cate that few alterations have taken place for a considerable period. 
The banks on either side are very precipitous, and in some parts from 
200 to 250 feet above the level of the river. 

7. — At the village of Peeplode, seven miles above the junction of 
the two rivers, there is a waterfall formed by the out crop of a stra- 
tum of coarse sandstone extending across the bed of the Hautmuttee. 



166 

A sudden fall in the bed of the river, of fifteen feef, takes place at 
this spot: from thence to its junction with the Saburmuttee a fur- 
ther considerable fall is indicated by the rapidity of the current. 

8. — The present bed of the Boke is fifty-five feet higher now than 
the bed of the Hautmuttee, the highest point being south of the Vil- 
lage of Peelodra. Th« water from the uplands during the monsoon 
are here divided: that which falls north of Peelodra falls into the 
** Boke,'* and flows north, joining the Saburmuttee below its junction 
with the Hautmuttee, its channel being under the south bank of 
the Koondla; that which falls south of Peelodra, flows past the Town 
of Purantej, and replenishes the different pools, on its way to join 
the Kharee river. 

9. — To explain this naore fully, I have had inserted in the map a 
Section of the Level along the Boke from the large Lake to the Haut- 
muttee River, as also a section from the waterfall at Peeplode along a 
nullah, called the Boogwa Wala, to the level of the Kharee River, for 
which I am indebted to Mr. Jordan, Surveyor in the Ahmedabad Col- 
lectorate : a sketch of the large Lake, with soundings by the same officer, 
I also forward. 

10. — The north bank of the Hautmuttee, opposite the entrance 
into the Boke, is much intersected by numerous and deep ravines, 
the banks forming small conical hills. On the tops of many of those 
nearest the river are large masses of what may be called volcanic 
scoriae fast filling to pieces from its exposed position. Below this 
occurs a loose friable whitish earth with nodules of kunkur : fur- 
ther down a red stratum of small round volcanic shot, having the 
appearance of having been ejected in a liquid state to a great height 
and during its descent attained its spherical form : it varies from the 
size of dust shot to that of about thirty to the pound. Whitish clay 
partly cements these together, but the water from above during the 
monsoon has cut this stratum into numerous small ridges, and has 
carried vast quantities down to the bed of the river. A stratum of sand 
and gravel, composed of water-worn fragments of agate, jasper, 
feltspar, quartz, &c., lies beneath the shot, the lowest stratum observable 
being a yellowish white clay with bands or veins of limestone and 
kunkur running through it in all directions. The south bank pre- 
sents a nearly similar formation, with the exception of the masses of 
scoriae on the conical tops of the bank. The appearance of both banks, 
but particularly the north, would strongly lead one to the conviction 
that nothing but some great convulsion of nature could have formed 
such a chaos of hills and hollows as are to be seen, even if the actual 
remains of such did not present themselves to view. 

II. — That some such power was the origin of the Boke, also ap- 
pears equally evident from what is above recorded, and from the fact 



m 

that all traces of a channel sufficiently large to have admitted the unit- 
ed streams of two rivers during the monsoon to have passed down, 
cease at the village of Purdol ; nor was 1 able to discover any indica- 
tions of a Geological nature such as must have existed had the Boke 
ever formed the channel of such a river as the Hautmuttee, whereas 
in both banks of that river below the mouth of the Boke to its junc- 
tion with the Saburmuttee, the deposit of gravel and sand is distinctly 
seen, and therefore clearly indicating the original bed of a river. 

12. — The country on all sides is to the eye nearly level, shewing 
that the land must have subsided to have formed the Boke ; and the 
basin called the Koondla may have been formed in the same manner. 
A fall of fifteen feet in the bed of the Hautmuttee is seen at Peeplode, 
therefore it is highly probable that the same power that was exerted 
at this spot — only seven miles distant — was the same that effected the 
subsidence of the lands now called the Boke and Koondla. 

Ahmedabad, 4t7i September, 1845. Geo. Fulljames. 

N. B. — A few specimens of the strata are sent. — G. F. 



Some account of the Topography and Climate of Chikiddah, situated 
on the Table Land of the Gatvil Range. By Assistant Surgeon 
W. H. Bradley, Bombay Army, at Ellichpoor. — With the follow- 
ing Papers, viz,, a Plan of the Plateau of Chikuldah — Section of 
a portion of the Gawil Range in the direction of its dip — Abstract 
of Thermometrical Observations made at Chikuldah and Ellichpoor 
simultaneously, 1843-44 — Chart exhibiting the Variations of the 
Thermometer at Chikuldah and Ellichpoor, noted simultaneously ^ 
1843-44— C/iar^ of the Temperature of Chikuldah and Ellich' 
poor, taken simultaneously, showing the Range of each month, 
1 843-44-— 2 Papers of Drawings of the Specimens of Minerals 
and Shells — and a note dated Ellichpoor y August 2U/, 1845. 

[Communicated by the Author.] 

The northern limits of the Berar country are marked by mountainous 
elevations of considerable altitude, physically as well as politically, 
dividing it from the Tapty Valley. This chain is an offset from the 
Great Injadri or Satpuri mountains, with which it runs parallel. View- 
ed from the south, the acclivities appear bold and craggy, with abrupt 
mountain falls many hundred feet in depth : scarped masses of basalt 
show their bluff forms amid the foliage that covers the mountain sides, 
conferring all the characteristics of such formations upon the scenery. 
The declivities upon the north possess features essentially the re- 



168 

verse of those witnessed here, and though less picturesque, ai^ mr 
more pleasing. The range, which is found to consist of a group of de- 
tached hills, for the most part observing a parallelism in their order 
of extension, are seen gently subsiding as they recede northward, till 
their bases mingle with the levels of the Tapty Valley, Deep ra- 
vines often divide these plateaux from each other, the bottoms of 
which are choked with the thickest juiigul, whilst the sides are clorhed 
with flowering shrubs and noble forest trees. The flat table- laiids 
that crown the summits have little beyond grass growing on them, the 
Roussah variety that affords the spikenard, being the most conspicuous. 
Over these undulating tracts, groups of trees are thinly scattered, giving 
to the whole a park-like character ; and not inaptly recalling to mind 
our own rural scenr^ry at home. The fertile and highly cultivated Val- 
ley of Berar is seen in its complete breadth from these heights dotted 
over with innumerable topes, and tinged with the various hues of 
vegetation ; the site of its large Towns being marked by blue filmy 
wreaths of smoke hanging over their localities. The Ghats are few, 
and difficult of ascent, being narrow stony defiles, which, with one or 
two exceptions, are but little better than mere goat-paths. 

From the diminished density of the atmosphere on these heights, a 
temperate climate is found prevailing at that season when all nature 
upon the plains is languiL>hing from excessive heat : the benefit of ex- 
changing one climate for the other at such a period, is too obvious to 
comment upon, and it is only remarkable that advantages so great as 
these mountain retreats afford to Europeans, should have beeu only 
taken advantage of in, cf mparatively speaking, these latter days. The 
Cantonment of Ellichpoor, suffering as it does from the effects of an 
excessive climate, has the great benefit of these Hills in its vicinity to 
resort to during the hot season ; and the Sanatorium of Chikuldah, 
established now five years by its community, bids fair to rank amongst 
the many agreeal)le Sanatory resorts of India. It is situated upon one 
of the higest table-lands of the Range, and though limited in extent, 
still possesses within itself every requisite for health and enjoyment— 
the confined limits of the Plateau l)eing of little consequence from the 
various paths and roads, to and from its summit, leading to rides aod 
■drives of any lengthened extent. 

The Gawilghur Range has ifs geographical position defined within 
•the parallels of 76« 15' and 78® 36' East Longitude, and 21° 5' and 
21° 35' North Latitude: the highest point gives a In iuht above the Sea 
level, of about 3717 — feet, or somewhere near 2400 feet above the 
Berar Valley. Its strike is in conformity with the Great Central Trap 
upheavements, and runs about South 60' West and North 80' East. 

The general features of its geological formations are peculiar and 
remarkable. Stratiform beds of basalt, in every varied form of its 



169 

appearance, arc seen lying in horizontal parallel planes amidst the body 
of the mountain, all dippin^^ at a low angle to the eastward of north, 
generally about 10°. The beds amidst which the basalt is intercalated, 
would appear to be of a mechanical origin ; very favorable opportuni- 
ties for viewing their disposition, and arrangement, occur in the vertical 
sections of the deep ravines. The fundamental rock is wacken, 
amidst which the basalt reposes, the globular variety mostly prevailing. 
These nodules, varying in size from pistol bullets to masses many 
tons in weight, having their substance arranged in thin concentric la- 
mellse, very readily acted on by the elements, and wearing down into 
the surface soil of the hills, their peculiar formation seems not to have 
been at all satisfactorily accounted for. Some of the wacken beds ap- 
pear to be as much as 400 feet in depth : upon their surfaces are found 
strewn beautiful varieties of chalcedony, agates, heliotropes, geodes, 
quartz, spar, with other silicious concretions, mamillated and stalo- 
clital, that have become exposed by the original fissures into which 
they had infiltrated, wearing away. Next in importance to the nodu- 
lar basalt may be noted its darker compact variety : sometimes occur- 
ring massive, but more frequently seen assuming a columnar appear* 
ance or an approach towards it. On the almost isolated hill on which 
Gawil Fort stands, and which is connected to the Chikuldah hill by a 
narrow ridge, we perceive upon its scarped sides, five beds of colum- 
nar basalt, averaging in depth from 60 to 100 feet, rendered conspicu« 
ous by their darkened hue, that plainly distinguishes them amidst the 
reddish grey arenaceous beds in which they lie : we count also ten 
other stratiform beds, readily discernible at favorable seasons, when the 
hill side is void of vegetation. Many of the highest summits are cap- 
ped with this compact basalt, generally giving a tabular surface to the 
hill, but when inclined to become columnar, the rock is broken up into 
disjointed masses, forming chasms, and scarped projections, — an ar- 
rangement peculiar to trap rocks: these rugged shapes suggested to 
the native warrior the easy conversion of such spots into strongholds, 
and retreats, in times of trouble, — the bulwarks and defences 
Nature here had thrown up, requiring little aid from man to 
render impregnable : the walls and bastions of Gawilghur have thus 
been built in and upon huge masses of basaltic rock. 

The most remarkable example of columnar trap in the whole range, 
may be witnessed at the village of Wudjhur, situated at its foot, where 
the river Sarpun has scooped out a deep channel as it leaves the hills. 
The molten rock appears to have flowed into a hollow concavity, 
judging from those phenomena that usually present themselves when 
such has been the case, and here are present, — namely, distinct grada- 
tions in the forms of the mass, arising from the difierent degrees of 
temperature in the cooling process, and the prisms inclining in certain 
positions, following an admitted rule that such forms are always pro- 



170 

duced at right angles with their cooling surfaces : three distinct sets of 
columns appear in the vertical section thus accidentally disclosed — the 
•lowest being of a dark grey color, almost black, very compact and hea- 
vy, with a soapy feel to the touch. All the prisms throughout are from 
four to six sides, the lower ones being smaller in their respective length 
and breadth than those above : the middle series have a rusty surface, 
but are dark grey within, and of less specific gravity than those be- 
neath, whilst the prisms are broader and more lofty ; the upper series 
loses nearly all resemblance to columnar structure, and is of no great 
breadth, its substance passing into the wacken beds reposing on it, 
from which indeed it can scarcely be distinguished. 

Another interesting circumstance in the physical geography of these 
hills will be found in the extraordinary circumstance of the trap rocks 
overlying those of sandstone and lime. Low sandstone ridges are 
seen extending from near Wudjhur to Byram, along the base of 
the range ; beyond which lime of an earthy nature is found 
in low undulating hillocks. When these beds have been in contact 
-with the trap, they assume a crystalline appearance, whilst under si- 
milar circumstances, the sandstone is seen converted into chert. 
These tertiary beds lie generally in horizontal strata : sometimes they 
show a departure from this regularity, and incline at a high angle, as 
though they had suffered from some violent upheavement or displace- 
ment. The sandstone varies from cream color to buff and red : oc- 
casionally its particles are but loosely agglutinated, but for the most 
part it is found compact and firm, and a rock admirably adapted for 
building purposes, being both easy of working and durable : the 
walls and gateways around the City of Ellichpoor have been built 
with stone quarried from these rocks. Marl, purple and lilac colored, 
or mottled blue and white, appears interstratifed with the nodular 
basalt lying on these formations, and a slaty marl in thin lamellae, 
laden with mica, lies upon the surface of the sandstone. No fossils 
or vegetable remains of any description have been found amidst these 
tertiary deposits, though in their immediate neighbourhood amongst 
the trap rocks, those bearing a lacustrine character have been found 
in great abundance, and whose presence has conferred upon the whole 
range the character of being fossiliferous. Their site occurs at a 
considerable height in the mountains, lying scattered upon a terrace of 
nodular trap, in large masses of rock that evidently have been 
detached from the sides of the adjoining mountain. This spot is tra- 
versed by the Kurridghaum Pass, the native name for which is the 
Shepe Ghat, being most probably a corruption of the word sepe or 
shell. 

Fossils similar in kind were found upon the Tapty side of the 
hills, at a place called Jillan, by the late Dr Voysey, and nearly under 



171 

similar circumstances. The matrix of these shells is an indurated clay, 
approaching the several characters of hornstone, chert, and shale, thus 
altered by the contact of heat, — the color varying from bluish grey to 
black, and fawn color to reddish brown. Acids have no action upon 
them, nor the contained fossils. In those darker rocks approaching 
the nature of hornstone, apalline marks abound, being the conversion 
into chalcedony of minute shells : stems of reeds, and grasses, 
leaves, and teeth of fish or reptiles, appear in the shale and chert ; 
as well as charred lumps of wood : a yellowish slaty clay, on splitting, 
presented beautiful dendritic forms. The prevailing shell throughout 
is a species of physa, called after Mr. Prinsep, physa Prinsepii, and 
a limited variety of other species of univalves, as paludinee lim- 
nites, and melanias : two species only of bivolve shells are observed 
— uniones, and cypraea. Some of these fossils are occasionally found 
assuming the nature of the involving rock, whilst others have been 
metamorphosed into amass of chalcedony, having their cavities beau- 
tifully lined with sparkling crystals of quartz ; and very often no- 
thing but the mere cast remains within the rock, or impressed upon 
its surface, — the hollow cavity being filled with crumbling cinders of the 
original shell. A perplexing circumstance not easily accounted for, 
occurs in the flattened shape these fossils often assume, -^their sides, 
though frequently fractured, not being invariably so. Since Dr Voysey 
first made the discovery of the existence of such formations — now up- 
wards of twenty years ago, — the same species and varieties have been 
found scattered very widely apart from each other, — localities near to 
Mundoo in Kandeish, in the Nerbuddah Valley, and between the Go- 
davery and Nagpoor, suggest themselves at the moment ; and which 
have been very ably described by Dr Spilsbury and Dr Malcolmson. 

A submarine formation seems to offer the easiest solution to the 
difficulties in the phenomena of these mountains. Regarding the 
range from any commanding height, the uniformity and adaptation 
of each valley's opposing sides throughout — stratum to stratum, and 
bed to bed, occurring in such opposite uniformity, that it is quite 
evident the whole of these riven masses have once been a continu- 
ous body, — might not the assumed mechanical formation here put 
forth, be sufficiently explained by the Mosaical revelation of the 
world's creation ? We learn there, that during the earlier epochs wa- 
ter covered the face of the earth, that not until the third of ** the 
generations of the heaven, and of the earth," did dry land appear. 
Man cannot conceive the lapses of time that had thus in ail proba- 
bility passed away, but a thousand years are but as a day in the 
sigiit of Him who made him. To this period it may be that Moses is 
referring when he says in the 90th Psalm, in setting forth the provi- 
dence of the Almighty; — "Lord, thou hast been our place of refuge 
from generation to generation, before the mountains were brought 



172 

forth, or ever thou hadst formed the earth and the world." The moan- 
tains rising through their beds of waters, riven and torn apart by 
this stupendous movement, would cause them to appear in the stale 
we now witness ; though probably their present heights were attain- 
ed by a process more gradual, — by successive throes, and at great 
interval?, or there would be no accounting satisfactorily for the ter- 
tidry and lacustrine depositions here found. On the highest point 
of the range I discovered what appears to be a species of zoophy- . 
tic tubicolae, which, if proved to be such, would be decisive as to 
the origin of the range's formation. 

The surface soil is a light ferruginous sandy clay, stained rusty 
red by iron, and derived principally, as before remarked, from dis- 
integration of the nodular trap : this variety of soil would be highly 
productive in any other locality than upon heights like these, but 
here, its light character admitting of a ready percolation, too quick- 
ly drains off the moisture contained upon its bed ; for the substra- 
tum, though of itself retentive enough, nevertheless becomes sooner 
or later denuded at the sides of the vallej' ; agricultural occupations 
consequently are confined solely to the rainy seasons, and even then 
afford but little scope for comment. Wheat, rice, sugar cane, and a 
small millet called ** koodaka'* ^paspalum scrobiculatum,) are culti- 
vated in favorable localities — the latter indeed is the staple food af 
the natives : beyond these> I am not aware of any other produce 
grown upon the plateau. The spots they are cultivated in are 
thickly covered with large loose stones, more useful than ornamental 
by their presence, but serving to repress the olherways great radia- 
tion, and so retarding evaporation, as well as condensing fogs and 
vapours as they float along the surface. In the intermediate valleys, 
nature and circumstances combine to produce a soil unceasing in its 
fertility, and productive to an eminent de«;ree. Here the soil not 
only dnds its great desideratum, moisture in abundance, but also 
obtains a vast amount of vegetable humus, as a valuable adjunct ; 
leaving nothing wanting for calling forth its latent virtues, but 
human industry, — but that, unfortunately, is not to be found upon 
these mountains, the natives of which are averse to labor or im- 
provement of any kind, being a most abject race, and very low iti 
the scale of humanity. 

Upon tlus lofty divisional barrier the condensation of moisture 
must be enormous, seeing that such large sized rivers as the Tapty, 
Poornah, and Wurdah, as well as many very important sized streams, 
derive their sources from these heights. A reference to the vertical 
section of the range displays the disposition of its large horizontal 
masses, retentive and un-retentive in thtir characters, between which, 
reservoirs of water are as it were partially retained the whole year 
round, percolating through successive strata till the levels of tb« 



173 

valley bave been passed, and then supplying the springs and wells 
of the adjacent country. In some places, at the foot of the hills, 
water runs the whole year round. Thus we perceive how impor- 
tant an office is imposed upon these mountains, which not only ar- 
rest the passing clouds, causing their contents to burst upon their 
summits, but actually retain them, as in a storehouse, to be meted 
out again as may be required. Chikuldah being nearly the highest 
plateau of the range, supers, from the causes specified, the want of 
water: upon the plateau immediately below, and with which it is in 
easy communication, such an unpleasant state of things does not 
occur: for here the compact basalt rising close upon the surface, al- 
lows a good supply of water to be obtained by bunds, a proceeding 
which has in former years been adopted very effectively; the proof of 
which is apparent in the ruined bund of a large sized tank, around 
which are found numerous remains of tombs and buildings. This 
bund has now been repaired at very considerable expense, ensuring 
a never-ending supply of the element, — the only circumstance wanting 
to constitute the sanatorium perfect in its agremens : no less a matter 
of congratulation is it to the natives themselves, who till now were 
forced to drive thrir flocks and herds into the low country, aban- 
doning the place whilst the hot season lasted. Tradition declares this 
tank to have been originally constructed by the Rajah of Ellichpoor, 
contemporaneously with the Fort of Gawil, eight hundred years ago, 
and that its bund was cut through by Mahomedans in a foray a few 
years after its erection : this is said to have occurred about the close 
of the 1 0th century, and probably was in one of those many expedi- 
tions into the Deccan, undertaken by the house of Ghazin, before 
the grand invasion at the close of the I3th century, when the Moslem 
obtained a surer and permanent footing, — the city of Ellichpoor being 
the first fruits of their harvest of plunder. 

The whole vegetable world upon the range bears an interesting 
character, much of which may claim an importance far beyond the 
mere pleasurable gratification of the eye, usefully administering as 
they do to man's more immediate wants and neces>ilie8. In addi- 
tion to the flora of the plains, we find the altered character of the 
atmosphere occasioning corresponding chans^es in the kinds here pre- 
sent: conditions, be it observed, equally affecting organized as unor- 
ganized bodies. The first novelties of this discription that probably 
arrest attention, will be its ferns and mosses, its parasitic air plants, 
and gigantic creepers : but a lover of such scenes would hardly dare 
to trust himself in dilating upon all that meets his gaze amongst 
these floral wonders, lest in the detail he should incur the imputation- 
of exaggerating their loveliness. Nothing however can be more amus- 
ing, nothing more delightful, than their contemplation. Were a jui- 
fiicious selection of sites to be made, there cannot be a reasonable doubts 



174 

(and this remark is made advisedly) but that every useful phint of the 
east might here be made to flourish ; not excepting even the tea plant 
— premising, as a matter of course, that tliose sites shall command the 
means of being refreshed by irrigation where found requisite. Its soil 
is eminently fertile, and its climate undergoes no very excessive alter- 
nation, either of heat or cold : its heats, though necessarily great, are 
tempered, and not exhausting ; neither are its chills sudden or severe, 
but equable when present, nor lasting longer than is necessary to res- 
tore those energies the summer may have weakened. 

The Protean character shed over these scenes by the mutability of 
its vegetation, is certainly not the least of their charms; each month 
effects a change of some kind, adding to, or taking from, its beauties : 
the period they reach perfection is during the hot. season, when the in- 
creased heat of the atmosphere gives momentum to the vegetation, by 
setting the sap in motion : this living principle strongly at work, short- 
ly recalls to life its blossoms, buds, and leaves. The forest, till now 
sombre looking, from its deciduous character, appears gradually clothing 
itself with 

"Green, smiling Nature's universal robe," 

preceded by many a bright-hued flower — and the sober-tinted mountain 
sides burst forth in gay and odour-breathing parterres. Among the 
beautiful chosen few who first emerge from the gloomy chaos, we note 
the gaudy- blossomed bombax, both orange-hued and crimson ; the bril- 
liant flaming erythrena ; the royally-clad butea, " wreathed in amour- 
ous twines ;'* the pensile blossoms of tlie medicinal cassia, glowing in 
burnished gold, amidst leaves of brightest green — giving pleasure by a 
sense of its graceful form, as well as from its delicious fragrance ; 
the perfumed trumpet-flower, and no less sweet-scented dalbergia; 
and very soon we find this little band swollen into a host of followers, 
for as we stroll amid the dflls, on each returning day we mark with 
admiration and delight the birth of some new floral beauty. The 
gigantic creeping bauhinia amazes by the marvellous length of its 
flexile branches, whilst it pleases by the profusion of its blossoms, 
hanging in clustering festoons over the deep ravines. By its side, in 
strong and lovely contrast, we have the sterculia, decidedly the most 
extraordinary of the flowering trees here present ; and peeping from 
their dark-leaved beds we see the white and scarlet-tufted blossoms of 
the careya — or the more chaste and modest-looking phyllanthus, whose 
exquisitely delicate florets are half hidden amidst its new-born leaflets. 
Upon the mountain sides we have the amyris commiphora and bos- 
weliia glabra, 

^' whose rich trees weep odoriferous gums," 

besides a variety of jas.. lines and rosebays. As the hot season draws 
towards its close, the atmosphere shows symptoms of accumulated 



175 

moisture; the sunbeam which had commanded that the sap shouhj rise 
and bring forth buds and blossoms, the rain-cloud now is turning into 
rankest vegetation ; mosses and lichens hang upon the trunks of the 
larger trees, whilst their gnarled and wrinkled branches are shrouded 
in flowering wreaths of the beautiful parasitic orchis, as well as many 
plants of the loranthus. With the viscum opontiodes we seem to feel 
a sort of private friendship, so strongly does it remind us of the mis- 
sletoe, and the agreeable privileges at certain seasons its shade admit- 
ted of. A whole host of creeping plants now shoot into life, entwining 
their graceful tendrils on every side ; whilst below, a carpet of strong and 
vigorous vegetation is spread out. As the rains continue, scitomani- 
ous plants of all descriptions abound, and very beautiful are the crimson 
and yellow flowers of the zedoary, which grows In the moist valley in 
great profusion, as well as a large variety of lillies and arums. 
After the cessation of the rains, Nature seems to require some repose, 
and though not exactly totpid, still remains quiescent : this period may 
be termed its winter, possessing as it does distinctive peculiarities ; and 
whilst it continues, little gaity appears in the vegetable world — the dow- 
ny grislea, and gourian clematis, being amongst its most conspicuous 
varieties. 

The following have been selected as aff'ording examples of the most 
useful indigenous productions : — 

Timber Trees, 

Tectona grandis, acacia Arabica, dalbergia sissoo and oojiensis, melia 
azederachta, melia sempervireus, and melia azederach, diospyros rae- 
lanoxylon, lagerstrsemia regina, mimosa Smithiana, mango, bassia lati- 
folia> phyllanthus emblica, terminalia belerica, terrainalia tomentosa, 
tamarindus Indica, bamboo, calyptranthes jambolana, swietenia febri- 
fuga. 

Drugs. 

Curcuma zedoaria, agle marraalos, argemone Mexicana, asclepias gi- 
gantea, asclepias pseudosarsa, bergera konigii, cassia fistula, cucumis 
colocynthis, cinchona excelsa, dalbergia oojiensis, euphorbia ligularia, 
gentiana verticillata, phyllanthus emblica, terminalia belerica, vitex ne- 
gunda, vitex trifolium, swietenia febrifuga. 

Gums, 

Acacia Arabica — feronea elephantum, butea superba and fron- 
dosa— sterculia urens — spondeas mangifera. 

Gum resins. 
Boswellia thurifera, amyris commiphora. 

Dyes. 
Careya spherica, dalbergia oojiensis, butea frondosa and superba, 
tamarindus Indica, cucuraa zedoaria, grislca tomentosa, rnorinda ex- 



176 

serta, neriuni tinctorium, rottlera tinctoria, phyllanthus emblica, ter- 
minalia belerica. 

Cordage. 

Bauhinia raceinosa and parviflora, careya spherica, sterculia colo- 
rata, mow ha grass. 

Edible Fruits and Beriies* 

Agle marmalos, anona squamosa, bauhinia racemosa, bassia latifo- 
lia, eloecarpus serratus, feronea elephantum, grewia Asiatica and orien- 
talis, mango, sterculia urens, tamarindus Indica, musa superba, dyos- 
pyrus melanoxylon, calyptranlhes jambolana, bergera konigii, zizy- 
phus jujuba and napeca, phyllanthus embleca, terminalia tomentosa 
and belerica, spondeas mangifera, B uchaniaua latifolia. 

Tanning. 
Acacia Arabica, dalbergia oojiensis. 



Slight as the foregoing sketch may be, it probably will serve to con- 
vey some notion of the leading botanical peculiarities. The considera- 
tion of its fauna will be found equally instructive and amusing, offer- 
ing indeed a wide field, from which may be gleaned much that interests 
both naturalists and sportsmen ; and first in the order of importance may 
be ranked the Indian bison — ** bos gaurus," or as he is by some more 
significantly termed, " bos cavifrons," a peculiarly high and arched 
forehead distinguishing him from the rest of the bubuline and bo- 
vine species : his savage nature, when fairly roused, often puts the 
skill, as well as intrepidity, of our sportsmen to the test, and it is no 
uncommon circumstance for these rencontres to be attended with fatal 
results. Various tribes of predatory animals abundantly provide their 
lairs and dens at the expense of the numerous inoffensive animals found 
browsing on the hills. These predacious habits act as a countercheck 
to the encroachments of particular classes of animals, keeping them thus 
within due limits, otherwise they might exceed all bounds, and here 
become an evil to man of far greater magnitude than even their sa- 
vage foes to whose fangs they now fall a prey. 

Of predacious animals we may mention principally — the tiger, 
leopard, cheeta, wolf, and hyena ; and indeed the wild dog, for he is 
found bold enough, when in packs, to attack the tiger. The several 
kinds of deer are — the cheetul, fac simile of our fallow deer, the four 
horned and the barking variety, all seen in large numbers, with the 
exception of the first named» who is more frequently found below the 
hill ; samber, and the painted and goat antelopes. The lynx occasion- 
ally, jackall, fox, wild cat, ichneumon, porcupine, and hares, are all met 
with. A beautiful species of flying squirrel, equalling in size a cat, is 



177 

found in the ravines. It is of a slate color, with very bushy tail. Its 
favorite food appears to be the nut of the beleric myrobolon, which it 
stores in the hollow of old trees for future supplies. No other mon- 
key but the common one of India, ** senmopithecus entellus," is found: 
troops of these are constantly seen scrambling up and down the rocky 
ravines. 

Birds are numerous, some splendid in plumage, and a few gifted with 
song. The jungul fowl breeds in great profusion, and as in him we 
see the progenitor of the poultry yard, he claims a passing notice. 
The male is about the size of a three parts grown domestic fowl ; 
body speckled grey, with deep orange yellow rutf : the great and only 
pecuUarity between the tame and wild breeds consisting in the wing 
coverts of the latter being tipped with a substance resembling finely 
split whalebone, of a bright amber color. His crow is that of a young 
tame cock, who has not yet obtained the proper note. The female 
has a dingy brown hue with black points, and neither are good eating. 
The spur fowl is also plentiful, but tasteless as food. Below the hill, 
the beautiful black florikin is found, and in much request as a dainty 
for the table. Peacocks as usual are numerous. Amongst many other 
kinds, we alsu note the woodpecker, grey and painted partridge, the 
rock, blue and green pigeons, golden oriole, ring dove, cuckoo, fern 
owl, magpie, curlew, Indian nightingale, hoopoe, coppersmith, crested 
lark and sky lark, hill mynah, yellow wagtail, green flycatcher, pa- 
radise flycatcher — both red and purple varieties, grey and rain quail, 
• several species of hawks, the robin, red poled and throated green 
paroquets, Indian blackbird, the thrush, crow, sparrow, kite, vulture, 
and gigantic crane. 

Amongst these few varieties thus named promiscuously, we recog- 
nize some as familiar to us in our more temperate climate. The 
sweet melodious strains poured forth by the Indian blackbitxl, as he is 
called, inspires pleasant thoughts and wakes up fond associations : the 
same agreeable feeling is aroused by the simpler melody of the robin, 
or by the startled peewit screaming out its energetic note : how de- 
lighted do we pause, and listen to the well known note of repetition 
that the cuckoo utters, as it is borne upon the breeze from the ravines 
below mingled with many strange jungul sounds: rising above the 
rest we detect the short crow of the jungul cock, the plaintive note of 
the turtle dove, or the metallic twanging of the coppersmith,— sounds 
ever present in an Indian forest. 

The fish found inhabiting the jheels and streams leading from the 
hills, are the rhoe, murel, thom, coul, puddum, and singhul, of the 
larger sorts ; whilst the lesser fry consists principally of the bham, 
dhoklah, banth, jorrah, khumnair, kuttairah, kunjail, chuppel, and 
Booval. Alligators are sometimes met with in these stream?, as well 
as otters, tortoises, and crabs. 



178 

The simple inoffensive beings who inhabit these mountains are called 
Ghonds, an original race, of obscure descent, but still of an undoubted 
antiquity ; and having said thus much, little more can be advanced 
concerning their past history of an authenticated nature ; for, possess- 
ing no written character, the only source for investigation left was 
that derived from oral testimony, and this has furnished little beyond 
the most meagre details, which, scanty as they are, have been vitiated 
by a mixture of absurdities and preposterous events : neither do they 
possess a regular order of Priesthood, otherwise in all probability 
something might have been obtained through this channel, illustrative 
of their earlier times. We find them in appearance, customs, and 
dialect, differing most essentially from the surrounding tribes ; as 
strongly indeed as it is possible for one remote nation to do from 
another. This remark, however, does not apply equally to the neigh- 
bouring mountain tribes, for with them many peculiarities are found 
in common. That they are not Hindoos, nor ever have been, will 
I think be corroborated, by a consideration of many of their distinctive 
peculiarities : the leading ones of which will now be mentioned. And 
first of all as to their physical constitution. The lamentable amount 
of ignorance, and poverty, we see our poor fellow beings here plunged 
in, is very melancholy to contemplate: the causes are to be explained 
in their long continued semi-barbarous condition ; where the natural 
passions of the heart have been permitted to take their head-long 
course, with neither truth to guide, nor reason to soothe, the fiercer 
emotions : self interest and fear are the only motives that influence 
such beings. But though the Ghond labors under these depressing disad- 
vantages, there still lies within him the germ of much that might be 
turned to good, for we find him simple-minded, inoffensive, honest, 
frank, brave, and its inseparable associate, a great regard to truth- 
fulness : on the other hand, he is disinclined to labor, and much ad- 
dicted to immoderate use of spirits, too readily obtained, unfortunately, 
from the niowha and toddy trees at hand. This trait of veracity ra- 
ther puzzles the native of India, who believes in the Spanish proverb— 
that a lie is worth telling if it holds good twenty-four hours ; and rather 
attributes it to obtuseness of intellect, in not fully comprehending 
the value of a lie. 

In person, the Ghond is generally sturdy limbed, and rather under 
than over the middle size; dark skinned, with harsh oval features ; we 
note in him the distinctive facial peculiarities of the Tartar tribes — 
namely, high broad cheek bones, a low round forehead, and expansive 
alse of the nose, though not flattened like the Negro : moreover, the 
absence of the beard and moustache, makes the resemblance perfect. 
These physical peculiarities are to be met with also in the aborigines 
of the Malayan peninsula— a race who have with little doubt sprung 
from a Tibetian origin : those who may have seen these two races, the 
Ghonds and Malays, cannot but be struck with the close resemblance 



179 

existing between them. The Ghond's habits are by no means cleanly ; 
oblutions are very seldom practised by him, either on his person or his 
scanty clothing. His dress is the simplest possible^ being a dhotee of 
the smallest dimensions consistent with decency, and a few twisted 
folds of a filthy rag for a head-gear : in the rains and cold weather a 
coarse cumblee is added. Dirtier people cannot well be imagined. Their 
abodes are wretched-looking hovels, destitute of every sort of comfort 
we are in the habit of attaching in idea to the abodes of man conducive 
to this purpose : their formation has been effected in a very primitive 
manner, by placing logs of wood horizontally between upright poles, 
throwing over all a thatched pent roof of grass, firmly secured down 
by long poles, to guard against the force of the high winds here 
strongly prevailing : the whole is surrounded by a thorn hedge, to 
exclude wild beasts at night. They take two meals aday, eating indis- 
criminately of all flesh, though the superior tribe — " Koorkoos" — affect 
to abstain from that of the cow : however, they make no objections to 
beef collops from the bison, and this apparent fastidiousness is perhaps 
ostensibly made merely to conciliate, and appear respectable in the 
eye of their Hindoo neighbours, who entertain a holy horror of 
those tribes indulging in the flesh of kine. — When desirous to 
marry, the man binds himself to serve the father of his intended wife 
for a period of time agreed upon, following in this instance the 
Patriarchal custom we read of that Jacob adopted, in serving the father 
of his two wives, Rachel and Leah. Whether from poverty or incli- 
nation, the Ghond has seldom but one wife, and she, possibly from the 
same reason, is not betrothed at those early ages witnessed with In- 
dian maidens. They possess a tolerable immunity from disease, a 
circumstance that 1 once heard the patel of a village at the foot of the 
hills comment upon in a querulous tone, declaring that the hill people 
were never sick, lived long, and as they eat strong food, their hair 
never turned grey, nor their teeth got loose ; we who live upon the 
meidan, said he, are always getting sick, we get white hair, and lose 
teeth very soon, and in fact are old men long before our time. In a 
general way the patel's observations were correct, and beyond the 
usual epidemics and rheumatic attacks, little disease appears to visit 
them. An opinion of their general health may be formed by observing 
the many aged people amongst them, shewing them to be a long-lived 
race. They bury their dead, cremation never being performed but on 
gome very extraordinary occasion. The corpse is placed horizontally 
in the ground, with the head invariably directed to the south, but they 
could assign no other reason for doing so beyond that of custom. 

The Tribes upon these hills are thus divided :^- 

1. The Koorkoo, — cultivators of the soil. 

2. The Nal, — shepherds, and a class who are thieves by pro- 
fessioD. 



180 

3. T^ie Gowlan — is subdivided into distillers, milk and ghee mer- 
chanfs, and herdsmen. 

4. The Bowyah, — the Raj Ghond, a class from whom more par- 
ticularly the military are chosen. 

5. The Purdah, — woodsmen. 

6. Monghier, — fishermen. 

7. Sadoo, — hunters. 

8. Bhulli, — The least worthy class, amongst which are found 
dhairs and weavers. 

Like the Massagetae, they possess no temples — their places of wor- 
ship being merely a rude low circular wall of loose stones, inside of 
which are placed two or three taken from the general heap, and select- 
ed from some pecularity of form : these are stuck upright, and smeared 
with oil and sendoor — or sometimes two rudely shaped posts are placed 
in the ground instead, en which uncouth lines are carved, intending to 
represent the Sun and Moon — and these alone constitute their special 
objects of worship, the palpable glories of these luminaries moving their 
souls to admiration, affording thereby a visible object for their 
adoration. Not but what they will occasionally offer worship to 
some of the Deities of the Hindoos, as Byroo, Mahadeo, as well as 
a village Deity called by them Kerra Deo ; but by the manner and tone 
in which my questions on this point have been invariably answered, such 
proceedings were not considered orthodox, for they have no other 
Deities of their own but the Sun and Moon ; the former they worship 
under the name of Purmasher, the latter as Chanda ; and garlands of 
flowers, fruits, red lead and ghee, are placed upon their shrines. 
The ancient Scythians also worshipped the Sun, as these people, and 
sacrificed to it horses emblematical of its swiftness — we see the form 
of a Horse head rudely carved on the side of the wooden post, opposite 
that on which the Sun is represented^ They have no regular Priests, 
but employ the eldest of the community to perform the sacred 
offices : this person is then termed a Boomuck. The functions of ja- 
du are generally associated with his duties, and he then is termed a 
Sayer, for we may always observe that credulity and superstition are 
invariably amongst the most conspicuous vices of a half civilized com- 
munity. Witchcraft must indeed be found a lucrative calling, judging 
from the awe and profound regard the charms and munters of these 
Sayers and Boomucks are held in. 

It is rather extraordinary that efforts to enlighten these " dark places 
of the earth'* have never been attempted by those admirable Societies 
who have such zeal in spreading far and wide the truths of Christianity. 
The natural ignorance here to be overcome, offers none of those insur- 
mountable difficulties which present themselves where it has been ac- 
quired. The learned mystification of the Hindoos scornfully rejects our 



181 



attempts to teach them : here no such prejudices are to be removed, — all 
that is required being to instruct and direct aright to a purer know- 
ledj^eof the Divinity. It will be a joyful time when these simple beings 
shall be able to declare, ** the day is Thine, and the night also is Tliine: 
Thou hast prepared the light and the Sun," rather than as now, worship- 
ping these glorious luminaries as Gods themselves. 

Before dismissing the subject, it is as well to advert to a horrid prac- 
tice said to be observed amongst a tribe called the Binder-wars, situ- 
ated in the hills of Oomercuntie at the source of the Tapty. These 
Ghonds are declared to murder their own kind for the purpose of feast- 
ing upon them — a fact too horrible to credit, were the truth not too 
well established to admit any doubt about. However, the Ghonds in 
this part of the country strenuously deny the existence of this revolting 
custom. This may be mentioned as another confirmation of their Tar- 
tar ori<jin ; for such customs were common to the Scythian and Tar- 
tar Tribes, and Massagetae of Asia, as has been related by Herodotus, 
Pliny the elder, and many other Greek and Latin Writers. 

No knowledge of an alphabetical character is possessed by them, 
neither do they go beyond the first decimal in their scaleof enumeration: 
when higher numbers are required, they make use of the Mahratta mode 
of expressing them. The sound of the language is pleasing and soft, 
and inclining to a monosyllabic construction. A few words are here 
given to convey an idea of its nature: 



Man Dota. 

Woman JafFai. 

Father Abba. 

Mother Ma. 

Brother Dadur. 

Sister Beetce. 

Boy Por,rea. 

Girl Tarrai. 

Horse Goor,ghee. 

Bull Baujlee. 

Cow Ghaie. 

Buffaloe Bud,kil. 

Bullock Dobar. 

Dog Cheeta. 

Cat Moou,noo. 

Goat Seeree. 

Pig Sookree. 

Fire Singhul. 

Water Dar. 

Earth 0,tai. 

Air Koyo. 

Sky Ded,dar. 

Clouds A,bul. 

Thunder Gur,ruj. 

Lightning Hee,run,bar. 



Stars ^ Ephill. 

Moon Goomong. 

Sun Sooridge. 

Rain Dar-gommar. 

Hail Gar,ra. 

Morning Patt,heer. 

Night Rat. 

Daybreak Goy,moi,orled,jen. 

Evening Sing,gha,rook Jen. 

Noon Barree,par. 

Hungry Rang,ai,en. 

Thirsty Ta,tungnein. 

Thick or Large Kat. 

Thin Ooshoo. 

Scarcity Kal. 

Plenty . .Ooy,noi,yai. 

Grief Geeyou,bon,rein. 

Joy Koosh. 

Cold Rarung. 

Hot Gurna. 

Wet Toojpuen. 

Dry Lokoren. 

East Goy,moi,orled Bar, 

West Gomoi Nanu-oo Coinay , 

North Marwar. 



182 



South Beraree. 

Fruit Jhoe. 

A House Oura. 

Jungle Doonghoor. 

Money ..Dama. 

Salt Boojloom. 

Bread Sokra. 

Flesh Gilloo. 

Flour Kolum. 

Oil Soonum. 

Clothes Loojboo. 

Shoe Kow,rai. 

Road Kora. 

Pathway Sannee Sung,kora. 

Mountain Kat, Gatho. 

Stream Lore. 

River Guddah. 

Plains Sehwan. 

Head Kuppar. 

Belly Lightjchaddewa, 

Face Mo,ar. 

Mouth Cha,boo. 

Nose Muh. 

Arm Bow,ra. 

Hand Tee. 

Fingers Bhote. 

Leg BoOjloo. 

Foot Killa. 

Eyes Men. 

Ears LoOjtoor. 

Teeth Tee,ring. 

Tongue Lang. 

Hair Op. 

Sleeping Gee,tei. 

Waking Jactan. 



Walking Sindra. 

To Eat Jummah. 

To Drink No,noo,bar. 

To Laugh Laudabur. 

Crying Yum. 

To Stand Teng,ghuen,bar. 

To Run Jup,po,survey. 

Day's Journey.... Mea,denum sennabar. 

Rough Rukkum. 

Smooth Bobree. 

Corpse Go,i,en. 

To-day Ta,ien. 

Courage Um,bung,egra. 

Fear Egra,bar. 

Sign of thenegative..Bung. 

Rat Poosee. 

Mouse King. 

Tiger KooU. 

Bison Gowa. 

Fox Panmangha. 

Peacock Mar-ra. 

Jungle Fowl Seem^ma. 

Parrot Horea. 

Snake Beeng. 

Numerals. 

1 Mea. 

2 Barrea. 

3 Apea. 

4 Opoonia. 

5 Munnla. 

6 Tooni,i,a. 

7 Al,e,a. 

8 Elarea. 

9 Ara,ia. 

10 Gullea. 



The Ghond supplies his small wants by resorting to the villages be- 
low the hills, where he barters the produce of the jungul for cotton 
cloths &c. : these are logs and poles of blackwood and teak, with vari- 
ous other sorts of timber — firewood, grass, bamboos — teak leaves for 
thatching, and leaves of the climbling cuchanar for the baniahs to 
wrap up the commodities they sell in the bazar— resinous gums of the 
bdellium and olibanum trees, grass oil, wild honey, and bees' wax. 

It is an unusual sight to see them armed with any weapon beyond a 
hatchet — the bow and arrow and talwar are their arms. 

Climate. 

It cannot have escaped the notice of every enquiring person, that 
those degeneracies of health usually afflicting Europeans in this 
country, are now of far less serious import than were occurring in for- 
mer days. Writers on medical statistics affirm, that the rate of 



183 

Rickness and mortality of any given people alvrays remain the same 
under similar circumstances ; and therefore we may conclude that some 
ameliorating power has been in operation to produce this result. In 
the climate itself no visible alteration has occurred : something may 
perhaps be attributed to a better knowledge of Indian diseases lead- 
ing to correcter modes of cure ; but the real secret will be found ra- 
ther in their prevention altogether, affected not only by a decided im- 
provement in the habits of individuals generally, but also by a more 
universal recognition of those physical laws which govern our whole 
frame. Granting then, according to the old proverb, that " the pre- 
vention of disease is better than its cure," we shall not perhaps find an 
aid in this attempt more positive and agreeable in its nature than by 
seeking change of air: and what localities so conducive to this end as 
those approximating in many of their physical conditions to our own 
native land — and hill stations will be found possessing these desi- 
derata in an eminent degree under certain restrictions. What these 
may be, we will briefly hint at. The period that has fallen under 
meteorological observations, has been from November to the end of 
June — a total of eight months, the mean temperature of which was 
found to be 71°. The hottest months were April and May ; giving 
a mean of 83°. The coldest January and February ; having a mean 
of 59*^ ; thus shewing a range of 24° between the hottest and coldest 
months. The coldest day was observed to be on the 9ih of February 
at sun-rise, namely 47®. The hottest day noticed was the 27th of 
April, at 2 p. M., being 96°. Between the extremes of heat and cold, 
there was a range therefore of 49°. The greatest monthly range was 
SQo, occurring in March. The least in November, being 14°. The 
greatest diurnal range was 22° in April and May. The least in Feb- 
ruary, when it was 4° ; and in June 5°. The real degree of tempera- 
ture present is never correctly indicated by our feelings, being in fact 
far greater than it appears to us ; this deceptive feeling arising from 
the elasticity of the rarified atmosphere causing a mobility of its par- 
ticles, which carries off the heat of the body as rapidly as it approaches 
to the surface : hence its liability to produce attacks of rheumatism, 
or what is worse, visceral congestions, where a due regard to restraining 
the too sudden abstraction of heat, by wearing flannel, is not attended to. 
The currency of this expansive atmosphere produces all the buoyant and 
refreshing sensations of a sea breeze, but unless as above guarded, it is 
apt to prove a treacherous luxury. A remarkable phenomenon occurs 
here in the regularity with which the morning and evening breeze sets 
in during the hot weather ; blowing alternately from opposite directions 
with all the regularity of a tropical land and sea wind. Two hours 
after sun-rise, we observe the breeze blowing strongly towards the plains 
of Berar — from the reverberations of their heated surfaces causing the 
air to expand and rise, and the colder air rushes to supply the loss. 
Shortly after the sun goes down, the breeze is seen blowing towards 



184 

the raountaios, solar radiation now affecting, through the night, the 
same results upon the hills as reverberation did during the day upon 
the plains. Judging from the tendency of all the larger tre«»s to bend 
to the S. E., it is obvious the prevail! rig wind is from the N. W. 

The average depression of the wet bulb during the hot months was 
10®. The rains set in about the middle of June, generally preceded 
by thunder storms, and showers, making the atmosphere cool and de- 
lightful in the intervals between; and ceasing the middle of September. 
The only two months the rain-guage nas been employed has been for 
the months of June and July, when 35 inches were found to have 
fallen. Heavy dews occur from the end of the rains till the commence- 
ment of the cold weather : as the hot weather approaches, the air is 
getting dry and parching, loses its bright transparent character, and 
by the time the hot season has arrived has become hazy and lurid. 

A temporary sojourn on these hills has been found productive of 
the most salutary effects to invalids, more particulary those labouring 
under the peculiar conditions of deranged health induced by the mias- 
matic fevers of the plains; the leading features of which are a low tone 
of the nervous system, accompanied frequently with a relaxed con- 
dition of the mucous surfaces, and solids in general ; the impaired action 
of the excretory, secretory and assimilative functions, inducing passive 
congestions, and obstructions ; and it is in these cases that the change 
will be seen exerting its best results. The invigorating and exhilirating 
air of the hills endows the blood with exciting properties, imparting an 
irritability to the nervous system which arouses the brain to a healthful 
vigour, that re-acts upon the bodily functions with corresponding energy; 
and providing we have no organic lesions to contend with, or mucous 
membranes disposed to become irritable, we shall find a residence here 
quickly and surely restoring the lost powers of the constitution to 
their former tone and action. The delicate organization of European 
children within the tropics, is found to be acutely susceptible to every 
meteorological variation : the child when removed to these heights, 
appears to gain a hardihood of constitution near akin to that obtained 
in more temperate climes. The pallid complexion and listless apathy 
quickly are replaced by rosy cheeks, and bounding spirits. Were it 
possible for the earlier periods of childhood to be passed at these hill 
stations, we should find those physical evils which now press so severely 
upon the progeny of Europeans no longer to be complained of; and 
in many instances obviating the cruel necessity that often exists for 
the premature separation of the child from its parents in this country. 
Such benefits as are derivable from these sources, are to be obtained 
in an eminent degree at the charming little Sanatorium of Chikul- 

DAH. 

W. H. Bradley, 
Assistant Sargeoriy attached to the NizanCs Army* 



185 



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186 

Remarks on the Alia Bund, and on the drainage of the Eastern part 
of the Scinde Basin ; with Meteorological Observations at Kurrachee 
in Scinde, from \st Mat^ to 13/A October 1844, and Meteorogical 
Observations of Sukkur, and Register of a Watergauge in the 
Indus, from \st May to ^Oth September 1844. By Captain W. E. 
Baker, Bengal Engineers, Superintendent of Canals and Forests 
in Scinde. 

[Communicated by the Author.] 
The Koree or Luckput creek has been called the eastern mouth of 
the Indus, and there are two channels through whicii it once received 
the waters of that River, viz. the Narra, which commencing to exist 
as a defined channel about the latitude of Roree, flows nearly south, 
skirting the desert to near Oomurkote, from whence it takes the name 
of "the Pooruun ;" and 2nd, the ** Goonee," which under the name 
** Fulailee," leaves the Indus near Meanee seven or eight miles above 
Hydrabad, and formerly joined the Pooraun twenty-six miles north 
of where the Alia Bund now crosses that channel. 

The Eastern Narra has long ceased to flow as a branch of the In- 
dus, probably since that river, deserting the passage through the 
rocks at Alore, took to its present channel between Roree and Suk- 
kur. It has now no direct communication with the river, but re- 
ceives a precarious supply of water from a remarkable depression 
which runs parallel with the Indus, to the eastward, from above Ba- 
hawulpoor ; and being considerably lower than the flood height of the 
river, receives a good deal of water from it, through canals, and by 
direct overflow. The drainage of this natural hollow is collected in 
the Narra, but except under extraordinary circumstances, (as iu 1826) 
is seldom in sufficient quantity to reach the Alia Bund. 

The Goonee being directly fed from the Indus, would have proved 
a more certain source of supply had not its channel been obstructed 
by a series of Bunds thrown across it by the Ameers of Scinde, both 
of the Kulhora and of the Talpoora dynasties. 

The effect of these natural and artificial obstructions has been to 
ruin a tract of country bordering the Koree, which was once the 
most fertile in Kutch, and in the hope of recovering so great a loss, 
the Rulers of that province made a reference to the Governor of 
Scinde, who deputed me in July last to enquire into, and report upon, 
the causes which led to it. 

Having obtained permission of H. E. the Governor of Scinde 
to communicate to the Bombay Geographical Society the result of 
my enquiries, I annex a copy of a map and profile, which I made on 
that occasion, and subjoin a few remarks (chiefly extracts from my 
report) which may serve to explain them. 

The ** Goonee,** a branch of the Indus, as mentioned above, is 
nearly dry during the cold weather, but carries a considerable body of 
water during the inundations. Throughout the course of this river 



187 

iU banks are intersected by canals, through which the water is drawn 
off for the irrigation of the adjacent lands. Many of these canals are 
of considerable size and are navigated by boats, constituting in fact 
the high roads of the country for the conveyance of grain, which is 
seldom carried in any quantity by other means. By this process of 
exhaustion the Goonee is reduced to small dimensions before it reach- 
es the Kaimpon district (about sixty-seven miles east and eight miles 
south of Tatia,) where it divides into four branches, of which the most 
westerly, under the name of the " Great Goonee," flows to the Kuddun 
district ; ihe Kpcond, an artificial canal, called the Aliwah, passing 
west of the villages of Nunda Shahur and Mittee, joins the Pooraun 
at Chultee Tur; the third, called the Sherewah, after following a pa- 
rallel course with the second, to near Nunda Amhur, joins the little 
Goonee, and crossing it, sends a small branch in the direction of 
Wanga Bazar ; the fourth, or little Goonee, passes East of Nunda 
Shahur to Mora, and five miles south of that village falls into the 
Pooraun. 

The Pooraun, from the junction of the. Goonee to Lallah Puttun, 
has a well-deiined channel twelve to twenty feet deep and 600 to 1200 
feet wide, and is hedged in by sand hills on both sides. The greater 
part of the channel is clear, but it is obstructed artificially by bunds, 
and naturally by sand drifts : in these localities, the bed is choked 
up with a dense jungle of tamarisk. Beyond Lallah Puttun the chan- 
nel is occupied by a chain of pools of salt water, and is partially se- 
parated from the Lindree Lake by the Alia Bund. 

The Bunds across the Goonee and Pooraun are as follows :— 
The Mora Bund, the Bunds at Chuttee Tur and three miles be- 
low it, the Bunds of Alii Bunder and Lallah Puttun, and the Alia 
Bund. 

The Mora Bunds are on the Goonee* The first or original em- 
bankment is supposed to have been constructed in 1762 by Meer 
Goolam Shah Kiilhora : it bears marks of having been frequently 
breached or turned. The second Bund, about half a mile S. E. of 
the first, is across a ravine falling into the Goonee, and appears to 
have become necessary when the original Bund was turned by some 
unusual accumulation of water. The pond formed by the second Bund 
feeds a small canal flowing southward, and has also another natural 
outlet which falls into the Pooraun. 

The Bunds at and below Chuttee Tur are across the Pooraun : they 
have had the mischievous effect of encouraging large deposits of salt at 
their several localities, and of rendering the onward progress of the 
water still more precarious. On the other hand, ihey retain pools of 
fresh water for the use of the scanty population and their cattle, and 
favor the cultivation of the open spaces in the bed of the river. 

The Alii Bunder and Lallah Puttun Bunds have produced effects 
similar to those above described, and have at different times served tha 



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additional purpose of separating the fresh water from the «aU, and 
preventing the latter from spreading further up the channel and injur- 
ing the land. The Bund at Alli Bundur was so employed in 1808 — 
when it was visited by Captain R. M. Grindlay ; and a reference to the 
accompanying profile will shew that it might be so again were the 
channel through the Alia Bund to be deepened, so as to admit the 
waters of the Lindree Lake to flow back up the channel. 

The Alia Bund or <* Embankment of God/' as is well known was 
thrown up by an earthquake in 1819} the same convulsion of nature 
having destroyed the flourishing town of Lindree in Kutch, and xjepres- 
sed alarge tract of land in its vicinity, which, being filled with salt water 
through the Luckput creek, now forms an extensive lake. This mound 
at first appeared calculated to cut ofi^ for ever the fertilizing streams 
of the Indus from the province of Kutch, but in 1826 an extraordina- 
ry flood passed down the Nnrra or Pooraun, and forcing for itself a 
narrow passage through the Alia Bund, found its way into the Lindree 
Lake. In March 1827, the spot was visited by Sir Alexander Burnes, and 
subsequently in August 1828. He describes the channel as 2^ fathoms 
deep, and on both occasions as conveying a stream of fresh water 
into the lake : since that period, however, it appears to have filled up 
so much (probably from the falling in of the sides) that is in now dry in 
some places, and being one foot higher than the level of the lake, and seven 
feet above that of the salt water pools of the Pooraun, it forms a barrier 
between them. The Mound, where it is cut through by the Pooraun, 
is nearly four miles iu width, but in other places is said to vary from 
two to eight miles. Its greatest height is on the borders of the lake, above 
the level of whose waters (on the 1 1th July 1844) it rises twenty and a 
half feet. From this elevation it gradually slopes to the northward till 
it becomes undistinguishablefrom the plain. On the surface of the mound, 
the soil is light and crumbling, and strongly impregnated with salt: at 
the depth of one and a quarter to two feet it has more consistency, and 
is mixed with shells such as are now found abundantly on the shores 
of the lake. The length of the Alia Bund has not been ascertained, but it 
is said by the natives to extend fifty or ^ixty miles to the eastward. The 
Lindree lake, though of inconsiderable depth near the shore, appears to 
be of great extent. From the elevation of the Bund, no land could be 
seen across it, even with the aid of a telescope, and the ruined Fort of 
Lindree, which still lifts its head above the waters, alone breaks the 
uniformity of their surface. It was asserted, however, by an agent of 
the Kutch Government (and with much show of probability,) that the 
level of the water is much raised, and its extent increased, during the 
prevalence of the Southwest monsoon, which drives the sea water up the 
Koree into the lake ; and that on the setting in of the north winds, a 
large proportion of the present expanse of water would become dry 
land. It is highly desirable that the extent of the Lindree Lake and of 
the Alia Bund should be accurately traced, but the survey would be a 
work of ditiiculty, in consequence of the barren nature of the country, 
and of the total want of fresh water. W. £. Bakeb, 

October 2h^, 1844. Captain^ Bengal Engineers. 



189 



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TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



BOMBAY GEOGRxiPHICAL SOCIETY, 



FROM FEBRUARY TO DECEMBER 1846. 



EDITED BY THE SECRETARY. 



BOMBAY: 
PRINTED AT THE TIMES PRESS, 



BY JAMES CHES90N. 



MDCCCXLVI. 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Meetings of the Bombay Geographical Society, May to Nov. 1046 xl to li 

I. — Extract from a Report on the District of Babriawar, by Captain G. 
LeGrand Jacob, late 1st Assistant to the Political Agent at 
Rajcote — dated the 15th March, 1843. [ Presented by Govern- 
ment.] 200 

II. — Desultory Observations on the probable Origin of the Ghon«ls, with 
a Vocabulary of the Dialect spoken by the Ghond Tribes upon 
the Gawil Hills. By Assistant Surgeon W. H. Bradlev, Otli 
Regt. Nizam's Infantry, at Ellichpore. [ Communicated by 
the Author.] 209 

1 11.^ A Descriptive account of the Ruins of El-Balad. By Assistant 
Surgeon II. J. Carter, of tlic Hon'ble Co.'s Surveying Brig 
Palinurus. Togetner with Sketclies in original, in six sheets. 
[ Presented by Government.] 225 

IV. — Notes on a Shipwreck on the Soutlicrn Coast of Arabia on tlie 
niglit of the 14th January, lUiJO. — By A.ssistant-Sur<reon B. 
A. R. Nicholson, M.D. [Communicated by the Author]... 238 
V. — Memorandum on the City of Shikarporc, in Upper Scinde. By 
Captain T. Postans, 15th Regiment N. I. [ Communicated 
by the Author.] 242 

VI. — Volcano in the Red Sea. — Extract paras. 2 at 6 of a letter from 
the Officer Commanding the Steam Vessel Victoria. [ Present- 
ed by Government.] 249 



MEETINGS 

OF THE 

BOMBAY GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. 



The Aniversary Meeting of this Society took place in their Rooms, Town Hall, 
on Thursday the 7th May 184G, at 3 o'clock P. M. 

rresent. —Csij>t. D. Ross, I. N., F. R. S., President in the chair. The Hon'ble 
J. P. Willoughby, Esq., Vice-President; Dr. J. Bird; Dr. J. Glen; Major J. Hol- 
land ; Lieut. G. Jenkins, I. N. ; Capt. H. J. Barr ; and Dr. G. Buist, Secretary. 

The minutes of the last meetings, held on the 5th February, and 9th April, 1846, 
were read and approved. 

The Secretary stated, that in consequence of his long-protracted absence from 
the presidency, ho had been unable to draw up or lay before tho Society the re- 
port on tho progress of Geographical research within the past year. The chief 
share taken in it by the Society were the investigations in Physical Geography, 
the greater part of the correspondence relating to which had been so recently 
before them, that it was needless to revert to it : the concluding part of it would 
now be placed in their hands. The Secretary stated, that on his arrival in Bom- 
bay on tho 9th of January he found that Government had taken up the limited 
Scheme formerly laid before them ; that enquiries had been made by Captain Lynch, 
Acting Secretary, as to where instruments could be procured, and as satisfactory 
an answer as the circumstances permitted returned to the Military Board. The 
Secretary having brought with him overland a considerable collection of very fine 
instruments, consulted with various members of Committee, when it was agreed 
that the Military Board should be written to, and the following letter was accord- 
ingly addressed to them : — 

" To Captain A. McD. Elder, Acting Secretary to the Military Board. 

"Sir, — In continuation of Acting Secretary Capt. Lynch's letter, dated 10th 
November, No. 38 of 1845, in reply to yours of tho 4th November, No. 4436 of 
1845, in reference to the supply of Tidal and Meteorological instruments for em- 
ployment at Aden, — I have the honor to inform you that the Lords of Her Ma- 
jesty's Admiralty having resolved to supply the Geographical Society with instru- 
ments for observation at certain points on tlio Malabar Coast, it is considered of im- 
portance that the instruments employed at Aden should be, for the sake of com- 
parison, as like these as possible — those already in the Government stores being on 
this ground ineligible. A fine barometer and pair of thermometers by Mr. Adie of 



xli 

Edinburgli — the maker proposed to be employed by their Lordships — ^were brought 
out by mo overland : they have not been compared, as tlio others are proposed to be, 
with the standards of tlie Royal Society of London, but may be tried with these 
latter afterwards, and are now being rated at the Observatory, with the view of 
meeting your wishes. 

" Captain Ilaincs fortunately is in possession of a barometer of similar form, 
and by the same maker : this will serve perfectly till other instruments arrive, 

" Two tide-gauges by the same maker, and nearly of the same form as those ex- 
pected, have been provided for Aden ; but Captain Haines, in conversing on thi* 
subject with myself some ten weeks since, having urged the importance of having 
all the instruments as complete and serviceable as possible before being sent to him, 
I would respectfully recommend that both gauges be furnished with boxes to cover 
them from the weather, as it is not intended to place them under other cover, and 
pipes to supply the place of wells. These require to be made of wood and partly 
lined with copper. I have forwarded drawings of them on a separate sheet, and 
■hall be happy to superintend their construction, should the Military Board desire it. 
Accompanying is a woodcut engraving of the gauge. 

" In addition to the instruments, the observers require to be famished with forms, 
ruled schedules, and minute and definite instructions for the transmission of returns ; 
aU of which, if desired, will be provided by the Society — Government defraying 
the expence. 

" I may, perhaps, be permitted to add, that tho scheme which has thus been 

commenced is looked on with much interest by men of science at home ; and H. 

M.'s Admiralty, with whom I was in very close intercourse before leaving home, 

as well as the leading members of the Royal Society, look with high satisfaction on 

the promptitude and alacrity with which all scientific investigations are taken up 

in India. 

" I have the honor to be. Sir, your most obedient servant, 

" Geo. Buist, Secy. Geographical Society." 
" Geographical Society's Rooms, Town Hall, Bombay, 22nd Jan., 184G." 
To this the Board replied as follows : — 

" No. 63G of 1846.— Pw6ic ^7orh8. — Marine Department. 
" To Dr. G. Buist, Secretary to tho Geographical Society. 
" Sir, — With reference to your letter No. 1, dated 22d ultimo, regarding Tidal 
and Meteorological instruments for employment at Aden, I have tho honor to in- 
form you, by direction of the Military Board, that Professor Orlebar has already 
undertaken, and the Board have committed to him, tho superintendence, under 
their control, of the measures now being adopted for prosecuting Tidal and Me- 
teorological Observations; and that Professor Orlebar has already procured tho 
Tide-gauges and Barometers* requisite, and has ordered Thermometers and some 
other instruments from England. 

• Th« tide-gauftes and barometers hero rcfcrrctl to were tho-c recommended in the preced- 
ing letter, and which had been purchased sulibuquciit to the -J2ud January and anteriorly 
to the 12th February ! They were furwardod to Aden without having been fitted up as 
recommendod !' £ec7/. B,G.S. 



xlii 

*' 2. I am also directed to inform you, tliat tl:o necessary fonns in which to rt- 
gister Observations are now boinj^ Litliographed. 

" I have the honor to be, Sir, your most obedient servant, 
"(Sigd.) A. McD. Elucii, Capt., Actg. Secy. Military Board." 
"Bombay, Military Board Ofllce, r2th February, 18 IC." 

It was not till tlien surmised that the earlier portion of the scheme -—planned and 
suggested by the Society, —and which they had prepared themselves to work out, 
liad been transferred to other hands : and wonld i)robably be carried into cfTect 
without the names of its authors being so much as associated with it. The barometer 
referred to by the Board was that which Dr. Buist had brought out overland : th« 
ti<le-gaugcs had been provided by the same party, and brought to Bombay at liia 
own cliarge, before the sclienio was proposed to Government. There was so much 
delay occasioned by the usual modo of correspondence, reports, and estimates — so 
much risk of the scheme breaking down through sheer waste of time lietwixt plan- 
ning and execution, wlion Government, — which had only acted on suggestion iu 
promoting objects in which they might feel but little interest, and were unlikely 
to do anything except in the usual form and on specific application being made to 
them, that tho j>lan pur.sucd ha<l been adopted to enable the projector to take the 
risk on his own sliouUlers : a year or two iu point of time had, besides, thus been 
probably saved. Tho political agent had so strongly represented tho necessity of 
having everything fitted up as completely as possible at Bombay, as enormous ex- 
pense and delay were sure to occur when work of tliis sort, especially when 
altogether new to them, was performed at Aden, that he had taken tho liberty 
of addressing tho Military Board as above. The tide-gauges liad ultimately been 
forwarded just as they arrived from England, excepting that tho clocks had 
been cleaned, but without any fitting-up whatever. This portion of the scheme, 
however, had, as would bo seen from the first, passed from their hands. In con* 
formity with the resolutions passed at last meeting, tho following letter, after 
having been submitted to the Committee, was forwarded to Government : — 
" To Lieut.-Colonel Melvill, Secretary to Government. 
" Sir, — I am directed by tho Geographical Society to forward, for submission 
to the Honorable the Governor in Council, a correspondence and series of papers * 
relating to a scheme of Tidal and ^leteorological observations, desired to be carried 
out by the Lords of Her Majesty's Admiralty, in conjunction with the Bombay Go- 
vernment and Geographical Society of this Presidency, part of which has already 
experienced the favourable consideration of the Government. 

• I. Memorial of Dr. Buist to the Lords of the Admiralty. 

2. Their Lordships* reply, 

3. Memorandum lo the Bombay Gcofrrtiphical Sneicty, iiicludiog— 
a. Letter to Colonel Sabine, dated off Malta, I8lh Deecmbcf. 

6. Letter to Colonel Sabine from 13ombay, February Isi. 

c. LettertoMr G. Dalrymple, Cibialtar 

d. Letter to Mr. J. Sterliii>?, Civil Knuineer. 

e. Letter to Mr. Adie,Oi)tician, Ediuhurgh.— Memorandum of the work to be executed at 
Malta, Altxandiia, Cairo, tsurz, and Aden. 

I. 2. 3. and a. It. in print, for easy reference, and forming part of the report! of the Society : 
the rest in lithograpby. 

Resolutions passed at the meeting of the Hociety— Feb. 5th, IS^G. 



xliii 

" On reference to the accompaniments to this letter, the Governor in Council 
Tvill observe, that it is now proposed to conduct the very important operations ori- 
ginally contemplated by the Bombay Geographical Society, 1st, by the aid of the 
Lords of the Admiralty, "who have engaged to defray the expence of instruments, a 
most important item ; 2nd, by the co-operation of the Local Government, "without 
which the very limited means and resources of the Society will not admit of the 
proposed scheme being carried out on an extensive scale with any prospect of 
success. 

" The Society, therefore, indulge in a confident hope, that the Governor in 
Council will be able to provide the requisite number of Agents for conducting 
the observations, and also accommodations for such agents, either in public build- 
ings already at its disposal (and this in some cases it is presumed will be found 
practicable,) or in buildings to be specially constructed for the purpose on the most 
economical principle possible. 

" In return for this assistance, the Society engages to issue the necessary in- 
structions to the Agents employed, to receive and digest their reports, and ulti- 
mately to publish in their proceedings the general results of the observations made 
and registered. 

" The Society, I am requested to observe, does not anticipate that the expenst 
which will be thus incurred by Government will be large in amount, or incommen- 
surate with the great value of the mass of information which the scheme em- 
braces, and which they regard to be of material importance. 

" The attention of the scientific world has, for some time past, been zealously 
devoted towards inquiries of this nature, and the Society are anxious that so fa- 
vourable an opportunity should not be neglected of showing that the British na- 
tion is not backward to avail itself of the many advantages resulting from the proud 
eminence it occupies in the civilized world for prosecuting useful and scientific pu^, 
suits calculated to benefit the whole human race. 

" With respect to the Agents, it is also apprehended that a very trifling outlay 
will be necessary, for the Society anticipate, that with the sanction of Government^ 
in the generality of cases persons already in the public service will be found 
Willing to superintend the arrangements suggested. In support of this impression, 
the Society gladly avail themselves of this opportunity of noticing the praise- 
worthy exertions of Corporal William Moyes, of H. M.'s 17th Regiment, who, 
when serving with his regiment at Aden, and more recently at Bombay, has re- 
gistered with great accuracy and minuteness, a series of Meteorological observa- 
tions of great value, merely from a natural inclination to devote his leisure to pur- 
suits of this kind. 

" I have the honor to be. Sir, your most obedient servant, 

" (Signed) Geo. Buist, Secretary to the Society." 
"Geographical Society's Rooms, Town Hall, March, 1846." 



xliv 

The following answer was received : — 

" No. 448 of 104C. 
"Marine Department^ Bombay Castle, \st April, 184G. 

" Sir, — I am directed to acknowledge the receipt of your letter, and to request 
*hat you will convey to the Geographical Society the thanks of tJie Honorable 
the Governor in Council for tlieir very interesting communication ; and express the 
desire of Government to afford to the scheme of concerted Tidal and Meteorolo- 
gical observations which has been propounded, the most effectual co-operation in its 
power. 

" 2nd. The Society will remember that they addressed a communication to the 
Government on this subject on the 25th March, 1845 j but that they then indicat- 
ed, as that communication was understood, the wish that the Instruments and the 
Agents should be provided by Government, and that tlie organization of the 
gystem, and the conduct of all its parts, should also depend upon tlio Government. 

" 3rd. In considering this Memorial from the Society, it appeared to the Govern- 
ment that the places within, or near, the limits of its authority, where Tidal observa- 
tions would be most useful, were Aden, Kurrachee, and Mandavie. Communica- 
tions were immediately addressed to thePolitcal Agent at Aden, and to the Scinde 
Government ; and the Geographical Society was informed accordingly on the Gth 
June, 1845. 

" 4th. The reply from Aden was communicated to the Society on the 21st 
August, 1845; and a favorable answer having also been received from Scinde, 
the Government proceeded to take into consideration the further measures to be 
pursued for working out the intended series of observations. But before any defi- 
nite steps could be taken, events occurred which rendered it necessary to abandon 
for the time all thought of operations to be conducted either at Kurrachee or at 
Mandavie. The required instruments, however, were ordered to be procured and 
compared, and held ready for transmission to Scinde whenever it might be inti- 
mated by the authorities in that Province that the persons to use them were ready 
for their work. 

" 5th. For the observations at Aden, a fitting Agent was found in Serjeant Moyes, 
of Her Majesty's 17th Regiment, whose services were placed at the disposal of 
Government by His Excellency the Commander-in-Chief. This intelligent man 
was furnished with all the proper instruments and appliances required, and des- 
patched to Aden on the 2nd February last, where the necessary building for 
his residence, and Tide-gauge, have been erected under the direction of the Politi- 
cal Agent. 

" Gth. Forms of records and instructions have been supplied to Serjeant Moyed 
by Professor Orlebar, at present in charge of the Observatory ; and it is intendee 
that the result of the Serjeant's observations shall be published, together with the 
Magnetic and Meteorological observations of the Observatory. 

" 7th. The Geographical Society will, from the foregoing statement, observe 
what baa been done on the part of Government, and be able to judge how far thi^ 



xlv 

is calculated to assist tlie extensive scheme of Tidal observations which they con- 
template. If Agents can bo found, the Government will endeavour to make 
their services available, and to construct, or appropriate for their use, such buildings 
as may be wanted; and when the scheme is fairly established under the guidance 
of the Society, the Government will make over to them the services of Serjeant 
Moyes, together with a record of all the observations he may previously have 
collected at Aden. 

"8th. The Government will not seek to be reimbursed for the cost of Instrument! 
already provided ; but conclude that the expense of all those which are required in 
addition will be defrayed by the Lords of the Admiralty. 

" 9th. In conclusion, I am directed to request that the Society will furnish to 
the Military Board two copies of the printed and lithographed papers which 
accompanied your letter, for purposes of reference. 

" I have the honor to be, Sir, your most obedient servant, 
(Signed) " P. M. Melvill, Lieut.-Colonel, Secretary to Government." 
" To G. BuiST, Esquire, LL.D., Secretary to the Geographical Society." 
To this the Secretary had, under correction of tlie Committee, replied : — 
"No. 14 of 1840. 
" Lieut.-Colonel Melvill, Secretary to Government. 
" Sir,— I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 1st 
of April, and am directed by the Geographical Society to express the gratification 
afforded them by the cordial sympathy their exertions have experienced from the 
Ilon'ble the Governor in Council. 

« Thougli the Society had hoped that the whole of the scheme as originally and 
now submitted to Government, might have been worked out under their superin- 
tendence, and are not without hopes that this may yet be the case, they not the 
less accept with much thankfulness the offer of Government, and shall without 
delay institute enquiries in reference to agents and arrangements, such as may be 
found desirable, so as to be enabled to avail themselves of the aid which has been 
promised. 

" On these points the Society hope shortly to be in a position to communicate 
with you satisfactorily. 

« The Society having been long in communication with gentlemen in Scinde on 
the subject of the observations at Kurrachee and Mandavie, and feeling much 
confidence in their ability to bring these to an auspicious conclusion, would feel 
gratified were two points of such importance brouglit under the general scope of 
the scheme contemplated by II. M.'s Admiralty, in reference to the records, in- 
struments, and arrangements of all departments, of which perfect harmony and 
uniformity wa^ considered so essential, instead of its remaining portion of the 
separate and detached system of which the Bombay Observatory is the centre. 

" The Society would meanwhile strongly recommend that an Observatory 
should bo established at the Light-house on the Island of Perim,— a point not 



xlvi 

originally coiitemplatod, — as aflordiiig an excellent position for tlio reaoarclies in 
contemplation. 

" No structure, beyond the box inclosing the TiJo-gaugo, is required ; the 
lighthouse itself being suHIoient. The greater part of the iustruments requisite 
could bo at present provided in Bombay; tho Society pledging itself to see Go- 
vernment reimbursed for the cost of tliese from the funds provided by tho Admiral- 
ty. An intelligent European could, it is believed, bo found by the Marine depart- 
ment to take charge of the observations. 

" Tho Society will be happy to avail itself of the observations and services of 
Mr. Moyes, and any other assistance Government may confer upon it. 

*' The Lords of tho Admiralty have already pledged themselves to meet the 
expense of the instruments, and duplicates of the correspondence on tho subject 
will be sent to tliem, indicating that a more limited demand than that originally 
contemplated will at present bo made on them. 

" Tho Military Board will be provided with two copies of the printed and 
lithographed papers, referred to at the close of your letter. 

*' I have the honor to be, Sir, your most obedient servant, 
(Signed) " Geo. Buist, Secretary Geographical Society." 
" Geographical Society's Rooms, Town Hall, Bombay, 17th April, 1840." 

The correspondence with Government having thus far been brought to a con- 
clusion, tho following letter had been forwarded overland to Captain Beaufort, 
Ilydrographer to H. M.'s Lords of the Admiralty, to whom copies of the whole 
correspondence from tho first had been transmitted : — 

" Bombay, March, 184G. 

" Capt. Beaufort, R. N., Hydrographer to tho 

" Hon'ble the Lords of II. M.'s Admiralty. 

" Sir, — I have tlie honour to forward a furtlier portion of the correspondence 
on the subject of a scheme of Tidal and Meteorological observations on the shores 
of the Eastern Seas. 

" It will be observed, that the Bombay Government, in their anxiety to advance 
tho scheme originally proposed by the Society, had, during my absence in England, 
entrusted its execution to Professor Orlebar — tho results of the observations to 
appear in the printed records of the Observatory. This departure from tho plan 
in contemplation, deprives the Society of the charge of the observations expected 
to have been put in operation, and so far mars the integrity of the plan as to in- 
terfere with that unity and harmoniousness of system considered so desirable : the 
Government instruments already ordered out cannot be rated by the standard of 
tho Royal Society, and the Schedules are already in the hands of some of the 
observers, and so not referrible to any one. Tliere is, however, good hope, that an 
alteration, arising from anxiety to advance our plans, not at present apparently cal- 
culated to subserve the views of tho Admiralty to tho extent or in the manner de- 
sired, will be reconsidered, and the execution of that entirely planned and project- 
ed by the Society once more entrusted to tlicir hands. 



xlvii 

" However this may be, there is field and labourers enough behind ; and the So- 
ciety is now prepared to take immediate charge of six sets of instruments — such ns 
those described in my previous correspondence, so soon as they are sent out, with 
every hope of carrying out the views of their Lordships, and availing themselves 
of the liberality and good wishes of the Local Government. 

" I have the honor to be. Sir, your obedient servant, 

(Signed) " Geobge Buist." 

The matter must rest here for the present. Of the four tide-gauges originally 
provided, two still remained : these were at the disposal of Government if required. 

They had just been fitted up with wooden cases — all tliat was required in place 
of an observatory house and well — to adapt them for some obserations on the tides 
in wells on the northern shore of Angria's Colabah ; which, though perfectly 
fresh, had a bi-diurnal tide of several feet, obviously dependent on, though not 
apparently synchronous with, the oceanic tide. This matter was proposed to be 
examined into immediately. 

Observations on the specific gravity of the Mediterranean betwixt Malta and 
Alexandria, had been forwarded by Captain Gossen, of the Oriental Steam Navi- 
gation Company's vessel Iberia, in conformity with instructions given by Dr. Buist, 
and instruments partly provided by him. The tables were very complete so far as 
they extended. 

The following papers &c. were then laid on the table : — 

Papers. 

1. By Oovermnent — A descriptive account of the Ruins of El-Balad, by As- 
sistant Surgeon H. J. Carter, of the Hon'ble Company's Surveying Brig PaXi- 
nurus, together with Sketches (six sheets) in Original ; with a letter from Lieut- 
Col. P. M. Melvill, Secretary to Government, dated the 1 5th April, No. 502 of 1846. 

2. By Government. — Extract from a report on the district of Babriawar, by 
Captain G. LeGrand Jacob, late 1st Assistant to the Political Agent at Rajcote, 
dated the 15th March 1843; with a letter from J. P. Willoughby, Esq., Chief Se- 
cretary to Government, Political Department, dated the 25th April, No. C51 of 1846. 

3. By the Author. — Desultory observations on the probable Origin of the 
Ghonds ; with four water-coloured sketches, accompanied by a vocabulary of the 
dialect spoken by the Ghond Tribes upon the Gawil Hills ; by Assistant Surgeon 
AV. H. Bradley, 8th Regiment Nizam's Infantry, with a note, dated Ellichpoor, 
10th April, 1846. 

4. By the Author. — Mean Hourly and Daily Curves of the Barometer and 
Thermometer, taken at Ellichpoor for the year 1845, by Assistant Surgeon W. H. 
Bradley, 8th Regiment Nizam's Infantry. 

5. By the Author — through Lieut.-Col. P. M. Melvill, Secretary to Govern- 
ment. — Meteorological Register kept, and Horary Barometrical and Thermome- 
trical Obsei-vations taken, at Ellichpoor, for the months of January, February, and 
March 1846. By W. H. Bradley, Esq., Assistant Surgeon 8th Regiment 
Nizam's Infantry. 



u. 



xlviii 

Books. ; 
By the Medical Boardy with the sanction of Government.— O'Shaughnessy's 

(W. B., Esq., M. D., F. R. S., &c.) Bengal Phannacopsea, and General Con- | 
spectus of Medical Plants, arranged according to the Natural and Therapeutical 
Systems — and AVebb's (Allan, Esq., B. M. S.) Pathologia Indica, or the Anatomy 

of Indian Diseases, Medical and Surgical, based upon morbid specimens, from all ; 

parts of India, in the Museum of the Calcutta Medical College ; illustrated by de- j 

tailed cases, with the prescriptions and treatment employed, and comments, physio- \ 

logical, practical, and historical — with a letter dated 6th February, No. 176 of | 

1846, by the Secretary to the Medical Board. ' 

By Jehangheer PocJiajee. — A pamphlet containing Persian Verses in praise of ' 

Ardaseer Dhunjeeshaw Bahadoor, together with a Guzerattee version of the same ; ! 

accompanied by a note, dated the 25th March, 1846. ; 

Letteks. ] 

From Captain A, McD. Elder, Acting Secretary to the Military Board, dated ' 

12th February, No. 636 of 1845 — ^Marine Department — intimating, by direction 
of the Military Board, that Professor Orlebar has already undertaken, and the ! 

Board have committed to him, the superintendence (under their control) of the 
measures now being adopted for prosecuting Tidal and Meteorological Observa- 
tions ; and that that gentleman has already procured the Tide-Gauge and Baro- 
meters requisite, and has ordered Thermometers and some other instruments from 
England ; and intimating further, that the necessary forms in which the observa- 
tions are to be registered, are now being lithographed. 

From LieuL-Col. P, M, Melvill, Secretary to Government, Marine Department, 
dated 1st April, No. 448 of 1846, — acknowledging the receipt of a letter, and 
conveying to the Society the thanks of the Hon*ble the Governor in Council for 
their very interesting communication, and expressing the assurance of Govern- 
ment to afford the scheme of concerted Tidal and Meteorological observations, 
which has been propounded, the most effectual co-operation in its power. 

FS'om LieuL'Col. P. if. Melvill, Military Department, dated 30th April, 1673 
of 1846 — forwarding copy of a communication from Professor Orlebar, No. 36, dated 
the 27th of the preceding month, intimating that the proposition of Dr. Buist, that 
the duty of conducting the Magnetic or Meteorological Observations, &c., should bo 
carried on simultaneously by himself and that gentleman (Professor Orlebar,) ap- 
pfirs to be impracticable. 

From Messrs. Remington and COy dated the 20th February, 1846 — inclosing 
copy of the Account Current with them made up to the 31st July last, and ex- 
hibiting on that date a Balance of Rupees (1201 : 11 : 11) One Thousand Two 
Hundred and One, eleven annas, and eleven pies, in the Society's favour. 

From Lieut. J. G. Forbes, 23rd Regiment N. Light Infantry, — requesting that 
hii name may be withdrawn from the list of the Society's subscribers. 



xlix 

From His Excellency Mens. La Orene, French Embassador to China, dated 
Bombay, 11th April, 1845 — intimating, that he feels very highly honoured by 
becoming a Member of the Society. 

An abstract of the votes for the Office-bearers for next year having been made, 
the following appeared to have been chosen by a majority of votes on the printed 
lists; — 

Vice-Presidents. 

1. TheHon'ble J. P. Willoughby, Esq., 

2. Major-General Vans Kennedy, 

3. Dr. J. Barnes, K. H. 

Resident Members. 

1. Dr. J. Bird, 

2. Major J. Holland, 

3. Captain H. B. Lynch, I. N., 

4. TheHon'ble L. R. Reid, Esq., 

5. J. Bowman, Esq., 

6. Dr. J. McLennar, 

7. Dr. C. Morehead, 

8. Lieut.-Col. P. M. Melvill, 

9. Major-Genl. D. Barr, 

10. Lieut. G. Jenkins, I. N., 

11. Lieut..Col. N. Campbell, 

12. C. J. Erskine, Esq. 

Non-Resident Members. 

1. Major H. C. Rawlinson, 

2. Captain E. P. Del'Hoste, 

3. Lieut.-Col. O. Felix, 

4. Captain G. Fulljames, 

5. Captain Geo. Le Grand Jacob, 

6. Lieut J. C. Cruttenden, I. N., 

7. Captain T. G. Carless, I. N., 

8. Captain R. Shortrede. 

The following statement of the funds was laid before the meeting. 
Annual statement of Receipts and Disbursements of the Bombay Geographical 
Society, from 1st May 1845, to 30th April 1846. 

Disbursements. 
1846. Rs* A. p. 

April 30th, To Printing, 621 o 

..Establishment, 564 

•• Contingent expenses, 113 9 7 

1,298 9 7 

.. Balance in favour of the Society, viz 

..In the hands of the Treasurers up to this date 

Rs 2,220 11 11 

.. Ditto in the hands of the Secretary 84 12 

2,305 7 U 



Rupees. 3,604 1 6 

Receipts. 

1846. Rs. A. p. 

April 30th, By balance in the hands of Treasurers this date 1}SI9 1 6 

Sept. 10th, Amount received from Government for supplying 309 printed 
copies separately stitched of the Report dated 4th October, 
1842, drawn up by Capt. G. Le Grand Jacob, late 1st As- 
sistant to the Political Agent in Kattywar, upon the con- 
dition of that Province at that period, as per Govt, order 
dated the23d August, No. 4068 of 1845... IftO 



1 

I>«e. snd, Do. Do. from a Borah for 2 old boxessold 1 8 

1846. 

April 30th, Do. of Govt, subscription for 12 months, at 50 Rs. per mensem. .. COO 

. Do. sabscription of members for this year I,'ic88 

.. Do. of piloted copies of this Society's Proceedings sold.. .. 3 8 

.. Do. of copies of Royal Geographical Society's Journals sold. 42 

Rupees 3,G04 1 6 
(Signed) Geo. Buisr, Secy, to the Society. 
Bombay, 30th April, 1846. 
The meeting then adjourned till the 1st Thursday of August next. 



The Ordinary Quarterly Meeting of the Society took place in their Rooms, 
Town HaU, on Thursday the 6th August, 1846, at 3 o'clock p. m. 

PRESENT. 

Captain D. Ross, I. N., F. R. S., President, in the chair. — Major J. Holland ; 
R. W. Crawford, Esq. ; S. S. Dickinson, Esq. ; Captain Sir R. Oliver, Kt., R. N. ; 
Manockjee Cursetjee, Esq. ; and Captain H. B. Lynch, I. N., Acting Secretary, 
Dr. Buist being absent from sickness. 

The minutes of the last anniversary meeting held on the 7th May last were 
read and approved. 

The following Papers, Books, Maps, Letters, &c., were laid before the meeting. 

Papers. 

By the Author. — Memorandum on the City of Shikarpore, in Upper Scinde, by 
Captain T. Postans, 15th Regiment N.I., with a letter dated Bombay, 18th May, 
1846. 

By the Author, — Incomplete notes on a Shipwreck on the Southern Coast of Ara- 
bia on the night of the 14th January 1835, by Dr. B. A. R. Nicholson, with 
a note dated Byculla, 23rd May, 1845. 

By the Author. — Barometrical and Thermometrical observations taken, and Me- 
teorological Register kept, at Ellichpoor, for the month of June 1846, by Assistant 
Surgeon AV. H. Bradley, 8th Regiment Nizam's Infantry, with a letter dated 
Jaulnah, 22nd July, 1846. 

Books. 

By Government. — Printed copy of the Report by the Superintendent of Roads 
and Tanks for 1844-45, with a letter from Mr. Secretary Escombe, General De- 
partment, dated 13th July, No. 2,309 of 1846. 

By the Societe Ethnologique de Paris, through Captain Agcr. — Memoires de 
la Societe Ethnologique, Tome 1st of 1841, and Tome 2nd of 1845, and 2 copies 
of the Instruction Generale addressee aux voyageurs, &c., with a letter dated Paris, 
2nd August, 1845, from the Secretary of the Societe Ethnologique de Paris, ad- 
dressed to the President of this Society. 

By the Author, through the Societe Ethnologique dc Paris. — Memoires sur les 
progres des Decouvertes Geographiquo dans Tile de Madagascar ; and Analyse 
d'un Memoire de M. Eugene de Froberville, sur les Langues et les races de 1' Afri- 
que Orientale au sud d I'equateur in Avril 1846, with a letter from the Author, 
dated Port Loois, Isle Maurice, 24th June, 1846, addressed to the President 
of this Society. 



Maps. 

By Captain H* J* Barr. — Carte d' Acir ot d'une partie de PHedjaz et da 
Nedjd dressee en Arabic d'apres les Notes prises de 1833 a 1840. — Par M. Che- 
dasan, Medecin Inspecteur des Armees d' Arabic, 1840. 

By the AntJior. — The tract of a Route from the mouth of the Indus to Gharra 
Bunder, navigable throughout the year for the River Steamers — ^with a letter 
from W. Fenner, Esq., Acting Master, I.N., dated Hydrabad, l7th July, 1846. 

Letters. 

From Captain G. LeG. Jacob, dated Sawunt Warree, 3rd June, 1846, intimat- 
ing his having transmitted the amount of his subscription to the Society for 1846- 
47, and expressing his regret that his time is so intensely occupied with official 
duties as to 'prevent his at present becoming an efficient member of the Com- 
mittee — and he at the same time states that ^^ nearly the whole frontier lioB of 
this (the Sawunt Warree) state, with Goa, is incorrectly drawn in our commQn 
Maps," and in consequence, forwards a rude outline as a specimen, with a view to 
the Society's Map being corrected thereby. 

From Lieut.-Col. P. M. Melvill, Secretary Marine Department, dated 13th 
June, No. 866 of 1846, intimating the opinion of Government that Perim Island 
is very desirably situated as a station for tidal observations, but, from accounts 
received, considers that no European could live upon it. 

Government suggest that, before any thing is done for establishing an observa- 
tory on the Island, it should be ascertained whether any person is willing to un- 
dertake the observations. 

Colonel Melvill further intimates that it is considered that Suma Cassim, the 
individual in charge of the Perim Light House, who is an intelligent man, might 
easily be instructed how to make the required observations. 

From the Reverend G. Morrison, acting Secretary of the Surat Library, dated 
the 19th June, 1846, returning the thanks of the Proprietors of that Institution for 
the copy of the Society's Transactions presented to it. 

From A. Malet, Esq., Secretary to Government, Political Department, dated 
1st August, No. 3,003 of 1846, acknowledging the Receipt of the 300 printed 
copies of an Extract from a Report on the District of Babriawar, by Captain Geo. 
LeGrand Jacob, late 1st Assistant to the Political Agent in Kattiawar, and in- 
timating that the General Pay Master has been authorised to pay to the Secretary 
of the Society the sum of Rs. 200 on account of the printing expenses of the 
pamphlet in question. 

Lieut. James Felix Jones, I. N. — proposed by Captain Sir R. Oliver, Kt., R. 
N., and seconded by Captain H. B. Lynchj I. N., was unanimously elected a 
member of the Society. The Meeting then adjourned till the 1st Thursday of 
November next. 



The Meeting of the Society of the 5th November 1846 was postponed till 
Thursday the 4th February 1847, in consequence of there being only one Member, 
AU Mahomed Khan, Esq., present. 



ir. /-fl- 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



BOMBAY GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY 



Extract from a Report on the District of Babriawary by Captain G. 
LeGrand Jacob, late 1st Assistant to the Political Agent at Rajcote 
—dated the 15th March, 1843. 

[Presented by Government.] 

Past and present slate of the Province of Babriawar, 

History of the Province of Babriawar, — The history of this Dis- 
trict is obscure, and little further light can be thrown on it than will be 
found in the 13th para, of my General Report on the Peninsula, dated 4th 
October last, sub. para. VII. 

Origin of the Tribes now inhabiting Babriawar. — The Kattees, who 
trace themselves to the banks of the Jumna, and were borne down by 
the tide of immigration to Kutch, were again carried onwards to the 
Soorashtra Peninsula, about the end of the 14th century, at which period 
the Babrias were by local tradition settled in the neighbourhood of Than:* 
whence they previously came, is more doubtful. The Koteelas trace 
themselves to the union of an Aheer female with a Brahmun of Seehoor. 
The Dhankras to the Pandwas of Hustnapoor, and the first step known 
in their migratory career was Puttun (Anhalwara.) The Wurrooa 
claim union with the Poorbundur family by a Dhankra woman. The 
Aheers, who possess several villages in Babriawar, carry up their lineage 
to the Somrahs of Sind, and by subsequent intermarriage to the So- 
lunkees of Diu, and even to the Oojen family. The establishment of 
the Babrias in the district bearing their name, must have occurred 
shortly after they were driven from Than by the Kattees. The Aheers 
would seem to have preceded them by some centuries, and to have been 
the stock into which the others engrafted themselves. 

Previous occupants of the soil. — The prior possessors of the district 
are believed to have been the Solunkees and the VValas, whose name is 
still traced in the adjoining division of Walack. The VVajas occupied 
the W. border. I annex (Enclosure I.) the information obtained from 
the people themselves as to their origin and history. The district is 
void of inscriptions by which to test their tradition, and of any edifice 
denoting antiquity. 

* They were p'-eviously dispossessed of Sovereignty over it, if not partially 
driven Sonthward, by Ilia Jhalas. 



I 



201 

Character and Habits of the Babrias and Aheers, — The Babrias are 
more haughty and warlike than the Aheers : these are a peaceable com- 
munity, ploughing their own lands, and in appearance little above the 
common agricuhural labourer, whilst the Babrias affect more the state 
of the respectable Kattee. They intermarry with each other, but with the 
usual Oriental distinction of rank, the Aheers give their daughters to the 
Babrias and the Babrias their's to the Kattees, the order being only re- 
versed in case of the wealth of the inferior and poverty of the superior 
grade. Polygam}' is common, with no other restrictions than means and 
inclination : the husband gives the dowry to the parents of the betrothed, 
who regard it very much in the light of purchase money. Equal divi- 
sion of property is slowly producing the same effect in this quarter as 
has been shewn to be in operation with the Kattee and minor Rajpoot 
states. The Babrias have been loosely termed Kattees ; but their stock 
is different, and they have no title to the name. Possessing a very limit- 
ted patrimony in a secluded corner of the Peninsula, cut off from direct 
intercourse with the main body of the community by the Geer, they 
have come less in contact with the British power than the other races of 
the country, and retain more of their pristine barbarism : they cherish 
their blood-feuds with more inveteracy than even the Kattees : their vil- 
lages are mere collections of mud huts, with generally a low wall of 
circumvallation, and a ghurrie, for defence. 

Religion, — In matters of faith, the Babrias and Aheers are but sorry 
Hindoos. Their chief Deity is astone called Sl»amjee Maharaj, at the hot 
springs of Toolsee Sham, just beyond the North West limit of their 
frontier. This is an idol with four arms, supposed by some to represent 
Vishnoo, though of this the Babrias know nothing. They hold in res- 
pect also certain Devees (Goddesses, named Ghatrar, Khoriar, Chawund, 
and Boot Bhowanee) : they are unburdened with ceremonies, and have 
no restriction in matters of food, save in the article of beef. The fol- 
lowers of Swamee Narain, whose system has penetrated into the remote 
corners of Guzerat, abstain from all animal food, in common with other 
followers of the Punt.* 

Boundaries and Surface of the Country, — Population, — The boun- 
daries of Babriawar are the Geer iiills on the north, the Jolapooree river 
on the east, the Malun river on the west, and the Sea on the south, as 
more fully detailed in my general report and map. This district contains 
seventy-one towns and villages, with a population of about 19>000 ; some 
villages belonging to the Rajoola and Ghanla tuppas on the east, under 
Bhaonuggur ; Khuntalla and others on the north, that have become at- 
tached to the Amrellee tuppa of Dhanturwa, and those on the east 
bank of the Malun annexed to the Oona Muhal, which, though original- 
ly Babria villages, have been enumerated under their respective states, 
are exclusive of this calculation. The Jaffrabad Purgunnah of eleven 
villages, with a population of about 6,000, is included, except where it 

* Sect. There are in the Peninsula about 30,000 followers of this Hindoo 
Reformer, of w^honi a discription is given in Bishop Ileber's Journal^ but his 
character is not held in repute by the rest of the community. 



202 

skirts the Geer. The surface of Babriawar is generally level, and con- 
tains but few trees. 

Agricultural Facilities and Products Ti»e soil is good, the po- 
verty and indolence of the people alone preventing their turning it to pro- 
per account : though water is found at a short distance from the sur- 
face, they trust almost entirely to the monsoon, and but few wells 
have been dug for irrigation. Bajree and til are the staple grains ; 
wheat is raised occasionally in warrees at Nagsree, Meethapoor, Dhoo- 
dala, and Chotree ; and not more than a hundred maunds of cotton are 
grown in the whole district. Cattle abound, the neighbourhood of the 
Geer affording ample pasturage ; and the export of ghee, through the 
port of Jaffrabad, is very considerable. 

Extent of a Santee and Wenga of land, and the amount of Produce 
thereff, — Tlie santee of land is here of sixty weegas, the weega being 
160 yards by ten : a throe bullock santee is termed pucka, and con- 
sists of ninety wregas. Fifteen khalsees of bajree and ten of til are 
the average quantity per santee. The khalsee is of fourteen Goozeerat 
maunds, and the averai^e amount realized is nine rupees per khalsee 
of bajree, and fifteen rupees for til. — A table shewing the financial re- 
sult to the landholder is annexed. (Enclosure II.) 

Enclosure No, L to Report dated I5lh diarchy 1843. 

The Koteelas, — Account of the Koteela Tribe ofBahriaSj translated 
and condensed from the books of Rawul DJioga Jugjaun, the Gene- 
alogist if the Tribe. 

The Koteelas — The Koteelas sprang from the Janee Brahmuns of 
Seehor. A list is given in the original of several names said to hare 
reigned there for 225 years. Trikuni the last ruler, built the Sooruj- 
koond (tank of the sun) at that place. Oi being driven from Seehor, he 
seated himself one day in the skirts of Tullaja, to prepare his food: the 
daughter of an Aheer of that place, named Dewa Dorela, and her sis- 
ter-in-law, were passing to fetch water from the well, and saw the 
stranger attempting, but not knowing how, to cook his meal. The 
maiden said — this handsome Brahmun seems in distress : the sister re- 
plied jestingly, you are a Virgin, do you cook it for him : the other 
answered, 1 must do as you bid, seeing that you are my eldest brother'^ 
wife, and in the place to me of a mother. On this, filling her pitcher at 
the well she passed the Brahmun, and said to him, I am your wife, and 
you are my lord, but he answered not: the virgin, named Shreebaee, 
then said, if you say no, I destroy myself. The Brahmun then con- 
sented. At that time Ebulsoor-walla gave dowers to aid the marriage of 
one croreof virgins : to him the parties went, and the Chief recognizing 
Trikum as one of a high race, phced the IVt/a first on his forehead, 
whence has sprung the name of Koteela, and from this union the 
tribe. Treekum's eldest son was named Koteela, the second Bhookun 
in Kattywar, the third Piiolo in Gogo Bara. Koteela married into the 
Babrias, the otliers remained Aheers. From Juweraj, the third in 
descent from Koteela, in the course of thirty-six generations eighteen 
tribes have emanated. The chief was liana, and his descendants were in 



203 

the following order : — Put pat, Kottela, Juweraj, Kala, Sakria, Weeka, 
Seea, Kala, Juweraj who had four sons viz., Jo\\ Tola, Sajun, and 
Sakria : these four were the nephews of Bussia by their mother Sona ; 
they settled at Thankundola, and were named the Thakors of seventy- 
two tribes. The fourth son Sakria had issue in successive generations 
as follows: Kala, Jor, Sajun, Selar, Shahpooree, Sathee, Somesuir, 
Leeka, Moonga, Dhurja^ and Bhola. 

The Dhankras. — Account of the Dhankra Tribe of BabriaSf ex* 
tracted and condensedfrom the books of Rawuls Nugajun and Bhoja of 
JDedan. 

The Dhankras. — Dhankra is a Babria descended from the Panduws 
of Hustnapoor : they dwelled in Patun, whence they came to Jhan Kun- 
dola, in the Punchal district, where they resided. Afterwards they 
migrated to Urneeroo. The genealogy is as follows : — Brumha Shoob, 
Sabud, Droobud, Tarabad, Amreek, Ukheprut, Sayetun, Pundoo, 
Pund, whose five sons were Joodishthut, Nukool, Urjoon, Suhdew, 
and Bheem : these were the nephews of Jaduw, born of Mata Koontee. 
Bheem's issue was Gutoorguch, born of Hurumba, nephew of Raksusb, 
son of Truelochun*s daughter. Gutoorguch's son was Babruk, and his 
Babria, his was Soom, and his Samla, his Dhandh, his three sons the 
first Dhankra, the second Khora, the third Dangur : these two were 
Kattees, and nephews by their mother Magul of Wala. Dhanka's son 
was Dhank, whose issue were Peegul and Chandoo. The second had 
issue, Khunsee, whose generation was as follows : — Howl, Kala, Chol- 
rup, Mokul, Shetrum, Humva, Haden, Dewed, nephew by the mo- 
ther's side of Koteela. Dewra's genealogy was Sctrun, Seea, Sajuo, 
and Seea. 

The Wuroos, — Account of the Wuroo Tribe of Babrias, extracted 
and condensedfrom the books ofJRawul Weera, the Gemalogist of the 
tribe* 

In the beginning, Mahadeo asked of Krishna to appear unto him in 
the attractive female form which he had formerly assumed : Krishna 
consented. From Mahadeo then issued the Virile power.* Goruk- 
nauth sprung from the cow-dung (gor) which Krishna had touched, 
and the Jalundur Duet from the water (jul) in which he had dipped 
his hand. Gaotun Rooshee had given an imprecation against his daugh- 
ter Unjoee, that she should become pregnant as a Virgin; she therefore 
buried herself up to her neck in the ground, and thus remained in the 
wilderness. By this spot passed Mahadeo and Krishna, to whom she 
bent her head in adoration. Krishna did not acknowledge the salute, 
saying, thou hast no guide over thee: she replied, be thou my guide. 
Krishna then blew into her ear the virile power that he had received 
from Mahadeo, by which she conceived, and brought forth Hunoo- 
man, of whom was born Mukurdhwug. When Ram conquered Lunka, 
Hunnooman was covered with perspiration in lifting the Droonagur 
hill, and which dropped from his body into the sea : a fish swallowed it, 
and gave birth subsequently to Mukurdhwug : his genealogy was Dhwuj 
Dhwujangee, Dhwuj Weraya, Mor, Dhwuj, who founded Moorvee, and 
^ The original ia too gross to be translated. 



204 

established his reign there. From him sprung in succession as follows : 
Kumdhwug Mucka Soorun, Kunksasoor, Kusyup, Kupeel, Jan Ara- 
reek Ukhewurf, Manwusunt, Chukreen, Sayutun, Taljun, Mucka 
Soorun, Mehe Muggur, Dhwuj, Dhwuj Jethee Dhwuj, Jetwa, Wukeed 
Meh, Jetroo Magronagajun, who built the Dhank fort of gold and 
sacrificed his head to his Bhat in the following manner: Sidnath Bama, 
disciple of Dhondhlee Mul, worshipped his master, who said, I will 
cause the fort of Dhank to resemble that of Lunka : the disciple re- 
plied, the fort of Lunka is of gold. The holy man replied, I will turn 
the Dhank citadel into gold : then by the power of his science he con- 
veyed the wife of Salwan Gohel from Moongeepoor Patun, and strok- 
ed the walls with her hand, which transformed them into gold. On 
Salwan Gohel finding out what had passed, he brought an army against 
Dhank, but could not take it. He then asked Putla Bhat to go to his 
•nemy, and beg his head : the Bhat went accordingly, and securing a 
pledge of Nagjun, demanded his head : the which he accordingly sur- 
rendered to him. Nagjun's race is as follows :— Wueddhwuj, Wukeeo, 
Muheeo, Mehe, Gujkurun, Halamun, Jetwo, whose issue rules in Pore- 
bandur. Halamun's sons were Meh and Wukeeo. Meh was united 
(wurryo) to Mai, the daughter of Rakait Dhankra — hence the Wurreeo 
tribe. The issue of this union was successively Bhano, Bharmul, 
Bhoojsee, Mehe, Bakhul, Mehe, Wankra, and Wank, from whom came 
the Kattees. Poput, of whom sprung the Aheers, and Wurroo, from 
whom came the Babrias. — Wurroo's issue was successively Dburm, 
Golun, Waseeo, Walo, Goghoo, Tajo, Wurroo, Dhayo, Panthe, 
Soortho, who married into the Muchwa Aheers — his race live atMurmut, 
at Mandwa, and at Kotra on the banks of the Bhadur : his issue was 
Waseeo, Waon, V/olo, Golun, Santurkhee, Soya, Kurno, and Sadool, 
whose sons, Khoro and Mukko, received Nagusree and Kysana. The 
issue of the third son, Duyo, will be found in the Arodro Book. 

The Aheers. — Account of the Aheer Trihe^ extracted from the Book 
of Rawul Jussa Sojana and his Son Bhugwan Jussa Rawul Wago 
ilamaya^ corroborating the same. 

In the countrj' of Sind was a king named Somra, who had five 
sons: the 1st Wag, the 2nd Kamlio, the 3rd Kattear, the 4th Murmul, 
the 5th Arodro, who settled in the Burda Country. — Wag's race was as 
follows : Palun, Jaetho, Wasa, to whom were three sons, Jusso, 
Lakho, and Duyo. Jusso*s generation was thus : Aso, Sahir, Satho 
Wero, who received his grass in Nesraphulee in the Rampurra district. 
Latho's 2nd son Ruyo received half of Rampurra, and his 3rd son 
Khoko had three sons : the eldest Moojo, received Jampodun in grass, 
and hence the Jampodda tribe ; his second, Wago, received Jolapoor, 
hence the Jolapurree tribe ; his 3rd son, Rano, had also his grass in 
Jolapoor, and his issue mingled with the others : the 4th son was 
Rakho, the 5th Kaloo. Rakho received Ganjawudder, and Sajunwao, 
which last is under Bhaonuggur ; Kalo received Veejooka, which is 
the same as Deoka, now under Rajoola. The Lakhnotra, and Ram 
tribes, descended from the Solunkee Rajpoots. — Urjup Solunkee reign« 



205 

ed over Deo (Diu.) Rooshro was his son by another caste : he had two 
sons ; the eldest was Lakhnotra, who married into the Soruthia Aheers, 
and his descendants are termed Lai^hontra ; the 2nd son Jonto married 
into the Nepal Aheers. Lakhnotra's son Seehuro had three sons. 
Desoor received Kowaya, Jhalo received Mugalo, and Danturee the 
3rd Khooat received Oontinwuddur and Turyam, which last is now 
under Oona. 

The Wala Rajpoots held sovereignty of yore, from whom sprung 
Walojee, who had five sons : the 1st, Pinjur, who married into the 
Aheers, hence the Pinjoor tribe. Tliey received Hurmutyoo Malunia- 
wuddur and Koombharioo, now under Bhownuggur. The 2d, Walojee, 
of this race had four sons, the eldest Waghosee, from whom the 
Wunar tribe descend ; the 2nd Wawrio, whence the Wawrias ; the 3rd 
Kinkur, from whom came the Kinkras ; the 4th Chowur, whose de- 
scendants are called Chowur Wunar : their grass was originally in 
Bugusra, afterwards in Rajpura in the Bhownuggur country, subse- 
quently in Dewkawuddur and Entis. The Putal tribe sprung from 
the king of Oojen, Vikum Purmar, by a woman of other caste : the 
issue was Purmar, Dharwo and his Putal, who married into the Aheers, 
whence the name of the tribe. The Wala Rajpoots were formerly the 
landholders : many of the Aheers came and took up their residence 
with them, and on the Walas gradually d>yindling away the Aheers 
fell into possession of their grass. 

Tlie Babrias. — Account of the Babrias, as given me hi/ Ala Wurroo 
of Sakritty and Sangana Bhojkoteela of JVankiod, and others — Tirnbee, 
9th May, 1842. 

The Koteelas are considered the highest caste in this part : they are 
descended from a Brahmun of Seehor, but they are the fewest in 
number. The Babrias are believed to have come from Than, from 
whom it was taken by the Jhalas. Tiiey migrated to Bugusra, 
Amrelee, and Koondia, whence they were driven by the Kattees. They 
then came to this quarter, which was in the hand of the Wala Rajpoots, 
the same caste as those now in Dhank, from which family the Wala 
Kattees are derived through Wallogee, who on his way to the Ganges 
stopped one might at Bhayasur, and slept with a Kakee female. The 
Babrias at first remained as the Ryots of the Walas, but after a few 
years they drove these out, and kept possession of the villages in 
which they had settled. All the seventy-two tribes come from Than. 
One cause assigned for their leaving this place, is the fear of the 
Padishah's enmity for having given shelter to two Grassias' 
daughters, one of tliem named Bhawunabaee, whom his army wished 
to seize for him. The Babrias were aided in establishing them- 
selves in Babriawar by Ebhulwala of Jetpoor, then a Rajpoot 
Gadee. He was the father of the famous Champraj wala, who op- 
posed Feeroz Shah's Army, and was killed by his General Izeo 
Deen, who erected the great Mosque at Mangrol. A gate at Jetpoor 
is still named after the same Champraj wala to this day ; but the 
W^alas, whose grass extended to Jhaujmer on the east, and Dhank on 



20G 

the west, now only retain Dhank. Ebliuhvalla gave marriage por- 
tions to ^n million virgins : one of those was an Aheer's daughter who 
fell in love with a Brahmun, named Trikum, who had fled from Seehor, 
having killed his brother there. Ebhulwalla was then performing 
Jogauy i. e. portioning off in marriage the virgins of his country, 
and hearing of an Abeer's daughter being about to destroy herself from 
unrequited love, Ebhulwalla persuaded the Brahmun to marry her, 
promising that his offspring should be included with the Babrias, and 
at their head. The name Koteela was given them from teela, the Brah- 
minical forehead mark. Another reason assigned for the name is the 
Brahmun and Aheer's daughter having claimed the protection of 
Ebhulwalla, who replied," umarekot manehe," it is upon my neck : 
consequently they were called Koteelas. The Diiankra Tribe sprung 
from' Panduws. They were at first the chief tribe, though now held 
inferior to the Koteelas. They are the most numerous of the Babrias, 
and next to them in number are the Wuroos. The Wuroos spring 
from the union of a Jetwa Rajpoot with a Dhankra Babria's daughter, 
when the former reigned at Biioomlee^or Goomlee.) Wuroos are still 
called Jetwas among themselves. My informant Biioj lost his grand- 
father Bhoj and uncle Jhalo Koteela, with forty-five other Babrias, 
and eighteen Bhawurs killed at Kulagud, at the storm and capture of the 
place in S. 1844 by the Nawab's army under command of his 
Deewan Prubhasunkur. Their pallias are now at the village of Waud, 
which has fallen under JafFrabad, but of which their race are still 
grassias. When this branch of the Koteela race lost its strength by 
the power of the Nawab, the Dewan family began to raise itself on its 
ruins, taking from it the villages of Sur, Goria, and Trakooroo. The 
Aheers came from the Bunee district in Kutch, where their tribe 
still exists, and entered Babriawar from the Muchor Kanta by land— 
and from Deo (Diu) by sea. 

The Babrias. — Account g iven of the Babrias hy Jeema Bharot of 
Morvesy hut having grass under Joonaghur, Genealogist of the Auiuab. 

The Toour Rajpoot tribe reigned at Delhi for five generations, and 
being driven thence about the time of the Panduwf, Mantal Toour came 
to Ttian Kundola, and there reigned. He supported all the people who 
flocked thither. In consequence of a great famine, the men quitted ia 
search of other homes or occupation, leaving their wives and children 
at Than : these were of divers castes, and were hence called Bahur or 
Buhur, which in the local dialect signifies numerous — mixed. They 
afterwards left and established themselves in the south of the Peninsula, 
hence called Babriawar. Afterwards Manpul Toour himself took refuge 
in Babriawar, where his race still exists, and are looked on with respect, 
intermarrying with the other Rajpoot tribes of the Peninsula. There 
is one house at Rajoola, Dosajee Toour ; one in Kanlur, Manjee Toour; 
one in Meetapoor, Panchanjee Toour ; and in a few other places : they 
have no grass possessions, but receive fees from the Babrias on mar- 
riages and other festivals. This race is now named Thakra. The 
Brahinuns of Seehor, whence the Koteelas are derived, received their 



207 

grass in that place^ from Sudrae Jysing, the Salunkee Chief of 
Anhulwara. 

The Khant Gohels, — Account of the Khant Gohels on the western 
borders of Bdbriawar^ and in Naghur^ given me b^ Jussa Oohel of 
Timbee, and others. 

This tribe call themselves Gohels, but they spring from the union of a 
Khant woman about fifteen generations back, with one of the Palitana 
family. Raja Gohel, six generations ago conquered seventy villages in 
this quarter from the Waja Rajpoots : the following remain to them, but 
now fallen under the Nawab : — 

1 Timbee. 7 Samtej. 13 Kandee. 

2 Mhota. 8 Wawurdo. 14 Pura. 

3 Sunkra. 9 Bhasa. 15 Dhokurwa. 

4 Gangra. 10 Oogla. 16 Aleedar under 

5 Punehwala. 11 XJmbaru. Koreenar. 

6 Ooutwalo. 12 Wajree. 

These Khant Gohel Khants intermarry with the Khussias, the Mhers, 
the Mukwanas, and the Khants. The Wajas now retain grass in Rohee- 
sa, Simbar, and Gular : these intermarry with the Bhaonuggur, Palitana, 
Sathee Bhayad, and other Rajpoots. 



203 



List of the different Tribes ofBahrias, commonly called B ahria Katlees , 



No. 



Titles. 



No. 



Titles. 



10 



15 



20 



25 



30 



Koteela 

Dhankra 

Wuroo 

Ghurga 

Ohoosanba 

Chamya 

Boreecha 

Chubhar 

Chatroja 

Kareta 

Murmul 

VVura 

Wusra 

Luya 

Lobud 

Kurena 

Rundhmul 

Shankhlia 

Suchla 

Bhoowa 

Bhannul 

Bhalera 

Dhurmucta 

SooQwura 

Beparia 

Kheradot 

Burela 

Pooshatia 

Pudeeara 

Changur 

Chuk 

Rakhur 

Rathor 

Naeesa 

Sheenng 

Dubbia 



37 Bugao 



40 



45 



50 



55 



60 



Labhia 

Khata 

Khasur 

Khodiala 

Kandhul 

Nepul 

Keelkan 

Kateeal 

Wagla 

Werma 

Dangur 

Chondia 

Khara 

Khulala 

Khuda 

Bholuvla 

Weda Bhoopal 

Shanja 

Nerala 

Sujora 

Shoba 

Kagru 

Mutara 

Sheeala 

Kesoor 

Dedugra 

Shubur 

Athur 

Veea 

Keea 

Khagharda 

Nuvga 

Ladha 

Dbaudha ... 

Oomga 



(Signed) G. Le G. Jacob, 1 tt Amstant, 



209 

Enclosure No. 11. to Report dated \6th March 1843. 
Tabte shewing the value of one Santee of land under Bajree cultivation. 

Average produce after paying the reapers in kind Rs. 15 

Kalsees at something above 9 Rupees per Kalsee Rs. 137 

Expences. 
A 6th share to the Bhagia or household cultivator, thus — 

Paid and Termed Rs. 27 

Seed ... 2 

Labour, exclusive of that in reaping ... 10 ' 

"Wuswaya Khumal, viz. 

Sotar, Lobar, Koombar, Hujjam, Durzee, Gamat, Rajghar, and Dhcr 13 

52 

Net produce to landholder 85 

Value of a Santee of land under Til cultivation. ■ 

Average produce 10 Kalsees, or Rupees ... ... ... ... 150 

N. B. No Wuswaya Kumal is charged on Til. 

Bliagia a 5th Share ... 

Mundauun preparing and cleaning the ground 

Seed 

Reaping 

Labor and extra expences attending Til Harvest 




Ket produce to landholder 

(Signed) G. Le G. Jacob, \st Assistant, ' 
(True Extract) J. P. Willoughby, Chief Secretary. 



Desultory Observations on the probable Origin of the Ghondst toith 
o Vocabulary of the Dialect spoken by the Ghond Tribes upon the 
Gawil Hills. By Assistant Surgeon W. H. Bradley, 8th Regt. 
Nizam's Infantry, at Ellichpore. 

[Communicated by the Author.] 
The following conjectural remarks upon the descent of the Ghonds, 
are offered with the hope of drawing attention to the subject, having 
no merit beyond this to recommend them. The knowledge we 
possess is by no means very familiar or extended, relating to the 
obscure tribes found scattered up and down the Continent of Indin, 
more especially those isolated communities inhabiting its Mountain 
Ranges, — a circumstance to be accounted fur with the latter races 
as much from their barbarous habits as in the difficulties their coun- 
try offers to a freer communication. 

The principal facts known about the Ghonds are but very limited, 
a few of which have already been recapitulated in a former commu- 
nication. Feeling deeply interested in these inoffensive beings, some 
pains have been taken to collect a tolerably copious Vocabulary of their 
Dialect, — at least such as is spoken' on the Gawil Hills; which before 
submitting will be prefaced by some slight references to certain lead- 
ing features of the race, physical and moral. 



210 

In hazarding a Scythian descent for these rude Mountaineers, we 
shall find, as we proceed in the course of the investigation, so many 
corroboratory proofs of this assertion, that, though it may be not 
allowed, still the grounds on which they have been made will at all 
events, from their plausibility, show they have not heedlessly been 
advanced. No facts stronger in confirmation can be adduced, or pro- 
bably so conclusive in their nature, as those relating to their physical 
peculiarities ; the analogies drawing very closely with those distinc- 
tively characteristic of the Mongolian race. In them we see a square 
broad-faced skull, with low and narrow forehead ; the hair black, 
lank, coarse and thin, sometimes altogether awanting on the lip and 
chin : the face broad and flat, with high cheek bones, wide mouth, 
and thick lips : the alas of the nose enlarged and flattened : skin 
swarthy and coarse : features harsh and forbidding : with a frame of 
body strongly knit, and stature rather under than over the medium 
height. This is an organization with which the efi^eminate southern 
Asiatic has no participation. Placed between the natives of the 
Deccan, and of Hindoostan Proper, we shall perceive the Ghond's 
condition to be as little analogous to theirs in a moral point of view 
as we have witnessed the case in a physical one : so great, indeed, 
are these discrepancies, that it is quite evident we have to look fur- 
ther a»field for their primogeniture. Even with the Bheels, a neigh- 
bouring hill tribe as rude, and even more barbarous, than themselves, 
between whom we might naturally conceive the possibility of some- 
thing like identity existing, we look in vain for any such results ; 
the only similitude traced consisting in one common state of bar- 
barism. Though uncouth and rugged in his nature, the Ghond yet 
possesses kindly feelings, and if he has not many virtues, he has at 
jthe same time not many vices : his great besetting one is a brutal 
indulgence in drinking, which is carried to excess, but save this single 
failing, the blandishments of sense seem little to affect his rough nature. 
Such was the kind of stuff* those men were made of who, streaming 
.from the summits of the Caucasus as from a centre, mysteriously 
overspread the universe in process of time. 

The tract of country the Ghonds inhabit, is very extensive, and of 
the wildest nature ; spread over by the deepest forests and ranges 
of rugged and broken mountains. From these arise the head-waters 
of many vast-sized rivers, whose thousand rills come tumbling down 
into the valleys, producing there the rankest vegetation. Were the 
industry of Man here exercised irt turning the natural advantages 
to account, Ghondwana might teem with Nature's richest pro- 
ducts. Pastoral pursuits occupy the attention of many ; not a few 
cu livate the various fertile strips of land occurring along the 
valleys, reclaimed from the wild jungle or cleared on the hill side ; 
whilst a remnant, and not a small. one either, are found still retaining 
their old erratic habits, with much of their attending ferocity. These 
are principally of a tribe called " Nals,'' or shepherds, whose thievish 
and^violent habits have brought the whole race into an universal 
and undeserved disrepute. Possessing no very defined notions of the 



209 

Enclosure No. 11. to Report dated \6th March 1843. 

Table shewing the value of one Santee of land under Bajree cultivation. 

Average produce after paying the reapers in kind Rs. 15 

Kalsees at something above 9 Rupees per Kalsee Rs. 137 

Expences. 
A 5th share to the Bhagia or household cultivator, thus — 

Paid and Termed Rs. 27 

Seed ... 2 

Labour, exclusive of that in reaping .. . 10 * 

"Wuswaya Khumal, viz. 

Sotar, Lobar, Koombar, Hujjam, Durzee, Gamat, Rajghar, and Dhor 13 

52 

Net produce to landholder 85 

Value of a Santee of land under Til cultivation. 

Average produce 10 Kalsees, or Rupees ... 

N. B. No Wuswaya Kumal is charged on Til. 

Bhagia a 5th Share ... 

Mundanun preparing and cleaning the ground 

Seed 

Reaping ... 

Labor and extra expences attending Til Harvest 



Ket produce to landholder 







150 


Rs 


30 
15 

3 
10 

4 


62i 


Asi 


Rs. 

)istan 


88 

t. ' 



(Signed) G. Le G. Jacob, 
(True Extract) J. P. Willoughby, C kief Secretary 



Desultory Observations on the probable Origin of the Ghonds, loith 
a Vocabulary of the Dialect spoken by the Ghond Tribes upon the 
Gawil Hills. By Assistant Surgeoa W. H. Bradley, 8th Regt. 
Nizam's Infantry, at Ellichpore. 

[Communicated by the Author.] 
The following conjectural remarks upon the descent of the Ghonds, 
are offered with the hope of drawing attention to the subject, having 
no merit beyond this to recommend them. The knowledge we 
possess is by no means very familiar or extended, relating to the 
obscure tribes found scattered up and down the Continent of Indin, 
more especially those isolated communities inhabiting its Mountain 
Ranges, — a circumstance to be accounted fur with the latter races 
as much from their barbarous habits as in the difiicuUies their coun- 
try offers to a freer communication. 

The principal facts known about the Ghonds are but very limited, 
a few of which have already been recapitulated in a former commu- 
nication. Feeling deeply interested in these inoffensive beings, some 
pains have been taken to collect a tolerably copious Vocabulary of their 
Dialect, — at least such as is spoken'on the Gawil Hills; which before 
submiiting will be prefaced by some slight references to certain lead- 
ing features of the race, physical and moral. 



210 

In hazarding a Scythian descent for these rude Mountaineers, we 
shall find, as we proceed in the course of the investigation, so many 
corroboratory proofs of this assertion, that, though it may be not 
allowed, still the grounds on which they have been made will at all 
events, from their plausibility, show they have not heedlessly been 
advanced. No facts stronger in confirmation can be adduced, or pro- 
bably so conclusive in their nature, as those relating to their physical 
peculiarities ; the analogies drawing very closely with those distinc- 
tively characteristic of the Mongolian race. In them we see a square 
broad-faced skull, with low and narrow forehead ; the hair black, 
lank, coarse and thin, sometimes altogether awanting on the lip and 
chin : the face broad and flat, with high cheek bones, wide mouth, 
and thick lips : the alaa of the nose enlarged and flattened : skin 
swarthy and coarse : features harsh and forbidding : with a frame of 
body strongly knit, and stature rather under than over the medium 
height. This is an organization with which the effeminate southern 
Asiatic has no participation. Placed between the natives of the 
Deccan, and of Hindoostan Proper, we shall perceive the Ghond's 
condition to be as little analogous to theirs in a moral point of view 
as we have witnessed the case in a physical one : so great, indeed, 
are these discrepancies, that it is quite evident we have to look fur- 
ther a-field for their primogeniture. Even with the Bheels, a neigh- 
bouring hill tribe as rude, and even more barbarous, than themselves, 
between whom we migiit naturally conceive the possibility of some- 
thing like identity existing, we look in vain for any such results ; 
the only similitude traced consisting in one common state of bar- 
barism. Though uncouth and rugged in his nature, the Ghond yet 
possesses kindly feelings, and if he has not many virtues, he has at 
the same time not many vices : his great besetting one is a brutal 
indulgence in drinking, which is carried to excess, but save this single 
failing, the blandishments of sense seem little to affect his rough nature. 
Such was the kind of stuff those men were made of who, streaming 
from the summits of the Caucasus as from a centre, mysteriously 
overspread the universe in process of time. 

The tract of country the Ghonds inhabit, is very extensive, and of 
the wildest nature ; spread over by the deepest forests and ranges 
of rugged and broken mountains. From these arise the head- waters 
of many vast-sized rivers, whose thousand rills come tumbling down 
into the valleys, producing there the rankest vegetation. Were the 
industry of Man here exercised in turning the natural advantages 
to account, Ghondwana might teem with Nature's richest pro- 
ducts. Pastoral pursuits occupy the attention of many ; not a few 
cu livate the various fertile strips of land occurring along the 
valleys, reclaimed from the wild jungle or cleared on the hill side ; 
whilst a remnant, and not a small.one either, are found still retaining 
their old erratic habits, with much of their attending ferocity. These 
are principally of a tribe called ** Nals/' or shepherds, whose thievish 
and ^violent habits have brought the whole race into an universal 
and' undeserved disrepute. Possessing no very defined notions of the 



211 

rights of property, they are shunned and despised by their own people, 
and placed by them lowest in the scale of social life, as they concede 
the highest grade to the ** Korkoo,'* or cultivator ; a pleasing 
proof of an approach towards huraanization in so rude a race', where 
we find pruning hooks and ploughshares usurping the place of swords 
and spears. None but the Nal goes armed, and then carries nothing 
but the bow and arrow. All, however, are provided with a small 
hatchet, serving not only for defence but for employment in do- 
mestic purposes as well. 

Of their early history, they themselves know nothing ; nor are they 
in the remotest degree acquainted with any event relative to their 
original occupation of the land. Tradition observes a provoking silence, 
rendered more so by the absence of a written language : all is there- 
fore left to conjecture and vague surmise, but it is not difficult to con- 
ceive what the upshot would be in a case like this, where wandering 
habits are associated with warlike propensities. Wherever depasturage 
was found compatible w^ith their wants, there in all probability 
they would tarry, supposing they were sufficiently powerful to carry 
out their wishes. The circumstances of their no longer seeming to be 
a military people, are more apparent than real, for we cannot suppose 
them holding undisturbed for ages their acquired boundaries, without 
possessing the power to maintain what they had gained. It is indeed 
far from being improbable that they are the descendants of those 
warlike people, immortalized by Hindoo Poets as the Monkey 
Hosts who, under Hanuman, overthrew the King of Ceylon, 
and gave rise to those extravagant fables recorded in the Ramayana : 
for in sober reality Rama was but mortal like ourselves, and son of 
a King of Oude. Banished from his father's court, he turned ascetic, 
and dwelt amongst the forests upon the Godavery. His wife Sita 
having been forcibly abducted by the King of Ceylon, for the purpose 
of recovering her he seeks the aid of the King of Karnata, who sends 
an army of his subjects to his assistance, led by the redoubtable Gen- 
eral Hanuman, who regains her, and destroys the ravisher. The 
uncouth manners, and mountain habits, combined with most unpre- 
possessing features, give these mountaineers some pretensions to a 
Simian character in the eyes of their more refined neighbours ; and 
what was probably first applied in bantering derision, has, with a 
wonder-loving people, now become serious matter of belief. Hanuman 
is a favorite shrine throughout the Mahratta country, particularly in 
those villages bordering the country of these mountain tribes. 

Reverting to that restless disposition so particularly apparent in 
the Nals, but existing more or less in all, we may note in it one of 
many other connecting links to those nomadic tribes we conceive 
they sprung from, and which is now, as it ever has been, the cause of 
retaining them in their brutal and uninformed condition, whilst all 
around has progressed in civilization. No matter how hard gripped 
they be by want and hunger, they hang back from seeking any service 
which would impose a check upon their personal freedom : if by 



212 

accident they get coaxed into the fact, they seek the firat available 
opportunity of regaining their wild mountain sides, as impatiently 
indeed as caged birds take wing who had forced their wires. The 
Ghond must not be judged of by his outward looks. They are but sorry 
enough ; but question him quietly, and you will feel astonished at the 
haughty notions you hear the miserable being before you holding of 
himself. He conceives his race were formerly the original masters of 
the land, and this vain notion is the only approach to anything 
traditional about himself which he possesses. At this present day, 
tribes very much the same as these are seen roaming over the wide 
Steppes of Tartary ; and the general identities between the two are far 
too remarkable to be looked upon merely as strange coincidences. To 
read the account that travellers give of these nomadic tribes, would 
make persons at all acquainted with the Ghond character conceive it 
had been written expressly of them. Bell, in his travels — given in Pinker- 
ton's collection — describes some wandering hordes he fell in with upon 
the confines of Siberia, as being perfectly distinct from the natives of 
the place, possessing the Tartar countenance, barbarous in manners 
yet not savage. Inoffensive, civil, tractable, honest, and not 
wanting, in courage, — ardently attached to liberty, and spurning con- 
troul, — greatly given to intoxication, — their greatest failing perfect 
ignorance of literature ; in matters of religion having obscure notions 
of the Deity, worshipping the sun and moon, and believing firmly in 
sorcery or Shamanism. Now there is nothing here set forth but might 
mutatis mutandis be applied with equal force and truth to the 
Ghond's condition. That very remarkable and revolting charge of 
being Anthropophagous, which the ancient Scythians have had laid to 
them, is brought against a portion of these people also. Its uncommon 
and singular nature makes the instance a valuable one for our pur- 
pose, for it would seem that this horrid rite is confined only to one of 
the three Great Families of the World, of which these people are sup- 
posed to form an integrant portion. The old traveller Rubruguis, 
who was sent by St. Louis to the Cham of Tartary, tell us in the 
account he gives of his mission, that " the people of Thibet had 
formerly a custom to eat the bodies of their deceased parents, that they 
might make no other sepulchre for them than their own bowels, but 
of late they have left off this custom, because thereby they became 
odious to all other nations." The Ghonds upon the Gawil Hills deny the 
existence of the rite amongst their tribes, and they and others of their 
race who have intercourse with the civilized world, would have very 
likely allowed such a practice to have fallen into disuetude from the 
reasons the Friar gives as advanced by the Thibetians : but the case 
would be different with those wilder tribes cut off from all connection 
with their fellow men, surrounded as they are by their deep forests, 
and deeper prejudices, and it is by no means unreasonable to suppose 
that they would still retain their ancient customs, and it is in those 
savage regions about the sources of the Nerbudda that these Anthro- 
pophagists are found. Horrid as such recitals are, be it remembered 



213 

that Strabo says in his time the custom prevailed in Ireland, and 
Rhudrogenius declares the same to have been the case in Scotland. 

In their recognising the Sun as the incorporated essence of the 
Deity, or n^aterial evidence of their Creator, as well as from their vague 
notions about an eternal reckoning beyond the grave for deeds done 
in the flesh, we are led to conclude they are not wholly without some 
knowledi^e of a revelation of the True God having reached them, 
though the channels through which it flowed are now no longer visible. 
The worship of the sun was the great apostacy after the Flood ; 
and it is not improbable, therefore, that their ancestors might 
have taken this sun worsliip with them from the plains of 
Shinar. The Tower of Babel, both from its name and form, 
had doubtless some connection with this idolatry. The Ghond, in ad- 
dition to his adoration of the sun, performs a slighter homage to the 
moon, — believes in the influence of genii over his destinies, and strives 
to conciliate the good will of the malignant ones b}' the aid of sorcery, 
in wliich he has a firm faith, — this Jadooism being in point of fact 
identical with the Shamanism of Tartary. Tliey possess no idols, un- 
less we term those huge misshapen rocks such which, from their gro- 
tesque appearance, have been invested with something of a supernatural 
character; smearing them over with oil and sendoor, he pays them 
adoration. In this worshipping of huge stones, or rocks, may there 
not be some resemblance traced to similar customs with the Druids ? 
Like them, too, we see their temples are circular enclosures, open to the 
heavens, formed merely of a low wall of loose stone, the entrance to 
which is towards ihe rising sun: opposite, are arranged a row of co- 
nical shaped stones, anointed with oils and sendoor, before' which 
flowers, fruits, and seeds, alone are off'ered. Rings of single* stones 
are often met with in secluded spots, the work of some devout cow- 
herd, within which he pays his adorations. In connection with their 
religious belief, we must note a curious circumstance of their having 
the Scythian symbol of the sun, a horse, cut out upon a wooden pillar, 
on which the sun is carved also. On questioning tliem upon this parti- 
cular, they could give no reason for placing the horse there too, be- 
yond it being their wisdom to do so ; and all, therefore, we can suppose, 
is that it has resulted from some shadowy tradition that has been hand- 
ed down to them. These pillars are two in number, with rude figures of 
the sun on one, and the sun, moon, and horse, upon the other. Their 
forms are remarkable ; and whether by accident, or design, are of them- 
selves symbolical of the sun, such being the shape those monuments 
took that were erected to its honor, and hence termed Obelisks, from 
the God Bel, the solar deity of the Chaldeans. 

They can hardly be said to have a Priesthood, but such as it is, they 
elect amongst themselves, having no other consecration thaa this to the 
ctiice. His sacerdotal duties are more connected with 
** The poisonous charms 
Of baleful superstition," 



214 

than any rational adoration of that Great Being whose power and might 
he recognises in the glory of the great star of day. Neither have they days, 
or stated times, for worsliip, but just when the whim seizes them. Ijhe 
Priest has yet another office to fulfil, — the union dating from the re- 
motest antiquity ; he is the physician also, as with the ancient Egyp- 
tians, none beside them being deemed worthy of so im[)ortant an of- 
fice as the welfare of the public health. Perhaps the proofs surpass- 
ing all others, demonstrative of the existence of national relalioubhips, 
are found nowhere so satisfactory as in the evidence of language, and 
therefore it has been not inaptly termed the touchstone of nations. Dr. 
Johnstone has some appropriate remarks upon this point, very applica- 
ble in the present instance : he says — ** The similitude and derivatij)n of 
language afford the most indisputable proof of the traduction of nations, 
and the genealogy of mankind ; they add often physical certainty to 
historical evidence of ancient migrations, and of the revolution of ages 
which left no written monuments behind them." Idioms and phrase- 
ology foreign to the original language, would imperceptibly creep iu and 
become incorporated with the nioiher tongue, were it hedged in as this 
has been by other tribes all speaking various languages. To such an 
extent has this occurred, that they now no longer can discriminate this 
foreign admixture fromtheolder stock; ignorant, too, as ihey are of the 
use of symbolical writing. The first consideration in this investiga- 
tion will therefore be the endeavour to obtain the older tongue, and we 
think we shall show we have succeeded in taking the first step towards 
overcoming this difficulty. In a work recently written upon the sta- 
tistics of Malacca, by Captain Newbold of the Madras Army, he has 
dwelt very fully upon the condition of the Aborigines of the Malayan 
Peninsular, who are called Benuas. This race, according to his des- 
cription, have precisely the same physiognomy, usages, and habits, as 
we find the Ghonds possessing and — mirabile diclu ! — anextraordinary 
versimilitude in dialect as well. A vocabulary of the Benuas has been 
given by Captain Newbold, and we find upon comparing ours with it, 
some remarkable examples of verbal concordance, — in those instances, 
too, where we should most naturally expect to have found them. The 
examples might have been more numerous had the materials been more 
abundant, but so far as they go they appear perfectly satisfactory,^ 
agreeing, as they do, in such a general unity of principle. We are there- 
fore led to believe the origin of the Benuas or aborigines of Malay to 
be identical with the Ghonds ; and those words which may be found 
used in common by both races will probably prove to be the ancient 
language spoken by the nation they were descended from. It may be 
remarked, that we not only perceive an affirdty of idiom between the 
two races, but an analogy as well, for both partake of the monosyl- 
labic construction. 

Thus, then, to the best of our ability we have endeavoured to 
strengthen, by all the proofs we had the power of bringing forward, 
the truth of the proposition set out with, — that the Ghonds have a Mon- 
golian descent. In the absence of all historical evidence, and of any 
assistance from the trib?s themselvesi much will be left to were con- 



215 



jecture, but more to those material evidences still visible of an anciant 
fabric, which, though dim and shadowy, still furnish proofs of a en- 
tional existence. 



A Vocabulary of 

Above 

Advice 

Afterwards 

Age 

Ague 

Alive 

Alone 

To answer 

Ant (white) 

Ant (black) 

Ant (red) 

Ant (queen) 

Arm 

Arm (fore arm) 

Arrow 

Ass 

Aunt (maternal) 

Aunt (paternal) 

Axe 

Ashes 



Back 

Bad 

Bag 

Bamboo 

Bandycoot 

Bargain 

Barber 

Basket 

Bottle (leathern.) 

Bottle (gourd) 

To bathe 

Bat — large species 

Bat — small species 

Bachelor 

Bee 

Bee's wax 

Bee's nest 

A bear 

Beard 

Beetle 

To beat 

Bed-stead 

Bed 

Betel-tree 

Betel leaf 

Before 

To begin 

To beg 

A beggar 



the Dialect spoken by 

A. 

Ling,do,gai 

Milap 

Ta,wun,kun 

Oom,r 

R a, rung 

Ko,e,yo 

Je,ta 

Mea,ko,ra 

Man,dee,ba 

Nin,dree 

Cha,tee 

KuI,Ia 

Koot Nindree 

Buo,ra 

Miljghait 

Teer 

Gudjdree 

Ka,ka 

P,hoo,phce 

Ajkai 

Hop 

B. 

Brio,ree 

Boor,ra 

Tileo 

Mat 

GjOos 

Le,a,de,a 

Nrio 

Dinjdoo,a 

Bad, la 

Koor,pa 

An,go,lee,la 

Wool,ta 

Ka,poo,lee 

E,ka,la 

Doom,boor 

Mi,ma 

Doom,boor,ko oora 

Ban,ma 

0,ta 

Gol.gha 

Ko,a,ga,ba 

Pa,kora 

Ben,dil 

Sing 

Cha,koon 

SoOjtoOjkund 

Lu,ga,arua,ba 

Bheek,ko,a,ce,ba 

Bhee^ka^ree 



the Ohond Tribes 
Behind 
Belly 
Belly-ache 
Benefactor 
A berry 
Better 
Beware 

Beak (of a bird) 
To bend 
Big with young 
A bird 
Bird's nest 
Birth 
Birth-day 



Birthplace 

Bison 
To bite 
Bitter 



upon the Qawil EilU. 
Ta,wun 
Liet 
Nurr 
Die,a,ba 
Jho 
Khon 

Khub,be,dar 
Cha,boo 
Ro,za,ba 
Go,b,bene 
Tee,tit 
Tee,sa,ro,ee 
Kon,nu,ba 
To,na,din,py,dah 

kund 
To,na,ga,wiiiid da, 

kun 
Gow,a 
Har,ko,ba 
Ka,teek,ba (kadeeg 



Black. 

To bleat (as a sheep, 

To bless 

A blister 

Blood 

A blow 

To blow 

A blossom 

Blue 

Body (of a man) 

A bog 

Aboil 

To boil 

Bondage 

Bone 

To borrow 

Bosom (female) 

Bow 

Bowstring 

Boy 

Brain 

Branch (tree) 

Bravery 

Breath 

Breast 

Bread 

To break 

A breeze 

Bright 

To bring 

Brown 



K,hen,dee 
.)Rha,ba 
Rhan^eea^ba 
Popolar 
Puch,na 
T,a,pa,ra 
Hoo,lu,ma,ba 
P,hul 
Nee,la 
Ko,mur 
DoOjbee 
Oo,dew 
On^da^nee hedge, 

eba 
Po,re« 
Har,dee 
Kurg cha,ga,ba 
Bojchoo 
Kump^ta 
Taut 
Poi,rea 
Good 
D,har 

Go,noi Man,ga,ba 
Dum 
Cha,tee 
So,kra 
Daijaiba 
Koi,eeo,kojoba 
Chum.ka tu.eeba 
Na 
Ghon,da sowra 



216 



A broom 

A brother 

Broad 

Bubo 

Buffaloo 

Bag 

Bull 

BuUock 

BoUet 

Bundle 

Borden 

To burden 

To bum 

To bum the dead. 

To bury 

Bush 

Busy 

Buttock 

Buttermilk 

Batter 

( 

Camp 

To carry 

To care for 

Cat 

To catch 

Centepede. 

Charcoal 

Cheap 

Cheeks 

Cheta 

ChUd (infant) 

Chin 

Claw 

Clean 

To climb 

Climbing plant 

Clouds 

Clothes 

Club 

Cock 

Cold 

Cold wind 

Cold weather 

Colio 

Comet 

To come 

Compliment 

Conjuror 

To cook food 

Cooking utensils 

Coppersmith (bird) 

Correct 
Cot 

Tocoont 
Conrage 



Junoo 
Da,dur 
Pus,sar 
Bud,dee 
Bud,kil 
Oo,tree 

An,doo D,ho,ba 
Dh,oba 
Goalee 
Go,thee 
0,ja 

Oja cha,ga,ba 
Ju,loo,ba 

Kora kund juloo,ba 
Ka,reo 

Sun,nee,sung,sing 
Go,noi,Kar,mi 
Do,proo 
Goor,see 
Loo,nee 

C?. 
Pur,no 
Na,saya 

Chai,boo,ro,daijba 
Min^noo 
Oo,tie,ba 
Char,ma,roo 
Kojlea 
SaSjSar^ta 
Jho,ka 
S6,n0,r5 
Tan,ni 
0,ta 
Punj 
A,wul 
Pai,raijba 
Aijlee 
Ba,dree 
Loo,boo 
Ten,gee 
Kom,ba 
Rar^ung 
Rar,ung ko^yeo 
Cha,ra 
Liet ka,shoo,v Ka- 

soo: Nurr 
Jud 

Hed,ge,ba 
Go^noi cha^ija 
Go,go,je,ba 
E,she,ne,ba 
Doo^mee^doi 
Joo,gee,tee tei 
Do,ra 
Chut,cha 
Par^komp 
Om,nigh 
Um,bung,egra 



Coward 

To cough 

Cow 

Cow-tick 

Crab 

Crime 

Cricket 

Crocodile 

Crooked 

Crops 

Crops (rain) 

Cross 

Crow 

Crying 

Cubit 

Cuckoo 

Cultivation 

Uultivator 

Curds 

Custom 



To dance 

Dancing girl 

Damp 

Darkness (night) 

Daughter 

Dawn 

Day time 

Daybreak 

To-day 

Dead body 

Dear 

DebUity 

Debt 

Deer 

Deformed 

By degrees 

Delight 

Dew 

Dhotee 

Difficult 

To die 

To dig 

Dinner 

Dinner^ to prepare 

Dirty 

Disgrace 

Dislike a person 

Disease 
Disobedience 

Ditch 
To do 
Doctor 
Dog 



E,gra,ba 

Koo,ba 

Ghue 

Sit,ta 

Katjcomb 

An,now 

Ka,ree,ro,yoie 

Mun,ga 

Ko,cha,ed • 

Gut,ta,yend 

Pow,see 

Rag,neen 

Kow,ra 

Yum 

Moo,ka 

Cu,cke,ra 

Ka^tee 

Ke,rejSend 

Dhye 

Das,toor 

D. 

Choo,8oon,ba 

Ga,doo,Ie,ba 

Too,pu,en 

Un,dea,ra 

Tar,rai 

Goy,moi,or,led;jea 

Dee,a 

OoJ,u,ar,rend 

Ta,ien 

Go,ien 

Maa,ghier 

Tora^ka,jor,ba 

Kurz 

Hir,nee 

Gojkroo 

Nangha,ling Nan, 

gha 
KoOjShee 
Os. 

Pen,cha 
Kat,buc,ka 
GoJu,ba 
Ro,mm,ba 
Jojum 
JoJum,ba 
Koo,moo 
6ud,namee 
Deko,ra,een,bang 

ho^na 
Roo,a 
Hook,m bangyhadjy 

um 
Ko,dra 
Di,ea 
Jujcee 
Che,tav. aee^ta 



217 



Dog-tick 


Tee,koo 


To feel (touch) 


Sa,boo,ai 


Door 


Dur,wa,za 


To feed or graze 


C Iiur,cha,ra,cheii,ai, 


Door-post 


Bee,aree 




ba 


Dove 


Karkjtah 


Fertile 


Goi,noig dakjken 


To dream 


Ko,koo,moo,ba 


Fever 


Ru,a 


To drink 


No,noo,ba 


Field 


Ka,tee 


Drinking 


Nu,ai 


Feet 


Nan,ga 


Drunkard 


See,doo Noo,nai,ba 


Fig 


Lao,ar 


Drum , 


Tom,boor 


To fight 


Tar,pun,g,ba 


Dry 


Ijo,ko,ren 


Finger 


Bo,to 


Duck 


Bud/luk 


Five 


Mun,ni,ah 


Dung of cows 


Sen,na 


To find 


Gut,tur,ooba 


Dung of horses 


Leed 


Fire 


Sin,ghul 


Dung of sheep and 


Len,deo 


To fire or bum 


Sin,ghul en,dia,ba 


goats 




Fire-place 


Aipjting 


Dung (manure) 


Khut 


Fire-fiy 


Pe,pinjore 


Dung (ordure) 


Kh.id 


Fish, large 


Ka,koo 


Dust 


Dhool,lee 


Fish, small 


Boom,buct koo 


Dustoor 


Dus,too,ree 


Fine 


Go,noig suj,ja 


Dysentery 


Liet Sen,nai,ba 


Fist 


Moojtee 




E. 


Flea 


Pisjsoo 


Early morn 

Ear 

Earth 

East 

To eat 


Par,ta 

LoOjtoor 

B,booni and otai 

Gomoi,or,led,coi,nai 

Jum,ma 


Flesh 

Floor 

Flour 

Flower 

Fly 


Jil,loo 

Gu,chee 

Ko,lum 

P,hooI 

Roo,koo 


To eat voraciously 

Eel 

Egg 

Eggshell 

Egg, yoke of 

Eight 

Elbow 


Lagjbein 

Bam,ree 

At,kome 

Kok,cber,ra 

Gar,rah 

E,la,ria 

Ko.nee 


Flying-fox 

Foal 

Fog 

Fort 

Foot-path 

Foot-step 

Forehead 


0,ra 

Ghoor,ghee kon 

Djhoond 

Kil,la 

Jer,ra sung ko,ra 

Siiijdree 

Ta,kree 


Empty 

Enemy 

Entrails 

Evening 

Eye 

Eye-lash 

Eye-lid 

Eye-brow 


Ka,lee 
Doush,mun 
Ajtee 
Sing,gha,rook,jen 

Boo,ee 
Kat rai 


Forest 

To forgive 

Fornication 

Four 

Fowl 

Fox 

Fresh 


Go,noig smg 

Mu,af,okee 

Zi,na 

Opoon,iah 

Seem 

Ka,kree 

Na,ka,ka, hed ken 


Boo,ce,reo 


Friendship 


Dos, tee 
Ded,dar 
Choo,too,ken 
J,ho 


Eye,(squint) 
Eye, (inflamed 


Tera,tend,dlio,do,ba 
Med^hed 


Frog 

Front 

Fruit 




F. 


To fry 


E,sheiu,nai,wa 


Face 


Mo,a 


Full moon 


0,goo,num yen 


Fallow 


Pur,reed 




G. 


Falcon 


Mou,rra 


Gambling 


Jua,oon,ju,ba 


Family 


Kut,la 


Garden 


Bagh 


Famine 


Kal 


Gardener 


Ma,lee 


Far 


Lun,ka 


To gather 


Poonjea,ba 


Farmer 


Bhoom^ea 


Ghee 


Loo,nee 


Fat 


Chur,bee 


Ghost 


B,hoot 


Father 


Ab,ba 


Ginger 


A,da 


Fault 


Tuk,seer 


To give 


Kai 


Favor 


Pa,wun,char,ree 


Glad 


Koo,shee 


JPeast 


E,gra,ba 


Gnat 


Mu,ch,eree 


Feather 


Puk,kur 


Togo 


Sen,uai,ba 



218 



Goat 

Gold 

Good (very) 

Goose 

Grain 

Grandfather 

Grandmother 

Grandchild 

Grass 

Grasshopper 

Great 

Green 

Green flycatcher 

Grief 

To grind corn 

To grow 

To growl 

Guido 

Gum (trees) 

Gums (mouth) 

Hail 
Hair 
'Half 
To halloo 
Hand 
Hand-mill 
Handsome 
Hard (difficult) 
Hard (not soft) 
Hare 
Hark! 
Harvest 
Haughty 
Head 
He 

Headache 
To heal 
Healthy 
To hear 
Heart 
Heaven 
Heavy 
Hedge 
Heel 
Herb 
Here 
High 
Hillock 
HUls (large) 
Hoe 
Hog 
Hole 
Holy man 
Honey 
Honey -comb 
Hoof 
Hoopoo 



See,reo 


Horn 


Siugh 


Gi,teed,ba 


Hornet 


Tar,tair 


A,wul 


Hot 


Gurm 


Cha,seo 


Hot wind 


Gam 


Da,na 


How d'ye do 


AjWul kun,ne,a 


AJa 


How much 


Cho,too mar,ta,ka 


Ba,ba,yee 


Iluldee 


Sa,sung 


Koo,ra 


House 


Ou,ra 


Jar,ra 


Ilumblo 


Ghu,rceb 


To,tor 


Hungry 


Ran,g,ai,en 


Kat, Gad, and Jad 


To hunt 


Too,too,ing,ba 


Noe,la 


A hunter 


Par,doe 


Tee,roo 


Hurt 


Kat ka,soo,ba 


Kut,ta 


Husband 


Do,ta 


Jat,tce,ba 


Hut 


Sa,nce Sain,g,oo,ra 


Ka,doo,ba 


Hyena 


Tur,rus 


Rag,go,ba 


Horse 


Goo.r.jDfJico 


Be,ga,ree 




I. 


D,heek 


Ichneumon 


MCin,gus 


Kee,wa]i 


Idiot 


Gul,la,ta 


H. 


Idle 


Gum,mun,do 


Gar,ra 
Op 

Ad,ha 
Har ko ba 


Idol 
If 

Ignorant 


Go,moi 

Jo 

Ban,ga,dai 


Immediately 


Na,ka 


T,he 
Jatjtee 


Impossible 


Ba,ka 


Impudent 


A,ram,ba 


Chajjur 

Kat baujckar 

Bo,bor,ba 

Ko,ar,loe 

A,jee,ma,ba 

Lo,go,gar 

Kat dun, dee 


In 

Indigestion 

Industrious 

Infant 

Infirm 

Insect 

Insult 


Ta,la 

Lict cha,ren 

Go,noi ka,mia,ba 

Ko,nea 

Cha,nee,en 

Ta,khur 

Cha,booee,ba 


Kuppa 
A,wul yend 
Kup,par ka,so,a,ba 
A,wul yend 
Rooa,bang,edj,ee 
AJum 
Dil 


Intestine 


A,tee 


Intoxication 

Inundation 

Invalid 

Iron 

Irrigation 

Itch 


Booljlien 

Dah go,no,ien 

Ru,a,ba 

Lo,koon,do 

Lor 

Bow,ta,ba 


As,man 




J. 


Go,noi,oja 


J. 


Ing. 


San,dee 


Jackall 


K(>,lca 


Koor,roo,cho 


Jay 


Kachjta 


Char,ko,nee 


Jaundice 


Mun,doo,ra 


In,gun 


Juice 


Rus 


Oojcha 


Jungle-cock 


Kom,ba 


Chun,nee,bul,la 


Jungle-hen 


Seem 


Kat,gat,]io 




K. 


Ko,da,ree 
Soojkree (Java) 
Ko,dra 
De,ko,ra 


Kernel 
Key 
To kick 


Ta,koo 
Killee 
Pan,dia,ba 


Nee,lai 


Kid 


See,ra kon 


Kooujdoo 
Koor,nee 


Kidney 
To kill 


Bo,ka 

I,ne,kii|d gO|ic,kai 


Kow.rea 


Kindness 


M,hia 



219 



Kite 

Knee 

To kneel 

Knife 

To tie a knot 

To know 

Knuckle 

Kumblee 

Labour 

Labourer 

Lake 

Lame 

Lamp 

Land 

Language 

Large 

Lark 

Last 

To laugh 

Lazy 

Leaf 

Lean 

To leap 

Learned 

Leather 

Leech 

Left 

Leg 

Lemon 

Leper 

Liar 

Life 

Light (not dark) 

Light (not heavy) 

Lightning 

Lime 

Lips 

liittle 

Liver 

Lizard 

Lizard (red tailed) 

Locust 

Loins 
To look 
To loose 
A louse 
Love 
Low 

Luck, good 
Luck, bad 
Lungs 

Magician 
To make 
To make merry 
Male 



Bil,la 

Tongjlea v.toprea 

0,tun,ga,na,ken 

Choo,ree 

To,la,ba 

A,dai 

Koon,noo 

Kam,ra 



Man 
Man, old 
Manure 
Many 

Mango tree 
Mare 



Ka,mee 

Lo,zo,ga 

Tu,luo 

Lan,gree 

De,wa 

0,ta 

Mau,de,ba 

Bur,ra k,hat 

Kar,ti,glie 

Ta,wun,ken 

Lan,dai,ba 

Gum,mon,do 

Sha,kom 

Oos,soo,yend 

Oojidjba 

Khat,e,luni tha,koor 

Ka,trai 

Jonk 

Juna 

Tal,pong 

Lim,boo 

Ko,rea 

La,ba 

Jii 

Oo,jew,war,ren 

Hul,ka 

Chee,run 

Chu,na 

Ke,war 

T,ha,nee 

Kujleja 

Chir,moon,ghee 

Chir,mur,roo 

Tidjdee 

Mi,an 

Do,da,ba 

Kho,la,ga 

Shijkoov.chillur 

A,ree,ba 

E,ta 

Nu,see,bo ajWul 
De,jeanu,see,bo bang 

Po,pe,sa 
M. 

Ju,noo a,rie,ba 
A,roo,yai 
A,nund 
D,ho,ta 



Marriage 

Marsh 

Master 

Mat 

Matchlock 

Meadow 

Meat 

Medicine 

Melon 

To Mend 

Merchant 

Merry 

Mid-day 

Middle 

Mildew 

Milk 

Millet (small var.) 

Mire 

Minute 

Mischief 

Mist 

To mix 

Moist 

Money 

Monkey 

Month 

Moon 

More 

Morning 

Most 

Mother 

Mountain 

Mouse 

Mouth 

Murder 

Musk-rat 

Musquitoe 

Mustachios 

Mustard 

My 



Nail (finger) 

Naked 

Name 

Narrow 

Nation 

Navel 

Near 

Neck 

Necklace beads 



Ko,ro 

Sa,na 

K,hut,tee 

Go,noi 

Am,bee Sing 

Jaf,fai Go,ghee v. 

Goor,ghee 
Bee,how 
DoOjbee 
Ma,lik 
Bo,rea 
Pa,lee,ta 
Ya,ka Back,ee,aa 
Jil,loo 
R,han 
K,ho,la 
A,roo,ka 
Buo,wha 
KoOjShee 
Bar,ree,p,har 
Ta,lan,ken 
So,roJhen 
Dee,dom 
Koo,khee 
Chi,kuld 
De,ja 
Nog,pan 
D,ho,ar 

Bel,lia 

0,1a 
Da,ma 

Sar,ra 
Mi,nai 

Goo,mong 
£,tha 

Pa,thar 

Ka,poo,lee 

Ma 
Doon,ghur 

King 

Cha,boo 

Jo,gai,ba 

Kee 

Chick,neo 

Mu,sar 

R,hai 

Ing 

N. 
Nuk 

Doon,da,ra 
Jum,noo 
Ba^wedjhend 
Jat 

Bom,be,leo 
Mai,ra 
To,tra 
Chac,kree 



220 



Neelghaie 

Nephew 

Net 

Night 

Nightingale 

Nine 

No, not 

Noise, to make 

Noisy 

North 

Nose 

Nnllah,large 

Nnllah/Dnall 

Now 



Oatii 

Oil 

Old 

Old! 

Old woman 

One 

One quarter 

Onion 

To open 

Ophthalmia 

Opium 

Otter 

Over 

To overturn 

Owl, large var. 

Owl, sedSII var. 



Paddy bird 

Pain 

Pair 

Pahn squirrel 

Pan of the knee 

Panther 

Parrot 

Partridge, 

Pathway 

Peace 

Peacock 

Pearl 

Peg 

Physio 

Pigeon, blue 

Pigeon, green 

Pillow 

Plains 

Plaster 

Plant 

Plantain (wild) 

To play 

To play music 



Roo,ee 

Koyse,rai 

Ja,lee 

Bat 

Jhu,gee 

A,rai,ah 

Bang 

Har,ko,ba 

Har,koo,yai 

Ma>r,war,dace 

Mooh 

Gudjdha 

LOr 

Na,ka,ka 

0. 

Ke,rea 

Soo,num 

Joo,na 

Sai,na 

LaijUee 

Me,a 

Pa^sa 

Kan,dee 

Kola,ga 

Maid 

A,feem 

Ohung,nee 

Ling,h 

Ta,bnrr 

Goo,goo 

I>oo,da 



Bug,Ia 
Doo,ko 
Bar,rea 
Tourr 
De,wa^nee 
Kair,rea 
Ho,rea 
Chit, tree 
Sa,nee sung ko,ra 
ObA^poOjknnd 
Mar,ra 
Mo,tee 
Koo,ta 
Band 
Kub,door 
Nee,la 
Kum,bar 
Oojcha^cha 
«Seh,wan 
Kii,se,ni 
Bheet,kai 
Tho,Ta 
OonJoo,ba 
Boo,ai,ba 



A plaything 

Plenty 

Pleasure 

Plouffh . 

To plough 

Ploughman 

Plover 

Ploughshare 

Plunder 

Pod 

A point 

Poison 

Pond 

Poney 

Poor 

Porcupine 

Post 

To pound 

To pour 

Poverty 

Praise 

Precipice 

Pregnant 

A present 

Pretty 

Price 

Pride 

Prison 

Produce 

Proper 

Property 

Prophet 

Prostitute 

To prone 

To purge 

To put 

A purwanna 

Quarrel 
Quick 
Quiet 
Quarters (ihree) 

Bage 

Bags 

Bwi 

Bainbow 

Bain crops 

Bain (showers) 

Bainy season 

Bat 

Bavine 

Baw 

Beady 

To reap 

Bed 



Saneesnng ooiijn,t>a 

Goy,noi,yai 

Khoo,shee 

Nun,gra 

Nun,gn^ba 

Ro,ro 

Ta,toui,ghoi 

Que,sa 

Loot 

Sin,gha . 

Sen,da 

Zhur 

Dhoo,bee 

Sa^nee sunggoor, 

ghee 
Ghu,reeb 
Je,kra 
Dar,run 
Bo,roong 
£n,dee,ai 
Da,ma,ka,bang 
Dee,an 
Po,iee 

G8b,b!,nee,knn 
J>iir,rttm 
A,wul B00,rut 
Da,ma 

Kaa,nonjen,wa 
Ehyde 
Jag,g»r,tee 
Chag,ga 



Go,go^de,bft 

Ja,ta 

Mar,ghair 

Li,et ohen,nai,bft 

Do,ai,ba 

Pur,wan,gee 

Q. 

A,prung 

Ai,la,ba 

E,ha,poo,koo 

A,fa pa,sa 
B. 

Katrag,gho,en 

Pal,loo 

Dhagom,mar 

Tam,mak Lo,ne,dee 

Par,see 

Jal,la 

A,sa 

Poo,see 

Poi,ai 

Ku,oha 

Ty,a 

Bo 

Ba^ta 



221 



RedlMd 

ReligioB 

ToremaiB 

Renown 

Rent 

Replyl 

Reprinuuid 

Reptfle 

Reservoir 

Respectfol 

Retinae 

To return 



Rerile 

Reward 

Rhenmatiim 

Ribs 

Rice 

To ride 

Right 

Rind 

Ringworm 

Ringdove 

Ripe 

River 

Road 

To roast 

To rot 

Rogue 

Rope 

Resin 

Rough 

To run gently 

To run quick 

Salt 

Sambur 

Sand 

Sandelfl 

Sap 

Savage or oruel 

Scarce times 

To scatter 

To scold 

Scorpion 

To scratch 

To see 

To sow seed 

Seed 

Seed times 

Servant 

Seven 

To Sew 

Shade 

Shame 

To shave 

Sheep 

Sheet 



SeOydoor 
Deen 

Ta^roo 
Katji,moo 
IiO,jo,ga 
Man,dea 
I>ar,ka 
Kera 
How,da 
Ja,har 
Ji,loo 
Era^knnd 
A,Ba 
A,mm 
£,nam 
0,lan,dee 
Se,pree 
Ghowl 
Toot,kend 
Ju^na 
Sa,lee 
Dad 

Bow,r,ree 
Bil,li,nn 
Gud,dah 
Ko,ra 
Ra,pug,gai 
So,ar 

Bou,rah ko,ro 
Do,ra 
D,heek 
Kuk,kum 
Sa^ruo^ba 
Jup;poO;Sar,vai 

S. 
Boo,loom 
Ro,ee 
Bee,til 
Kow,ree 
Rus 

Dun,dee 
Kal 
Ter,rai 
Bi,gri tm,gen 
Kee,ding 
Bar,oota 
Dodo 
Yaj,we,re 
Beenjh 
Yai,we,re,bo 
Oha,kree 
Ai,e,ah 
ChoOyChoo 
Shiea v. Sine 
Gheu 
Ko,ko,i,yo 
Men,da 
Ar^oharr 



SheU 

Shepherd 

To shoot 

Shop 

Shopkeeper 

Shoulder 

To show 

Short 

Sickle 

Sicknen 

Sight 

Silent 

saver 

Silly (idiot) 

To sing 

Sister 

To ait down 

Six 

Skin 

Slave 

Sleep 

Slow 

Small 

Small pox 

A smell 

Smell (bad) 

Smell (sweet) 

To smell 

Smoke 

To smoke a hookah 

Smooth 

Snail 

Snake 

Cobra snake 

Snake hole 

Snake (large rock) 

To sneeze 

Soft 

Son 

South 

To be sorry 

Sour 

Sparrow 

To speak 



Spider 

To spin 

Spirit 

A spirit-still 

To spit 

Spittle 

Spleen 

To split 

Spotted deer 

Spring time 

Spring of water 

Spur fowl 



HarMta 

Ooo,goo,p€e 

Tooytu^eng 

Doo,kmi,&,ree 

Doo,kan,dar 

Kan,doo 

Tip,pe,wai 

0,tra 

Ear 

Rooa^ 

Ja^eed 

Char,poa,yai 

Chan,dee 

Ooon,gah 

Sy,Tm,gea 

•leCjjee 

Ghoojbanga 

Toor,u,ee 

Ka^tree 

Ba,dree 

Poo,ree 

Oee,tee 

Bar,gai,tten 

Sa,nee Sung 

Mhi,ee 

Soojking 

Bonr,ra sou,king 

A,wul sou,king 

Soo,king,ba 

Dhoo,a 

Hoo,ka nu,ai,ba 

Boo,le,ree 

J,har,tee ghoo,ree 

Beeng 

Nag 

Po,pa 

Aj,gair 

A,su 

Lo,pot 

Po,rea 

Be,rar dace 

Kutjha 

Kat,ahn 

Shee,8hur,roai 

Ar,na 

Bur,chee 

Jug,ge,lee ma,la 

Ato,ai 

See,doo 

Bajje,ra 

Bhejai 

Bi)te,kee 

Pe,a 

Fi 

Dar,kar 

Ruybee 

Dar,paroai 
To,te,ung 



222 



Squirrel (palm) 


Tourr 


To stand 


Tong,ghuen 


Stars 


E,phiII 


To starve 


Go,joo,ba 


Steep place 


Da, pro 


Stick 


Kar,tee 


Stilly 


Kar,kob 


Stomach 


Liet 


Stone 


Go,ta 


To go to stool 


A,ju 


Stream of water 


Lor 


Straw 


Bhoo,see 


To Str ike 


Ko,a,ge 


Strong 


Miijjbhoot 


Sugar 


Shu,kar 


Summer 


Gur,raeo 


To sweep 


Jn,krae 


Sun 


Go,moi 


Sun shine 


Gam 


A swallow 


Ka,tig,lie 


To swallow 


Oo,da 


Sweat 


Oo,bra 


Sweet 


Chee,mil 


To Swim 


OojWero 


Sword 


Tul,war 




T. 


TaU 


C,hoot 


To take 


Sa,gai 


To talk 


Man,dai 


Tall 


Oon,cha 


Tank 


DoOjbee 


To Taste 


Ta,wa 


Tears 


Med,d]ia 


Teeth 


Tee,ring 


ToTeU 


Ka,hnee 


Tempest 


Djhoond 


Ten 


Gul,le,ah 


Tender (meat) 


A,run,gah 


Thanks 


Bur,ra,i,amba 


There 


Dend 


Then 


Gir,ry 


Therefore 


DcjUHjtind 


Themselves 


Ap,peso 


They 


Ar,kon, 


Thou or you 


Hum 


This 


In,ne (in Malay) 


That 


Deeja 


Their 


Dee,koo 


Thick 


Dart 


Thief 


Chor 


Thighs 


Boo,loo 


Thin 


Oojshoo 


Thirst 


Ta,iung 


To thirst 


Ta,tung,nein 


Thorn 


Ja,noom 


Thread 


Tha,ga,si,toom 


Three 


A pea 


Threshing floor 


Kai,ran 


Throat 


To,te,ra 



Thumb 

Thunder 

To tie 

Tiger 

Tiger cat 

To 

Toad 

Tobacco 

To-day 

Toddy 

Toe (big) 

Toe (little) 

Tomb 

To-morrow 

Tongue 

Tooth-ache 

Torch 



Tortoise (large var.)Kut tam 
Tortoise (small var.)Tal tarn 



Bote 

Sa,doe 

To,lai 

Koo,la 

Son,nSrji 

Kuiid 

B,had 

To,niac,coo 

Ta,ing 

Sindeo 

Kat bote 

Sun, nee bote 

Kom,bee 

Garfung 

Lang 

Ter,ring kas,soo,ba 

Mus,sail 



Trade 

Trap 

Traveller 

Tree 

Tree, bark of 

Tribe 

Trinket 

Twice 

Two 



U.-.V. 



Ka,moi 

Lojda 

Sen,nai 

Sing 

Cha,lee 

J,hat 

Sin,gha 

Bar,ree ghur,ree 

Bar,rea 



Ugly 

Ulcer 

Uncle 

Under 

Unlucky 

Urine 

Valley 

Vegetable 

Vein 

Venereal disease 

Village 

Vomit 

Vulture 

Virgin 

Wages 

Waking 

To walk quickly 

To walk quietly 

Walking 

Wall 

AVar 

Wann 

To wash 

To wash clothes 

AVasherman 

Wasp 

AVatchman 

Water 



Krab soo,rut 
0,you 
Ka,ka 
E,ta 
Boor,ah 
Koo,noom 
Borr,ro 
Oo,too 
Nus 

Gur,mee 
Ghom 
WoOjliyen 
GoOjba 
Da,pree 
W. 

Moon,sha,rah 

Jac,tai 

Ala,ida,chun,drai 

Ba,ga, ten,bo 

Sin,dra 

Dcc,peo 

Lur,rai 

Lojlor 

Ah, boon 

Loo,boo,ta,lumba 

Dhojbeo 

KorG,mOa 

Naroo,ai 

Dha 



223 



Water-fall 

Water-course 

Wax 

We 

Weeding crops 

A week 

Well 

West 

Wet 

What? 

Wheat 

Wheel 

When? 

Where ? 

Whip 

White 

Why? 

Who, whose? 

Wind 

Widow 

Widower 

Wife 

Window 



Dha,jor,rho 

Ond,dha 

Mlna 

Ing 

Kur,kad,dai 

£,lar,din 

Kooa, 

Gomoi,nam,roo 

nai 
ToOjpuen 
De,cho,ema 
Gai,h6ong 
Deo,rai 
Cho,la 
Din,ghan 
Co,la 

P,hoo,loom 
Cho,ja,an,tin 
Yai 
Koe,yo 
Lan^doo^ree 
Ilan,doo,a 
Jaf,fai 
Ke,wa 



coi 



Wild dog 

Wild 

Wing 

Wise 

Wicked 

Wolf 

Woman (old) 

Woman (yonng) 

Woodpecker 

Wool 

To work 

Worm 

Wound 

Wrist 



Yam 

Yawn 

A year 

YeUow 

Yes 

Yesterday 

Young 

You 



See^ta 

Jnn,glee 

Pur,ka 

Demand 

Bour,ra 

Lan,de,gha 

Sa,nee 

Jtian 

To,tni 

Pul,lum,oob 

Ka,moi,die 

Jil,lin,ghole 

Qha,ie 

Mul,ga,tee 



Kund 

Han,ghoo 

Wur,rua 

Sar,sung 

Tha,ka 

Ko,la,din 

Jou,aii 

Hum. 



A Selection •f Wordt, Exemplifying an Affinity of Dialect between 
the Ghonds and Benuat. 



English. 

Fathers 

Mother 

Father's brother 

Elder brother 

Man 

Head 

Hand 

Face 

Eye 

Thigh 

Shoulder 

Nose 

Mouth 

Rain 

Water 

Earth 

Fire 

Fire place 

An open plain 

Ashes 

Morning 

Wind 

Thunder 

Fish 

Flesh 

Sea foul 

He or she 

They 

This 

In 



Ghonds. 
Abba 
Ma 
Kaka 

Ko,ro 

Kap,pa 

T,he 

Mo,a 

Med 

BoOjloo 

Kan,doo 

Mooh 

Oha,boo 

Dahgommar 

D,ha 

Bjhoom 

Aipe-ting 

Seh,wan 

Hop 

Patjhur 

Ko,e,yo 

Sa,dee 

Ka,koo 

Jil,loo 

Mar,ra 

Deja 

Ar,kon 

In,ne 

Ta^la 



Benvas. 
Bapu 

Ma 

Kaka 

Tikkarus 

Kappola 

Thi 

Muka 

Med 

Bala 

Kapwah 

Muk 

Penga-chap 

Gumar 

Dhee 

Bhume 

Api 

Zafung 

Habu 

Paggi paggi 

Gumoing 

Subtair 

Ka 

Zulo 

Marrak 

Dia 

Ankki 

Ini 

Dalum. 



221 
Numerals. 



One Mo,a Mooi 


Three A, pea Am]>i 


Two l]ar,rca Mar 


Four 0,p'jo,ni,ah Aiupat 


Familiar SentcnCtS,- 


—English and U.touJ. 


I paluto you, 


Jujha. 


How d'ye do? 


A,wul kun,nea. 


Who are you ? 


Hum yai ? 


I am a Oliond, 


Ing Ko,ro. 


How old are you ? 


Chct,toojul,lum ? 


Wlicre arc you p^oin^ to ? 


Tongghan c]jen,naiba ? 


\< your father livin<; ? 


IIum,ar A,l>a jo,ta ? 


Wlicre do you reside ? 


To,ncn ta,ba f* 


How far is the village from licrc ? 


Gliom chojto lan,ga ? 


I feel tliirstyandhnugry, 


Ta,tung a, en run,gheo a,cn. 


Uriiigj me some water to drink, 


D,ha sa,ghai. 


Cook some meat, 


Jil,loo e,see,nai. 


The sun is very hot, 


Ga,ma go,noi gai,hen. 


It is raining hard, 


D,ha gOjUoi ga,mien. 


I hear thunder. 


Lojkoor Ing aioor,mai. 


The sky is cloudy, 


As,raan ba,drai ta,ka. 


Run quickly to tlie fort, 


Aijla sa,roo,bai kuud gur,rhoo. 


AValk slowly down the hill, 


To,ra ten a,groo,ai. 


Jump across that hole, 


In,ne po,pa oo,jai. 


Sit down upon the ground, 


Ojten choOjbang. 


Ride upon tin's horse. 


Goor,gheo choot,kon (or) soo,bang. 


Swim across that tank, 


A,ra,tum boo,dliec oo.yur. 


I have a pain in ray head, 


Kupjpar kaSjSoo. 


I have got a belly-ache, 


Nie,IIt kas,soo v. nurr. 


I have dysentery. 


LT,et chen,nee. 


I have vomited a great deal, 


Go,noi oo,luo. 


I^y brother has got fever. 


Ne,a da,da ru,a,ba. 


My sister has small pox. 


Ne,a bi,en my,heu. 


My father and mother have rheumatism, 


I am-ba o,lau,dee. 


I feel strong and well. 


Ing a,wnil. 


My clothes are old, 


LoOjboo joo,na. 


I am too poor to buy new clothes. 


Ne,a tang da,ma bang, Ioo,boo mo,la,tou 


I feed goats, and buflalocs, 


sug.goo. 
Bndjkit chc,ree ne,a kam. 


My brother has many cows. 


Ne,a da,da go,noi ghacko. 


My uncle owns sixty s]ie( p, 


Ne,a ka,ka sath menda. 


I shall plough, and then sow koodkhce. 


Ing na,na,gai,ba koo,d,kliee errai,ba. 


My wife rears fowls, 


Nc,a jafjfai sini,koo pal,la,ting,wen, 


You must not be angry, 


Hum bakjkce ra,go. 


Do not cry, but laugh, 


Bakjkee ynm, fen,nai lan,dai. 


It is wrong to get drunk, 


DeCjkhat no,noo,ba boo,ra. 


An empty belly is a bad thing, 


Iji,et ka,lee boo,rd. 


When my belly is full, I am very happy. 


Ne,a liet go,noi be,kcn,go,noi koo,shee. 


I saw a tiger asleep, 


Ing do,gai,ba koo,la gee,tee ken. 


I have killed three bears. 


Ap,pe ban,na,koo Ing go,at,kai. 


I am fond of hunting. 


Ne-en too,tu,yee go,no,ien koo,sheo. 


It is dawn, let us go. 


OoJa,ren chen,nai,ba. 


Let US sleep an hour in the shade at 


Ba,ra pu,ha,rin nea ghur,rco si,ne glio,it, 


noon. 


cOjba. 


The evening has come, let us sit down. 


Sin,gah,roo si,ne soo,bung,ba. 


When it is cool, let us eat our food, 


I,ra,riing,ba ,cliok,ra, ju Ja,omba. 


It Is night, let us go to sloop. 


Rat,ko gce,tee,bee. 



225 

A descriptive account of the Ruins of EUBalad, By Assistant 

Surgeon H, J. Carter, of the Hon'ble Co.'s Surveying Brig Pa- 

linurus. Together with Sketches in originaU in six sheets* 

[Presented by Government.] 

On the south eastern coast of Arabia, in the district of Dofar,* are the 

ruins of El Balad, (^J^ ^ \\ Arab.) situated on the shore, in Lat. 17° 1' 

N and Long. 54© 12' 30" E., between the towns of Silalah, and El 
Hafa on the west, and that of Dareez on the east, separated from the 
latter by a grassy plain of more than a mile in extent^ and from the 
former by the same distance of richly cultivated ground. In front, a 
narrow slip of sandy beach divides them from the sea, and behind them 
the level plain of Dofar stretches back to a lofty range of mouDtains, 
which forms the inland boundary of this district. 

The ruins, situated within one hundred yards of the sea, are spread 
over an area of two miles long, and six hundred yards broad, and con- 
sist of extensive mounds of loose hewn stones, worn and blackened by 
long exposure to the weather. Groups of columns surmount each moundy 
with capitals, shafts, pedestals, and fragments of ornamental sculpture, 
strewed around them ; and occasionally troughs, used for baths ; all of 
which having been skilfully worked out of solid blocks of freestone, 
give an air of costliness and importance to the remains of this city, 
which, contrasted with the dilapidated state that the whole now assumes, 
forcibly recalls to the imagination the activity, wealth, and prosperity, 
which but a few centuiies ago existed where now there is nothing 
but a vast accumulation of desolate, dismal, and unfrequented ruins. 

However much the hand of time has succeeded in mixing up the 
remains of one building with that of another, the widely spreading 
and superincumbent masses of ruins may have obscured the foundation 
on which they were originally erected, or the Arabs of the neighbour- 
ing towns may have stript this deserted place of its most valuable ona- 
mentSjt enough still remains to place beyond doubt the original extent 
of the city, the style in which it was built, the sites of its principal edi- 
fices, its architecture, its burial-ground, and particularly the walla and 
ditches of that part of it which was fortified, each of which when de- 
scribed as they now present themselves, ought not only to convey to 
us an idea of what the ruins of El Balad now are, but also of what the 
city must have been in its most prosperous state. 

Of the City This was divided into an eastern and a western por- 
tion, the former of which yi^s fortijledy the latter unfortified. 
* The district of Dofar ( i^j* Arab.) is the most extensive of the lowland 

tracts that intervene between the mountains and the sea on the south-eastern 
coast of Arabia. It possesses a rich arable soil, and an abundant supply of fresh 
water. At present its coast limits are considered to be the village of Thagah on the 
east, and Ras AlHammaron the west, from which two points the mountains recede 
from the sea to a distance of fifteen miles, leaving an interval which is filled up by 
the lowland now known by the name of Dofar. 

t I was informed that many of the pillars in the mosques of Dareez and the 
now deserted village of El Robaat were taken from the ruins of El Balad. 



22G 

The unfortified or western portion considerably exceeded in extent 
that which was included within the walls of the garrison, and now con- 
sists of a vast number of irregularly disposed mounds of hewn stones, 
each of which is characterised by the presence of two or more columns 
on its summit, which still retain their original position; while others 
that stood beside them, having been upset and broken, lie scattered 
around with portions of ornamental sculpture, cornices, and the like,— 
remnants of the arches, ceiling, and walls, that once formed parts of 
the building. Although this portion of the city was the most extensive, 
and included the burial-ground^ yet it is now by far the most insigni- 
ficant part of the remains, in so much as nothing more can be satisfac- 
torily made out of it than that the dark mounds of loose stones men- 
tioned mark the sites of so many buildings: nor is there in the burial' 
ground, which was situated in its northern quarter, hardly any 
thing more to attract the notice of the observer than the remains of 
the commonest headstones, on none of which could we discover any 
date. 

It will be hereafter seen, that though the western exceeded in 
extent the eastern or fortified portion, the latter originally possessed 
the finest buildings, and was the most important part of the city, as 
testified at the present day by the remains of its fortifications and the 
heaps of ruins that are enclosed within them. It is also in the eastern 
part that we most satisfactorily recognize the remains of a foreign 
and highly civilized people, their prosperity, their decline and fall : they 
were the first and the last probably, who ever succeeded in establish- 
ing themselves in the district of Dofar. 

Of the Garrison. — The fortified part of the city was confined within 
a parallelogram, or quadrilateral space twelve hundred and forty yards 
long and hve hundred yards broad, extending longitudinally along the 
shore, defended by a deep ditch and rampart on three sides, and on the 
fourth, or that towards the sea, by a strongly fortified wall. The ditch, 
which was for the most part a natural defence of the fortification, was 
formed by a fresh water Khar, * now known by the name of the Khar 

* Khor ( • Arab,) a creek or inlet of the sea, is generally applied by the in- 
habitants of the south-eastern coast of Arabia to the water that remains at the 
debouchement of a mountain torrent into the sea, many of which occur in the dis- 
trict of Dofar. Some of those retain their original freshness, while others, communi- 
cating with the sea through the sandy beach, become brackish. That of El Balad 
is fresh, and as it does not appear to be connected with the bed of any torrent, 
there is some difficulty in conceiving how a large body of water such as this is, 
on a level with its banks close to the sea, and much above the level of the latter, 
should not diminish in quantity or become brackish. I have an idea that this 
Khor, like some others that I have seen in the neighbourhood, are natural artesian 
reservoirs, so to speak, which have been produced by some volcanic succussion or 
other cause, in rending open a deep fissure in the ground, which communicates 
below with a spring of water. The opinion of the inhabitants that many of these 
Khors are bottomless or of great depth, although it favours the supposition, is far 
from establishing the fact. 



227 

of £1 Balad. This was subjected to a little alleratioo and extension, 
for the purpose of more completely enclosing the garrison ; and while 
it was admirably adapted for the purpose to which it had been con- 
Yertrd, it afforded dose to the nea, both to the city and fort, a never- 
failing supply of excellent water: indred, so convenient a situation could 
not again be met with on the coast. The only artificial part of the Kkur 
appears to have been the western ditch, which is now dry and partly 
lilleil ap with sand and ruins : this was twenty seven yards wide and 
fuur hundred and three yards lung, extending from its junction with 
the westrrn extremity of the northern ditch to within one hundred 
)*ards of the sea ; and on each side of it was a stfiJig wall, the re- 
mains of which a ro now nearly buried under heaps of adjacent ruins. 

TImi KK^ Itself consisted of the main body, or northern ditch, and 
|Krv« riHUs or branches^ the first of which, given off from its northern 
s>\i<K r\M*s iaUnd ; the nest, from its southern side, forms the eastern 
^ktch : «Utlo the ihirvi is the continuatioD of the main body itself in a 
tvrliK'HS u;rt^<c^tiv>ii tcwjirvis Dareex. 

IWx'^utv.i^C tVvm the western extremity of tlie nortbeni ditch, which 
tt t^.s iv-r.it is (:!kty rarvb broad and partly filled up with rubbish, the 
w^tvrv a$ «x' V >v>^rd ett^twani. gradually becomes deeper, and a thick 
Iht*? y>f 5,« ov..r,;>^cs: sirT'"rj:;ri: cp ou each side, leaves m dear channel 
it t»^ <y<y*"<\. *; v*-). aX'<;;.,Js wi:5i a Tariefy of water-fovL Before 
w^K'*> ^^ *Vje <*$^:<ci ai^rf cf iW c-arrison, it gives off from its northera 
?>» vr *fsr ■ r.jvjs:; :.r4,*V"K '•;.*cik ^fur an irregular oi>urse of three hun- 
^iL>c>il X vv***. f j^.'^' " r. a $i>.fcT7»-pi^ j.tf»d siijuiow extremity. After this the 
V-ifc<v^» ^ » v^^ v»rr» <s *i»f <»aN::mi ivicii is pveii off from itssonthera side 
*»»t.^>f » I 'v'v: 3i**;i *o''y yii-is fp.-^m ibe »ort b-westem angle of the 
*••' Kv. 'Mv fc'^f. v^ rt:i irnc ct^rewlv towards the ©ea, terminates 
i.s-»j x'«x ,|; -^xf s* iv> htn^L ; wJ..tt ibe thirJ branch t* continued on in a 
TN* o>»«v ^VM, >«f :v%ir. hr mar. h vrv itself towards Dareex, tenninati&g 
u a >'^*»'i «» !v^ • Ot *xren."v i.fce ihai of the inland brancb. 

V*« t' V>i: jvftN i^:" *»^f F?\€T is that opposite the nonh-eastem angle 
^v' K ^^v-Nixt> ;x»..- '^ a: :i-5> point in the uonhern ditch more than 
^.^ Kk -s 'vv \-«' JS' ?v«'»ts» !i. :ut deepest part it does not appear toex- 
iXXH * x»"v*t»» K«v-K lu:. I Ua»l 1*0 meaits of ascertaining this: the TnluiH- 
•"' ^j^ h T/^Nv ^ K.iv. ^x '.♦-«; ;na* i; W bnuomlesis. It* edges, like those 
o * V ■*• t» w*^ H • »,, t'-^v ynit T^yuiaT, and in no part bordered by swam- 
•> ^.-,v.. »*> J 5s a %. .> ti.^i: wh t>e*ti water, and does not appear to 
*».v * ...,v s,^^ .. », ,.,,>. ..^ ,^, ^^ it^c.'iiH; in- the rise and fall of the tide, 
« » »\^*" ^"^ j**^**** t>-3'»v*h »e-:ui:*A5e^ ii; tbt* imtse sand of the beacb, 
'V- ■ '•»,->'.•'•. V «''\>xcx:' thtt^ *ur;'. Tsuis, while this JOor formed 

♦ H . > ^ X .V » , f . .• .^ ^,-. ..^ ,^ .^•^ mt?ii at ttie same lime an abnudaiit 
^'.' . .. V, .-..^ V. »^^. ^. . ^- ^i—rs V! ; and at the present day, from iu 
•vs.s^ .. ^ •.. .. ^»., >^ .x^. .> ' t: r.;tHiiKfsi and most conveuieut places 
o; '^.NvSM^ V ^> '* t.' warer*' at. 

vX ^4 \ » -^ ^.« •"•?<• >i Wfr»> ttrinciiviriv eonfioed to the souxbem 

♦ ♦♦ v^cn-s ' v...>. • •:>». :h.>.v;^- ifi^ i«i;>^ ttfottcteJ bv natural defeaots; 



228 

MfhWe an embankment, or kind of rampart, thrown up from the ditch, 
supplied their place along the northern and eastern sides of the Khor. 
The rampart or embankment on the north side, — or perhaps breast- 
work would be the best terra for it, as it was never very considerable, 
— was continued from the north-western to within forty yards of th« 
north-eastern angle of the garrison, where it now turns abruptly to- 
wards the south, for a distance of fifty-two yards, and then following 
its original direction, arrives at the border of the eai^tern ditch, leaving 
a square portion at the north-eastern angle, over which the Khor occa- 
sionally flows during the rains. Although mounds of ruins frequently 
occur along this embankment, there is not the remotest trace of the 
original forn^ of the building preserved in any of them. On the eastern 
side a small round tower, with the remains of a wall and rampart on 
each side of it, marks the termination of the northern embankment 
in that thrown up, on the eastern side; and from this tower the eastern 
embankment was continued on to the south-eastern an<;Ie of the for- 
tification, presenting in its course the ren^ins of a landing place, on 
the border of the ditch, corresponding with one which will be found to 
have existed in a similar position on the western side. 

Having described the embankment which was thrown up on the in- 
ner borders of the northern and eastern ditches, we now come to the 
remains of the wall which defended the southern side of the garrison ; 
and commencing at its eastern extremity, or the south-eastern angle 
of the fortifications, we shall follow it westward to its termination at 
the south-western angle. 

The remains of a small round tower marks the angle of union, be- 
tween the eastern embankment and the southern wall, and immediately 
on the west side of it is the threshold of a narrow doorway, from which 
the foundation of a wall four and a half feet thick can be distinctly 
traced on in a straight line for three hundred and nine yards ; with 
thirteen salient mounds in its course, at nearly equal distances from 
each other, on each of which are the remains of the foundation of a round 
tower, formed of concavo-convex blocks of stone strongly linked toge- 
ther. The remains of this wall, which appears never to have been car- 
ried beyond the foundation, terminates at a point where a flanking bas- 
tion or tower was run out thirty yards into the beach ; and from the base 
of this, in continuation with the original direction of that from the south- 
eastern angle, a stronger wall, which, from the parts that remain, and the 
quantity of ruins round it, had evidently been completed, was conti- 
nued on for two hundred and fifty- five yards, where a similar bastion 
to the last mentioned stretches thirty yards out into the beach ; and be- 
tween this and the former one were four other smaller salient towers, 
equi-distant from each other, projecting two- thirds of their diameter 
beyond the wall, the whole now enveloped in heaps of ruins. From 
the last point to the south-western angle, where there is another strong 
bastion or tower extending outwards towards the sea on a line with 
the other two mentioned, all is obscured under a confused mass of ruins. 
Tbe remains of old have become mixed up with those of modern build- 



227 

of El Balad. This was suhjeoter] to a little alteration and extension, 
for the purpose of more completely enclosing the garrison ; and while 
it was admirably adapted for the purpose to which it had been con- 
verted, it afforded close to the sea, both to the city and fort, a never- 
failingsupply of excellent water: indred, so convenient a situation could 
not again be met with on the coast. The only artificial part of the Khor 
appears to have been the western ditch, which is now dry and partly 
filled up with sand and ruins : this was twenty seven yards wide and 
four hundred and three yards long, extending from its junction with 
the western extremity of the northern ditch to within one hundred 
yards of the sea ; and on each side of it was a stnng wall, the re- 
mains of which are now nearly buried under heaps of adjacent ruins. 

The -ff A or itself consisted of the main body, or northern ditch, and 
three roots or branches, the first of which, given off from its northern 
side, runs inland; the next, from its southern side, forms the eastern 
ditch ; while the third is the continuation of the main body itself in a 
tortuous direction towards Dareez. 

Beginning from the western extremity of the northern ditch, which 
at this point is sixty yards broad and partly filled up with rubbish, the 
water, as we proceed eastward, gradually becomes deeper, and a thick 
belt of tall bulrushes springing up on each side, leaves a clear channel 
in the centre, which abounds with a variety of water-fowl. Before 
reaching the eastern angle of the garrison, it gives off from its northern 
side the inland branch, which, after an irregular course of tliree hun- 
dred yards, ends in a sharp-pointed shallow extremity. After this the 
branch which furms the eastern ditch is given off from its southern side 
twelve hundred and forty yards from the north-western angle of the 
fortification, and this, running directly towards the sea, terminates 
abruptly in the sandy beach ; while the third branch is continued on in a 
tortuous course from the main body itself towards Dareez, terminating 
in a shallow pointed extremity like that of the inland branch. 

The widest part of the Khor is that opposite the north-eastern angle 
of the garrison, exceditjgat this point in the liorthern ditch more than 
one hundred yards across. In the deepest part it does not appear to ex- 
ceed fourteen feet, but 1 had no means of ascertaining this: the inhabi- 
tants, howevfr, have an idea that it is bottomless. Its edges, like those 
of a canal, are firm, dry, and regular, and in no part bordered by swam- 
py ground. It is always filled with fresh water, and does not appear to 
undergo any diminution, or be affected by the rise and fall of the tide, 
although its eastern branch terminates in the loose sand of the beach, 
within one hundred yards of the surf. Thus, while this Khor formed 
the ditches of the fortification, it afforded at the same time an abundant 
supply of fresh water to the garrison; and at the present day, from its 
proximity to the sea, is one of the cheapest and most convenient places 
on this coast for a ship " to water" at. 

The walls of the garrison were principally confined to the southern 
and western sides, tiiese being the least protected by natural defences ; 



228 

while an embankment, or kind of rampart, thrown up from the ditch, 
supplied their place along the northern and eastern sides of the Khor, 
The rampart or embankment on the north side, — or perhaps breast- 
work would be the best term for it, as it was never very considerable, 
— was continued from tlie north-western to within forty yards of tho 
north-eastern angle of the garrison, where it now turns abruptly to- 
wards the south, for a distance of fifty-two yards, and then following 
its original direction, arrives at the border of the eastt rn ditch, leaving 
a square portion at the north-eastern angle, over which the Khor occa- 
sionally flows during the rains. Although mounds of ruins frequently 
occur along this embankment, there is not the remotest trace of the 
original form of the building preserved in any of them. On the eastern 
side a small round tower, with the remains of a wall and rampart on 
each side of it, marks the termination of the northern embankment 
ill that thrown up, on the eastern side; and from this tower the eastern 
embankment was continued on to the south-eastern anizle of the for- 
tification, presentiiig in its course the ren\iiins of a landing place, on 
the border of the ditch, corresponding with one which will be found to 
have existed in a similar position on the western side. 

Having described the embatikment which was thrown up on the in- 
ner borders of the northern and eastern ditches, we now come to the 
remains of the wall which defcndeil the southern side of the garrison ; 
and commencing at its eastern extremity, or the south-eastern angle 
of the fortifications, we shall follow it westward to its termination at 
the south-western angle. 

The remains of a small round tower marks the angle of union, be- 
tween the eastern embankment and the southern wall, and immediately 
on the west side of it is the threshold of a narrow doorway, from which 
the foundation of a wall four and a half feet thick can be distinctly 
traced on in a straight line for three hundred and nine yards ; with 
thirteen salient mounds in its course, at nearly equal distances from 
each other, on each of which are the remains of the foundation of a round 
tower, formed of concavo-convex blocks of stone strongly linked toge- 
ther. The remains of this wall, which appears never to have been car- 
ried beyond the foundation, terminates at a point where a flanking bas- 
tion or tower was run out thirty yards into the beach ; and from the base 
of this, in continuation with the original direction of that from the south- 
eastern angle, a stronger wall, which, from the parts that remain, and the 
quantity of ruins round it, had evidently been completed, was conti- 
nued on for two hundred and fifty- five yards, where a similar bastion 
to the last mentioned stretches thirty yards out into the beach ; and be- 
tween this and the former one were four other smaller salient towers, 
equi-distant from each other, projecting two-thirds of their diameter 
beyond the wall, the whole now enveloped in heaps of ruins. From 
the last point to the south-western angle, where there is another strong 
bastion or tower extending outwards towards the sea on aline with 
the other two mentioned, all is obscured under a confused mass of ruins. 
The remains of old have become mixed up with those of modern build- 



229 

ings, and the accumulation of stones and mounds of ruins and of rubbish 
now effectually preclude all possibility of tracing the southern wall 
further than the point mentioned, although there can be no doubt that 
it was continued throughout the remaining part of the southern side. 

To complete the fortifications, we have lastly to examine the 
western side of the garrison ; and commencing from the tower that was 
run out towards the sea from the south* western angle, we observe the 
remains of a strong wall, without any towers along its course, which 
existed between this point and the north-western angle, with 
the remains of a building projecting from it into the ditch, 
in which there were four rows of columns, six in each row. This 
appears to have been a landing place, similar to that on the 
eastern side, from and to which passengers were either conveyed 
in a boat, or passed over a drawbridge into the garrison, in order 
that there might be no public thoroughfare through the southern 
wall, which would have materially weakened that part, the least strong, 
of the fortification. The remains of this wall, like that on the 
southern side, are almost obscured by its own ruins and those of 
adjacent buildings, and nothing more can be made out of it now than 
that the wall itself did exist, and there was in its course a building 
which projected from it into the ditch. 

Thus we have now followed the remains of the ditches and forti- 
fications round the four sides of the parallelogram, or of that part of 
the city of £1 Balad which comprised the garrison : we have seen it 
surrounded on three sides by ditches, and on the fourth by a strong 
wall with an embankment thrown up on the inner side of the northern 
and eastern ditches, and a strong wall against the western ditch, with 
the remains of a narrow entrance close to the western side of the small 
tower that marks the south-eastern angle, and the ruins of a landing 
place projecting into the eastern and western ditches. Let us now 
direct our attention to the traces of ruined edifices within the garrison, 
as it is only here that we can find any that will admit of a particular 
description. 

Of the Citadel — The highest and largest mound of ruins within 
the garrison appears in the north-western angle, and this probably is 
the remains of the citadel. Whatever the building or buildings might 
have been, they were confined to a square area of one hundred and 
twenty yards, and surrounded by a strong wall. In the centre of 
this area stands the mound of ruins, the most elevated point of which 
is thirty feet above the surrounding plain, a height much exceeding 
that of any other part of the ruins. On its summit is observed an 
opening four feet square, which descended to a well beneath, so that 
water could be immediately drawn to the top without any further 
trouble ; and some way down it, on a line with the base of the ruins, 
two archways may be observed, the extremes of two passages leading 
to the well from beneath. A short distance below these the well ap- 
pears to be filled with rubbish, no water being visible. Nothing else 
can be made out on the summit of this mound except the remains of 



230 

a brickwork building, the only one of this material among the ruins. 
This, from its lightness, was well adapted for a superstructure, and if it 
formed a part of the original building, — and there is no reason to make 
me think otherwise, — it must have considerably added to the height of 
the citadel ; but the whole has been so disfigured and disturbed by 
modern attempts to erect a dwelling there, that no trace hardly remains 
of the original state of the ruins, much less of that of the building they 
composed. 

Of the Temple or Mosque — Within a hundred yards of the 
citadel, elevated on a mound from eight to twelve feet above the sur- 
rounding ground, are the remains of a temple of a quadrangular 
form, having its lonp;est diameter directed towards the west-north- 
west, or in the direction of Mecca. It was forty. five yards long, and 
thirty-six yards broad, and originally contained one hundred and 
eighty-three pillars, with an area thirteen yards square in the 
centre. The pillars were disposed around this area in rows of seven 
deep, on the west-north-west side, and of four deep on all the other 
sides, and at the time the building was perfect, no doubt contributed 
to form double or treble colonnades around it. The pillars that 
remain average twelve feet in height, including both capital and base. 
They were for the most part roughly though symmetrically sculptured 
with round or octagonal shafts two feet in diameter, and nearly all 
hewn out of solid blocks of stone. Although but few of the columns 
still retain their original position, yet the bases of those which have 
been upset, or taken away, remain, and satisfactorily point out the 
lines in which the whole were formerly disposed ; while the floor, 
which is now almost entirely concealed, from the accumulation of 
rubbish over it, was composed of flags of the same stone as that from 
which the columns were hewn. 

Of the Dwelling House, — The houses were also built on mounds 
raised from eight to twelve feet above the ground, and consisted of 
one large room on the ground floor, with a small walled enclosure 
attached to it. One side of the building invariably faced the north- 
west, or was directed towards Mecca, and within, two or more rows 
of columns of four or six deep, according to the size of the room, sup- 
ported semi-eliptical arches on which rested the ceiling. On most of 
the mounds two or more of the columns still retain their original 
position, while the others are lying round them either in a broken or 
an entire state, mixed up with various ornamental fragments of the 
dilapidated building. A little flight of steps in one corner of the base- 
ment story led to the upper part of the house, and the doorway was 
situated in the centre of the side opposite to that which faced the 
west-north-west, so much in the manner of a Mahomedan place of 
worship that did not every mound possess the same features we 
might be induced to think that they really were the remains of snaall 
mupjids. The enclosure, which was on the same side of the building 
as the doorway, was divided into two parts : that nearest the house 
was open, and had a pathway leading through it from the gateway 



231 

of the enclosure to a flight of steps at the threshold of the doorway ; 
M'hilethe outer portion was again divided into two parts by a central 
wall, on one side of which were two stone baths, and on the other a 
well four feet square and fourteen feet deep, with its sides smoothly 
plastered, from the top of which a gutter passed through the central 
wall, and, communicating with the baths on the opposite side, afforded 
a convenient means of supplying them with water, 

N.B. — In these descriptions the dryness of the detail will be con- 
siderably decreased, and the whole much better understood, by an 
occasional reference to the plans and the accompanying drawings. 

Of the Inscription. — On the southern side of the temple, and 
about one hundred yards from it, are the remains of a gateway, at the 
foot of which lies a large block of stone obliquely broken through the 
centre ; when entire it was fourteen feet nine inches long, and two feet 
two inches by one foot ten inches broad. It was so imbedded in sand 
and ruins, that it was with difficulty we could scrape out a hole 
beneath it large enough to place the head in for the purpose of 
ascertaining if it bore any inscription on the side which was next the 
ground. This effected, however, we recognised some Arabic characters 
in relief on it, and on communicating the fact to the Comman- 
der * of the H. C. Brig Palinurust that gentleman expressed a 
wish that the stone should be turned over for the purpose of ascertain- 
ing if there was any date discoverable on it. Accordingly the next 
day we landed, and after having accomplished our object, found 
the inscription placed on the broad side of the stone, extending to 
w^ithin one foot eight inches of one end and to within two feet eight 
inches of the other, so that it was not exactly in the middle. It origi- 
nally consisted of two lines of Arabic characters, interrupted in the 
centre by an ornamental portion. In the upper line beginning on 
the right hand side the words Ji \ j U^^l\ i.]\\ ^^i 
hismillah ir hman ir are plainly seen, and at the termination of the 
same line on the left hand side appears to be the word ^Jj \ allah. 

In the lower line also the Arabic characters are distinctly visible; but 
the whole having been sculptured in the form of an elaborately or- 
namented caligraph with the central part nearly effaced, and the orna- 
mental parts in some places remaining, while the radical forms of the 
letters themselves have disappeared, leaves what is left in a much more 
undecipherable state than if there had been nothing more inscribed 
than the simple letters themselves ; so that, after all our trouble, we 
could ascertain nothing further than that the inscription was in the 
modern Arabic character. In the plan the stone has been drawn as 
if in its original position, which faced the west-north-west ; the cir- 
cumstances connected with the history of its present position, and 
broken state, will be adverted to hereafter. It was supported in the 
manner of an architrave, on the sides apparently of a gateway, of simple 
but massive architecture, and was elevated more than thirteen feet 

* Captain J. P. Sanders, I . N. 



232 

above the level of llie ground ; but the foundation beino; buried in the 
general mass of ruins, its realheight could not be exactly ascertained. 
The blocks of stone of which the pillars or sides of the gateway were 
built, average four feet long, by three feet square at the ends, and 
they were all so accurately squared, and so skilfully and smoothly 
hewn, that where they still retain their original position their lines 
of contiguity are scarcely discernible. 

A plan of this gateway will also be seen among the accompanying 
drawings, in which tlie stone has been restored to its original place, 
and the sheets of cartridge paper contain impressions of the only parts 
of the inscription that remain. 

Ovnamenfal Sculpture. — Of this, which was all in the Arabesque 
style, but little now remains amon:; the ruins of El Balad. Tlie place 
has been plundered of its principal pillars and ornaments, for 
the purpose of enriching the Mosques of El Robaat and Dareez ; and 
no doubt the Mosque of Silalah possesses its share of rhem, for it 
will be presently seen that the last governor of Dofar, * who lived 
at Silalah, was not more insensible to the beauties of the sculpture 
among the ruins of El Balad than he was averse to seize any thing 
else that he thought worth possessing. Still, however, enough remains 
to give a fair idea of the costly sculpture with which many of the 
buildings were adorned, as well as the superior way in which the 
designs were executed. Those who built the city of El Balad, and 
those who worked out the designs of the architects, are no longer to 
be found in the district of Dofar : they were evidently not the bar- 
barous inhabitants of the southern coast of Arabia. The taste which 
is displayed in the elegance of the designs in the few specimens of 
sculpture that remain, must have b«^en brought from another country, 
and those who imported it were evidently from another country also,— 
and from one more civilized than the inhabitants of the south-eastern 
coast of Arabia could ever boast of. But to return to the 
»u'>ject. The arches on which the ceiling or flit roof (whichever it 
might have been) rested, were semi-eliptical, and the pillars which 
supported them averaged twelve feet in height ; the Utter were finely 
proportioned with round or octagonal shafts, and with handsome 
Arabesque desi^Mis, sculptured in bold relief on all sides of both 
capitals and bases, and in most instances were hewn out of solid 
blocks of stone. 

Among the drawings will be found the form of the arch, also a speci- 
men of the simple and ornamented column, with the pedestals of two 
other columns, on which are also represented designs in Arabesque. 
History. — On the following day aftf^r we had examined the ruins 
of El Balad, the commander of the Palinurus expressed a wish that 

* Saiad Mahomed bin Ageyl, a native of Mocha, and one of the famous Ageyl 
tribe, on whom the Caliph, in reward for their great services in Spain, bestowed 
the banner of the Royal Standard of that country, by which the tribe is still re- 
cognised. 

Forster's Oeog. Arab., Vol. I., p. 4— note. 



233 

I should visit the Shaykh of Dareez, as he had formerly shewn much 
kindness to Lieutenant Cruttenden, I. N., when passing through that 
town ; and as I had already made the acquaintance, and had accepted 
the hospitality, of the Shaykhs of the other principal towns of Dofar, it 
might have appeared invidious to have left out the Shaykh of Dareez, 
and in reality would have been, under the circumstances, highly 
uncourteous and ungrateful, — more particularly at that time, when, from 
jealousy or disagreement, the inhabitants of one town durst not go to 
another without being attended by some of their friends as protectors, 
or as a guard. "With this view, then, accompanied by an interpre- 
ter, I landed at the place where the boats were taking in w&ter, 
and, independently of the entreaties of the people who were 
present from the towns of El Hafa and Silalah that we should not go 
to Dareez, and their absolute refusal to accompany us thither — urging 
as a reason, that it was next to death to approach the place, — we 
walked away to the town, and having found out the Shaykh's house, 
were forthwith admitted and shewn up to the top of it, where we 
found the Shaykh in a long room, which they call the kassar^ or palace, 
reclining on a couch. He was aged, blind, and infirm, but immediately 
called for assistance that he might rise to receive us. In a short time 
the long room was thronged with his family and visitors, and in the 
raidst of every species of hospitality, with earnest solicitation to 
remain the night that we might be made more sensible of the great 
desire he had to show us every kiYidhess in his power, I took the oppor- 
tunity of obtaining from him, through the interpreter, the following 
scrap of history connected with the ruins of El Balad# 

As this subject was one of great interest to the whole of the party 
present, seeing that in all probability it would lead to the history of 
the Shaykh's own family, whereby 1 should be made acquainted with 
his ancient descent, and thoroughly satisfied of his hereditary right and 
title to the Sultanship and Government of Dofar, now divided among 
the petty Shaykhs or Hakeems of each town in that district, all listen- 
ed most earnestly and respectfully, while the enfeebled old man sum- 
moned to his recollection, and delivered to us, the traditional history 
of El Balad, and the subsequent rulers of the district of Dofar. 

Whether El Balad, " The City" par excellencey was in reality the 
ancient name of this place, or whether the real name has been lost 
and the more modern one of El Balad has been found the most 
convenient term to supply the deficiency, I am unable to determine: 
be this as it may, it appears to have been built about the middle of the 
sixth century of the Hajarah, by Mahomed bin Mahomed Al Habozi, 
Wazier of Mahomed bin Mahomed Min Gooee, the last member of that 
family who held the Government of Dofar. 

According to the Shaykh of Dareez, the Min Gooee family 
came originally from Balk about the commencement of the sixth 
century A. H., (others say from Hadramaut) and first settled in 
a little town on the borders of Khore Horee, three miles east 
of Thagah, the remains of which are still visible. From thence 



234 

lliey removed to Dofar, where they appear to have acquired so rapid 
an ascendancy over the inhabitants that the Chief of the family assum- 
ed the title of Sultan of the district, and bui't a large town there, the 
remains of which, in the same style as those of El Balad, are scattered 
over a large area one mile inland from the shore opposite the ruins 
of El Balad. Of this town I could obtain no further information 
than that which 1 have given, — not even its name, which, if it had been 
known to any one present, would have been mentioned, for invariably 
when, from the impaired state of his recollection, the old Shaykh could 
not immediately recall to his memory any particular name or event, 
some one among the assembly readily supplied the requisite infor- 
mation. 

Of the Min Gooee family Mahomed bin Mahomed Min Gooee was 
the last who held the Government of Dofar, and at his death he left 
two children, a son and a daughter, totheformer of whom he bequeath- 
ed his fortune, and the Government of Dofar, appointing Maho- 
med bin Mahomed Al Habozi,then his Wazier,to conduct the Govern- 
ment of the district during his son's minority. Al Habozi, however, not 
contented with the regency, usurped the power that had been entrusted 
to him, and, proclaiming himself Sultan of Dofar, built the city of 
El Balad in A. H. 555. After a reign of thirty years he was succeeded 
by his son, who held the Government for about the same space of 
time. Subsequently to this, one Shamsadeen came from Sanaa, and took 
possession of all the coast from Cape Shahrbadaht to Hisn Ghorab, 
and the last of his line appears to have been Sultan Ibrahim, from 
whom the kingdom was taken by Sultan Alee bin Omar al Kalheeree, a 
native of Hadramaut, who, bringing half his army(consisting of twenty 
thousand men) by sea, and the other half by land, disembarked and 
encamped at Bunder Risoot, in the district of Dofar, whither Sultan 
Ibrahim, for the purpose of ascertaining the strength of his army, 
visited his camp in the disj,Miise of a darveish. Intimation of this was 
however conveyed to the Hadramaulic Chief, and when the pretend- 
ed darveish asked for alms, poison was mixed with the food that was 
given to him, and having ate of it he immediately expired, leaving 
Sultan Alee to take possession of his kingdom unopposed, which at 
that time consisted of all the country on the coast between Cape 
Shahrbadaht on the east and Plisn Ghorab on the west ; and to this 
the Hadramautic Chief added all that part of tUe interior which 
intervened betwixt ttie«;e two points and Hadramaut. 

It is from Saltan Alee bin Omar al Katheeree that the present 
Shaykh of Dareez derives his descent and title to the Sultanat of 
Dofar. For many generations it continued uninterruptedly in the 
hand of his ancestors, the names of all of whom in their order of 
succession he carefully detailed to us, down to Talib bin Omar, 
whose government was confined to that part of the coast between 
Cape Shahrbadaht on the east, and Jadib, a town in the bay of 
El Kammar, on the west. At his death the right of succession becom- 
ing disputed, forty years elapsed during which all the towns were 



235 

governed by independent Shaykhs, or Hakeeras, until Saiad Mahomed 
bin Ageyl, of the famous tribe of Ageyl, a pirate in the Red Sea and 
the Southern coast of Arabia, and no doubt well acquainted with the 
political state of each district on the coast as well as with the relative 
value of their produce and their revenues, settled at Silalah in Dofar, 
and soon gained a supremacy over all the towns between Marbat on 
the east, and Ras be Hammar on the west, inclusive. For twenty years 
he successfully kept the government of this district in his own 
hands, when his career was suddenly terminated by one of the Garrah 
tribe, who possess the mountainous district behind Dofar* The 
Bedouin seized the opportunity of assassinating him when at a 
distance from the towns, in revenge for the death of a relative who 
had been murdered by one of the Salad's slaves, and since that time, 
now fourteen years ago, the principal men of each town have again 
asserted their former independency, and, as a natural consequence, a 
jealousy has arisen between the towns, which has ended in a mortal 
hatred between their respective inhabitants, insomuch that no one 
now dares go from one town to another without being accompanied 
by a protector or a guard, while the fertile district of Dofar has be- 
come a waste, in which the few who cultivate parts of it close to their 
several towns are seldom permitted to reap the produce of their 
own labour. 

Of the unfinished state of the Fortifications of El Balad, — The ap- 
pearance of many parts of the fortifications of El Balad betoken an un- 
finished state, as if some sudden check had been given to their pro- 
gress. This is particularly seen in the remains of the foundation of 
the thick wall which was to have been continued from the south-eastern 
angle along the southern side of the garrison to the base of the first 
large tower, which we have seen extended out towards the sea. Here 
it is evident that the work was never carried beyond its present state, 
or the wall would have been almost buried in its own ruins now, \»here, 
comparatively speaking, a loose stone hardly exists beyond those that 
mark the contour of the intended fortification, forming a great con- 
trast with the remains of the towers and wal continued on from its 
western termination, where the original position and form can with 
difficulty be distinguished from the surrounding mass of ruins, and 
where, after a short distance, it becomes altogether obscured and buried 
under them. Moreover, from the eastern termination of that part of the 
wall which was completed, there are the remains of a thick wall which 
extended directly across the parallelogram to the Khar on the opposite 
side, about eight hundred yards from the north-western angle, and 
as the ruins now bear testimony, it was between the wall and the 
western side that the principal part of the buildings within the fortifi- 
cations were included. From this it would appear that at first the 
fortified portion was limited eastwardly by this wall, and that subse- 
quently it was intended that the other portion should be taken in as 
far as the eastern branch of tiie /iT/ior, but through some interruption 
the design, though commenced, was never completed, and the foundation 
of the wall still remains — little altered from what it probably was in the 



236 

first instance. Additional evidence of tliis nature may be drawn from 
the present state of the quarries in the plain of Dofar, from which the 
stone for the buildings and fortificHtions of El Balad was excavated, 
where rows of large blocks are still lefi standing, squarely hewn, and 
detached on every side except their base from the parent rock, ready 
to be transported to their place of destination, but now left as lasting 
memoriaU of the budden extinction of the power possessed by the 
civilized people who were about to make use of them. 

History of the Inscription, — We were informed by the Shaykh of 
Dareez that Shuinsadeen, »vho came from Sanaa, had erected seven arches 
similar to the remains of that one which is now seen among the ruins 
of El Balad, and that it was no part of the original buildings of that 
city. Nor does the colour of the stone, or the weather-worn state of it, 
correspond with that of the pillars and other parts of the ruins of El 
Balad : it has a more modern appearance. He also added that the only 
one of the seven he had ever seen was the one in question, and the des- 
truction of ihis had been effected by a party of Arabs, whom Saiad 
Mahomed bin Ageyl had employed to remove the great stone contain- 
ing the inscription to Silalah, in doing which, from want of proper ma- 
chinery, it had been thrown down and broken, and no longer being fit 
for the purpose for which the Saiad had designed it, the project was 
abandoned and the broken stone left at the feet of the pillars which 
supported it, where it still remains. 

Defensible position of El Balad, and the advantage of Us situation. 
— So far as regards a people like the Bedouins or the inhabitants 
of this coast, the ditch of El Balad, with its walls, all of which 
might be repaired at a trifling expense from the old materials on the 
spot, would, and no doubt did, form as secure a position as could be 
needed. The plain of Dofar behind, the whole of which might be 
brought into a rich state of cultivation, c )uld be protected to a con- 
siderable extent against the plundering incursions of the Bedouins 
by guns in the fortifications, while the ditch would afford an ample 
supply of fresh water ; and the nearness of the garrison to the sea 
would enable it to be provisioned at pleasure, especially as the 
Bunder of Risoot is close by, where a moderate sized vessel may be 
completely sheltered from the prevailing winds of its coast. 

The central position of El Balad on the south-eastern coast of 
Arabia, the fertility of the district in which it is situited, its po- 
sition as a port on the coast of that part of Arabia in which 
the frankincense trees are so abundant, together with many other 
medicinal gums that might be collected in vast quantities among 
the mountains of the same district, but which are all now regarded 
by the inhabitants as useless, from the want of some safe place of 
exchange or sale for the produce of their labour, as well as the 
protection of their property ; — are all advantages, which, under a 
good government, might be turned to account, and the walls of El 
Balad might again shew themselves above the waters in the centre of 
the district of Dofar, as they formerly did when the Min Gooee family 



228 

while an embankment, or kind of rampart, thrown up from the ditch, 
supplied their place along the northern and eastern sides of the Khor, 
The rampart or embankment on the north side, — or perhaps breast- 
work would be the best term for it, as it was never very considerable, 
— was continued from the north-western to within forty yards of th« 
north-eastern angle of the garrison, where it now turns abruptly to- 
wards the south, for a distance of fifty-two yards, and then following 
its original direction, arrives at the border of the eastt rn ditch, leaving 
a square portion at the north-eastern angle, over which the Khor occa- 
sionally flows during the rains. Although mounds of ruins frequently 
occur along this embankment, there is not the remotest trace of the 
original form of the building preserved in any of them. On the eastern 
side a small round tower, with the remains of a wall and rampart on 
each side of it, marks the termination of the northern embankment 
in that, thrown up, on the eastern side; and from this tower the eastern 
einbaidvuient was conliiiufd on to the south-eastern ani:le of the for- 
lifieation, prestMitiiig in its course the renuiins of a landing place, on 
the border of the ditch, corresponding with one which will be found to 
have existed in a similar position on the western side. 

Having described the embankment which was thrown up on the in- 
ner borders of the nortlicrn and eastern ditches, we now come to the 
remains of the wall which clefendeil the soulliern side of the garrison ; 
and commencing at its eastern extremity, or the south-eastern angle 
of the fortifications, we shall follow it westward to its termination at 
the south-western angle. 

The remains of a small round tower marks the angle of union, be- 
tween the eastern embankment and the southern wall, and immediately 
on the west side of it is the threshold of a narrow doorway, from which 
the foundation of a wall four and a half feet thick can be distinctly 
traced on in a straight line for three hundred and nine yards ; with 
thirteen salient mourjds in its course, at nearly equal distances from 
each other, on each of which are the remainsof the foundation of a round 
tower, formed of concavo-convex blocks of stone strongly linked toge- 
ther. The remains of this wall, which appears never to have been car- 
ried beyond the foundation, terminates at a point where a flanking bas- 
tion or tower was run out tiiirty yards into the beach ; and from the base 
of this, in continuation with the original direction of that from the south- 
eastern angle, a stronger wall, which, from the parts that remain, and the 
quantity of ruins round it, had evidently been completed, was conti- 
nued on for two hundred and fifty- five yards, where a similar bastion 
to the last mentioned stretches thirty yards out into the beach ; and be- 
tween this and the former one were four other smaller salient towers, 
equi-distant from each other, projecting two- thirds of their diameter 
beyond the wall, the whole now enveloped in heaps of ruins. From 
the last point to the south-western angle, where there is another strong 
bastion or tower extending outwards towards the sea on aline with 
the other two mentioned, all is obscured under a confused mass of ruins. 
The remains of old have become mixud up with those of modern build- 



xlvii 

" However this may be, there is field and labourers enough behind ; and the So- 
ciety is now prepared to take immediate charge of six sets of instruments — such as 
those described in my previous correspondence, so soon as they are sent out, with 
every hope of carrying out the views of their Lordships, and availing themselves 
of the liberality and good wishes of the Local Government. 

" I have the honor to be, Sir, your obedient servant, 

(Signed) "George Buist." 

The matter must rest here for the present. Of the four tide-gauges originally 
provided, two still remained : these were at the disposal of Government if required. 

They had just been fitted up with wooden cases — all that was required in place 
of an observatory house and well — to adapt them for some obserations on the tides 
in wells on the northern shore of Angria's Colabah ; which, though perfectly 
fresh, had a bi-diurnal tide of several feet, obviously dependent on, though not 
apparently synchronous with, the oceanic tide. This matter was proposed to be 
examined into immediately. 

Observations on the specific gravity of the Mediterranean betwixt Malta and 
Alexandria, had been forwarded by Captain Gossen, of the Oriental Steam Navi- 
gation Company's vessel Iheria, in conformity with instructions given by Dr. Buist, 
and instruments partly provided by him. The tables were very complete so far as 
they extended. 

The following papers &c. were then laid on the table : — 

Papers. 

1. By Oovcrnmcnt. — A descriptive account of the Ruins of El-Balad, by As- 
sistant Surgeon H. J. Carter, of the Hon'ble Company's Surveying Brig Pali- 
nuruSy together with Sketches (six sheets) in Original ; with a letter from Lieut- 
Col. P. M. Melvill, Secretary to Government, dated the 15th April, No. 502 of 1846. 

2. By Government. — Extract from a report on the district of Babriawar, by 
Captain G. LeGrand Jacob, late 1st Assistant to the Political Agent at Rajcote, 
dated the 15th March 1843; with a letter from J. P. Willoughby, Esq., Chief Se- 
cretary to Government, Political Department, dated the 25th April, No. 651 of 1846. 

3. By the Author. — Desultory observations on the probable Origin of the 
Ghonds; with four water-coloured sketches, accompanied by a vocabulary of the 
dialect spoken by the Ghond Tribes upon the Gawil Hills ; by Assistant Surgeon 
AV. H. Bradley, 8th Regiment Nizam's Infantry, with a note, dated Ellichpoor, 
10th April, 1846. 

4. By the Author. — Mean Hourly and Daily Curves of the Barometer and 
Thermometer, taken at Ellichpoor for the year 1845, by Assistant Surgeon W. H. 
Bradley, 8th Regiment Nizam's Infantry. 

5. By the Author — through Lieut.-Col. P. M. Melvill, Secretary to Govern- 
ment. — Meteorological Register kept, and Horary Barometrical and Thermome- 
trical Observations taken, at Ellichpoor, for the months of January, February, and 
March 1846. By W. H. Bradley, Esq., Assistant Surgeon 8th Regiment 
Nizam's Infantry. 



xlviii 

Books. 
By the Medical Board, with the sanction of Government. — O'Shanghnessy's 
(W. B., Esq., M. D., F. R. S., &c.) Bengal Pharmacopsea, and General Con- 
spectus of Medical Plants, arranged according to the Natural and Therapeutical 
Systems — and Webb's (Allan, Esq., B. M. S.) Pathologia Indica, or the Anatomy 
of Indian Diseases, Medical and Surgical, based upon morbid specimens, from all 
parts of India, in the Museum of the Calcutta Medical College ; illustrated by de- 
tailed cases, with the prescriptions and treatment employed, and comments, physio- 
logical, practical, and historical — ^with a letter dated 6th February, No. 176 of 
1846, by the Secretary to the Medical Board. 

By Jehangheer Pochajee. — A pamphlet containing Persian Verses in praise of 
Ardaseer Dhunjeeshaw Bahadoor, together with a Guzerattee version of the same ; 
accompanied by a note, dated the 25th March, 1846. 

Letters. 
From Captain A, McD, Elder, Acting Secretary to the Military Board, dated 
12th February, No. 636 of 1845 — Marine Department — ^intimating, by direction 
of the Military Board, that Professor Orlebar has already undertaken, and the 
Board have committed to him, the superintendence (under their control) of the 
measures now being adopted for prosecuting Tidal and Meteorological Observa- 
tions ; and that that gentleman has already procured the Tide-Gauge and Baro- 
meters requisite, and has ordered Thermometers and some other instruments from 
England ; and intimating further, that the necessary forms in which the observa- 
tions are to be registered, are now being lithographed. 

From Lieut' CoL P. M. Melvill, Secretary to Government, Marine Department, 
dated 1st April, No. 448 of 1846, — acknowledging the receipt of a letter, and 
conveying to the Society the thanks of the Hon'ble the Governor in Council for 
their very interesting communication, and expressing the assurance of Govern- 
ment to afford the scheme of concerted Tidal and Meteorological observations, 
^^ch has been propounded, the most effectual co-operation in its power. 

From LieuL-GoL P, Jf. Melvill, Military Department, dated 30th April, 1678 
of 1846 — forwarding copy of a communication from Professor Orlebar, No. 36, dated 
the 27th of the preceding month, intimating that the proposition of Dr. Buist, that 
the duty of conducting the Magnetic or Meteorological Observations, &c., should bo 
carried on simultaneously by himself and that gentleman (Professor Orlebar,) ap- 
pears to be impracticable. 

From Messrs. Remington and Co, dated the 20th February, 1846 — inclosing 
copy of the Account Current with them made up to the 31st July last, and ex- 
hibiting on that date a Balance of Rupees (1201 : 11 : 11) One Thousand Two 
Hundred and One, eleven annas, and eleven pies, in the Society's favour. 

From Lieut. J. Q. Forbes, 23rd Regiment N. Light Infantry, — requesting that 
hii name may be withdrawn from the list of the Society's subscribers. 



xlix 

From His Excellency Mons. La Oreney French Embassador to China, dated 
Bombay, 11th April, 1845 — intimating, that he feels very highly honoured by 
becoming a Member of the Society. 

An abstract of the votes for the Office-bearers for next year having been made, 
the following appeared to have been chosen by a majority of votes on the printed 
lists: — 

Vice-Presidents. 

1. TheHon'ble J. P. Willoughby, Esq., 

2. Major-General Vans Kennedy, 

3. Dr. J. Barnes, K. H. 

Resident Members. 

1. Dr. J. Bird, 

2. Major J. Holland, 

3. Captain H. B. Lynch, I. N., 

4. TheHon'ble L. R. Reid, Esq., 

5. J. Bowman, Esq., 

6. Dr. J. McLennan, 

7. Dr. C. Morehead, 

8. Lieut.-Col. P. M. MelvUl, 

9. Major-Genl. D. Barr, 

10. Lieut. G. Jenkins, I. N., 

11. Lieut.-CoI. N. Campbell, 

12. C. J. Erskine, Esq. 

Non-Resident Members. 

1. Major H. C. Rawlinson, 

2. Captain E. P. Del'Hoste, 

3. Lieut.-Col. O. Felix, 

4. Captain G. Fulljames, 

5. Captain Geo. Le Grand Jacob, 

6. Lieut J. C. Cruttenden, I. N., 

7. Captain T. G. Carless, 1. N., 

8. Captain R. Shortrede. 

The following statement of the funds was laid before the meeting. 
Annual statement of Receipts and Disbursements of the Bombay Geographical 
Society, from 1st May 1845, to 30th April 1846. 

Disbursements. 
1846. Rs. A. p. 

J^pril 30th, To Printing:, 621 

..Establishment, 564 o 

.• .. Contingent expenses, 113 g 7 

1,298 9 7 

.. Balance in favour of the Society, viz 

..In the hands of the Treasurers up to this date 

Rs 2,220 1111 

.. Ditto in the hands of the Secretary 84 12 

3,305 7 11 

Rupees. 3,604 1 

Receipts. 
1846. Rs. A. p. 

ikpril 30th, By balance in the bands of Treasurers this date 1,519 1 6 

Sept. lOtb, Amount received from Government for supplying 300 printed 
copies separately stitched of the Report dated 4th October, 
1842, drawn up by Capt. G. Le Grand Jacob, late 1st As- 
sistant to the Political Agent in Kattywar, upon the con. 
dition of that Province at that period, as per Govt, order 
dated theaSd August, No. 4068 of 1845.. • 150 



1 

Dec. 2nd, Do. Do. from a Borah for 2 old boxes sold 1 8 

1846. 

April 30th, Do. of Govt, subscription for 12 months, at 50 Rs. per mensem... 600 

. Do. sabscription of members for this year 1,288 

.. Do. of piinted copies of this Society's Proceedings sold.. .. 3 8 

.. Do. of copies of Hoyal Geographical Society's Journals sold. 42 

Rupees 3,604 1 6 
(Signed) Geo. Buist, Secy, to the Society. 
Bonnbay,30th April, 1846. 
The meeting then adjourned till the 1st Thursday of August next. 



The Ordinary Quarterly Meeting of the Society took place in their Rooms, 
Town Hall, on Thursday the 6th August, 1846, at 3 o'clock p. m. 

Present. 

Captain D. Ross, I. N., F. R. S., President, in the chair. — Major J. Holland; 
R. W. Crawford, Esq. ; S. S. Dickinson, Esq. ; Captam Sir R. Oliver, Kt., R. N. ; 
Manockjee Cursetjee, Esq. ; and Captain H. B. Lynch, I. N., Acting Secretary, 
Dr. Buist being absent from sickness. 

The minutes of the last anniversary meeting held on the 7th May last were 
read and approved. 

The following Papers, Books, Maps, Letters, &c., were laid before the meeting. 

Papers. 

By the Author, — Memorandum on the City of Shikarpore, in Upper Scinde, by 
Captain T. Postans, 15th Regiment N.L, with a letter dated Bombay, 18th May, 
1846. 

By the Author, — Incomplete notes on a Shipwreck on the Southern Coast of Ara- 
bia on the night of the 14th January 1835, by Dr. B. A. R. Nicholson, with 
a note dated BycuUa, 23rd May, 1845. 

By the Author. — Barometrical and Thermometrical observations taken, and Me- 
teorological Register kept, at Ellichpoor, for the month of June 1846, by Assistant 
Surgeon W. H. Bradley, 8th Regiment Nizam's Infantry, with a letter dated 
Jauhiah, 22nd July, 1846. 

Books. 

By Government. — Printed copy of the Report by the Superintendent of Roads 
and Tanks for 1844-45, with a letter from Mr. Secretary Escombe, General De- 
partment, dated 13th July, No. 2,309 of 1846. 

By the Societe Ethnologique de PariSy through Captain Ager. — Memoires de 
la Societe Ethnologique, Tome 1st of 1841, and Tome 2nd of 1845, and 2 copies 
of the Instruction Generale addressee aux voyageurs, &c., with a letter dated Paris, 
2nd August, 1845, from the Secretary of the Societe Ethnologique de Paris, ad- 
dressed to the President of this Society. 

By the Author, through the Societe Ethnologique de Paris. — Memoires sur les 
progresdes Decouvertes Geographique dans Tile de Madagascar ; and Analyse 
d'un Memoire de M. Eugene de Froberville, sur les Langues et les races de 1' Afri- 
que Orientale au sud d I'equateur in Avril 1846, with a letter from the Author, 
dated Port Louis, Isle Maurice, 24th June, 1846, addressed to the President 
of this Society. 



li 

Maps. 

By Captain B. J, Barr. — Carte d' Acir et d'ane partie de I'Hedjaz et du 
Nedjd dressee en Arabic d'apres les Notes prises de 1833 a 1840. — Par M. Ohe- 
dasan, Medecin Inspecteur des Armees d'Arabie, 1840, 

By the Author, — The tract of a Route from the mouth of the Indus to Gharra 
Bunder, navigable throughout the year for the River Steamers — with a letter 
from W. Fenner, Esq., Acting Master, I.N., dated Hydrabad, 17th July, 1846. 

Letters. 

From Captain G. LeG. Jacob, dated Sawunt Warree, 3rd June, 1846, intimat- 
ing his having transmitted the amount of his subscription to the Society for 1846- 
47, and expressing his regret that his time is so intensely occupied with official 
duties as to prevent his at present becoming an efficient member of the Com- 
mittee — and he at the same time states that "nearly the whole frontier linie of 
this (the Sawunt Warree) state, with Goa, is incorrectly drawn in our common 
Maps,'' and in consequence, forwards a rude outline as a specimen, with a view to 
the Society's Map being corrected thereby. 

From Lieut.-Col. P. M. Melvill, Secretary Marine Department, dated 13th 
June, No. 866 of 1846, intimating the opinion of Government that Perim Island 
is very desirably situated as a station for tidal observations, but, from accounts 
received, considers that no European could live upon it. 

Government suggest that, before any thing is done for establishing an observa- 
tory on the Island, it should be ascertained whether any person is willing to un- 
dertake the observations. 

Colonel Melvill further intimates that it is considered that Suma Cassim, the 
individual in charge of the Perim Light House, who is an intelligent man, might 
easily be instructed how to make the required observations. 

From the Reverend G. Morrison, acting Secretary of the Surat Library, dated 
the 19th June, 1846, returning the thanks of the Proprietors of that Institution for 
the copy of the Society's Transactions presented to it. 

From A. Malet, Esq., Secretary to Government, Political Department, dated 
1st August, No. 3,003 of 1846, acknowledging the Receipt of the 300 printed 
copies of an Extract from a Report on the District of Babriawar, by Captain Geo. 
LeGrand Jacob, late 1st Assistant to the Political Agent in Kattiawar, and in- 
timating that the General Pay Master has been authorised to pay to the Secretary 
of the Society the sum of Rs. 200 on account of the printing expenses of the 
pamphlet in question. 

Lieut. James Felix Jones, I. N. — proposed by Captain Sir R. Oliver, Kt., R. 
N., and seconded by Captain H. B. Lynch^ I. N., was unanimously elected a 
member of the Society. The Meeting then adjourned till the 1st Thursday of 
November next. 



The Meeting of the Society of the 5th November 1846 was postponed till 
Thursday the 4th February 1847, in consequence of there being only one Member, 
All Mahomed Khan, Esq., present. 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



BOMBAY GEOGKAPHIOAL SOOIETr 



Extract from a Report on the District of Bahriawary by Captain G. 
LeGrand Jacob, late 1st Assistant to the Political Agent at Rajcote 
—dated the 15th March, 1843. 

[Presented by Government.] 

Past and present state of the Province of Bahriawar, 

History of the Province of Babriawar. — The history of this Dis- 
trict is obscure, and little further light can be thrown on it than will be 
found in the 13th para, of my General Report on the Peninsula, dated 4th 
October last, sub. para. VII. 

Origin of the Tribes now inhabiting Babriawar. — The Kattees, who 
trace themselves to the banks of the Jumna, and were borne down by 
the tide of immigration to Kutch, were again carried onwards to the 
Soorashtra Peninsula, about the end of the 14th century, at which period 
the Babrias were by local tradition settled in the neighbourhood of Than:* 
whence they previously came, is more doubtful. The Koteelas trace 
themselves to the union of an Aheer female with a Brahmun of Seehoor. 
The Dhankras to the Pandwas of Hustnapoor, and the first step known 
in their migratory career was Puttun (Anhalwara.) The Wurroos 
claim union with the Poorbundur family by a Dhankra woman. The 
Aheers, who possess several villages in Babriawar, carry up their lineage 
to the Somrahs of Sind, and by subsequent intermarriage to the So- 
lunkees of Dlu, and even to the Oojen family. The establishment of 
the Babrias in the district bearing their name, must have occurred 
shortly after they were driven from Than by the Kattees. The Aheers 
would seem to have preceded them by some centuries, and to have been 
the stock into which the others engrafted themselves. 

Previous occupants of the soil, — The prior possessors of the district 
are believed to have been the Solunkees and the VValas, whose name is 
still traced in the adjoining division of Walack. The VVajas occupied 
the W. border. I annex (Enclosure I.) the information obtained from 
the people themselves as to their origin and history. The district is 
void of inscriptions by which to test their tradition, and of any edifice 
denoting antiquity. 

* They were p'-evioualy dispossessed of Sovereignty over it, if not partially 
driven Southward, by Ciq Jhalas. 



201 

Character and Habits of the Babrias and Aheers, — The Babrias are 
more haughty and warlike than the Aheers : these are a peaceable com- 
munity, ploughing their own lands, and in appearance little above the 
common agricultural labourer, whilst the Babrias affect more the state 
of the respectable Kattee. They intermarry with each other, but with the 
usual Oriental distinction of rank, the Aheers give their daughters to the 
Babrias and the Babrias their's to the Kattees, the order being only re- 
versed in case of the wealth of the inferior and poverty of the superior 
grade. Polygamy is common, with no other restrictions than means and 
inclination : the husband gives the dowry to the parents of the betrothed, 
who regard it very much in the light of purchase money. Equal divi- 
sion of property is slowly producing the same effect in this quarter as 
has been shewn to be in operation with the Kattee and minor Rajpoot 
states. The Babrias have been loosely termed Kattees ; but their stock 
is different, and they have no title to the name. Possessing a very limit- 
ted patrimony in a secluded corner of the Peninsula, cut off from direct 
intercourse with the main body of the community by the Geer, they 
have come less in contact with the British power than the other races of 
the country, and retain more of their pristine barbarism : they cherish 
their blood-feuds with more inveteracy than even the Kattees : their vil- 
lages are mere collections of mud huts, with generally a low wall of 
circumvallation, and a ghurrie, for defence. 

Religion. — In matters of faith, the Babrias and Aheers are but sorry 
Hindoos. Their chief Deity is astone called Sl»amjee Maharaj, at the hot 
springs of Toolsee Sham, just beyond the North West limit of their 
frontier. This is an idol with four arms, supposed by some to represent 
Vishnoo, though of this the Babrias know nothing. They hold in res- 
pect also certain Devees (Goddesses, named Ghatrar, Khoriar, Chawunr^i 
and Boot Bhowanee) : they are unburdened with ceremonies, and have 
no restriction in matters of food, save in the article of beef. The fol- 
lowers of Swamee Narain, whose system has penetrated into the remote 
corners of Guzerat, abstain from all animal food, in common with other 
followers of the Punt.* 

Boundaries and Surface of the Country, — Population, — The boun- 
daries of Babriawar are the Geer hills on the north, the Jolapooree river 
on the east, the Malun river on the west, and the Sea on the south, as 
more fully detailed in my general report and map. This district contains 
seventy-one towns and villages, with a population of about 19,000 ; some 
villages belonging to the Ilajoola and Ghania tuppas on the east, under 
Bhaonuggur ; Khuntallaand others on the north, that have become at- 
tached to the Amrellee tuppa of Dhanturwa, and those on the east 
bank of the Malun annexed to the Oona Muhal, which, though original- 
ly Babria villages, have been enumerated under their respective states, 
are exclusive of this calculation. The Jaffrabad Purgunnah of eleven 
villages, with a population of about 6,000, is included, except where it 

* Sect. There are in the Peninsula about 30,000 followers of this Hindoo 
Reformer, of whom a discription is given in Bishop Ileber's Journal, but lua 
character is not held in repute by the rest of the community. 



202 

fikipts the Geer. The surface of Babriawar is generally level, and con- 
tains but few trees. 

Agricultural Facilities and Products Tlie soil is good, the po- 
verty and indolence of the people alone preventing thsir turning it to prO' 
per account : though water is found at a short distance from the sur- 
face, they trust almost entirely to the monsoon, and but few wells 
have been dug for irrigation. Bajree and til are the staple grains ; 
wheat is raised occasionally in warrees at Nagsree, Meethapoor, Dhoo- 
dala, and Chotree ; and not more than a hundred maunds of cotton are 
grown in the whole district. Cattle abound, the neighbourhood of the 
Geer affording ample pasturage ; and the export of ghee, through the 
port of Jaffrabad, is very considerable. 

Extent of a Saatee and IVeega of land, and the amount of Produce 
thereof — The santee of land is here of sixty weegas, the weega being 
160 yards by ten : a three bullock santee is termed pucka, and con- 
sists of ninety woegas. Fifteen khalsees of bajree and ten of til are 
the average quantity per santee. The khalsee is of fourteen Goozeerat 
maunds, and the avera^^e amount realized is nine rupees per khalsee 
of bajree, and fifteen rupees for til — A table shewing the financial re- 
sult to the landholder is annexed. (Knclosure II.) 

Enclosure No, I. to Report dated 1 5th Marchy 1843. 

The Koteelas, — Account of the Koteela Tribe ofBahriasj translated 
and condensed from the hooks of Rawul Dhoga Jugjaun^ the Gene- 
alogist of the Tribe. 

The Koteelas — The Koteelas sprang from the Janee Brahmuns of 
Seehor. A list is given in tlie original of several names said to have 
reigned there for 225 years. Trikum the last ruler, built the Sooruj- 
koond (tank of the sun) at that place. O i being driven from Seehor, he 
seated himself one day in the skirts of Tullaja, to prepare his food: the 
daughter of an Aheer of that place, named Dewa Dorela, and her sis- 
ter-in-law, were passing to fetch water from the well, and saw the 
stranger attempting, but not knowing how, to cook his meal. The 
maiden said — this handsome Brahmun seems in distress : the sister re- 
plied jestingly, you are a Virgin, do you cook it for him : the other 
answered, I must do as you bid, seeing that you are my eldest brother's 
wife, and in the place to me of a mother. On this, filling her pitcher at 
the well she passed the Brahmun, and said to him, I am your wife, and 
you are ray lord, but he answered not: the virgin, named Shreebaee, 
then said, if you say no, I destroy myself. The Brahmun then con- 
sented. At that time Ebulsoor-walla gave dowers to aid the marriage of 
one crore of virgins : to him the parlies went, and the Chief recognizing 
Trikum as one of a high race, phced the IW/a first on his forehead, 
whence has sprung the name of Koteela, and from this union the 
tribe. Treekuui's eldest son was named Koteela, the second Bhookun 
in Kattywar, the third Pholo in Gogo Bara. Koteela married into the 
Babrias, the otliers remained Aheers. From Juweraj, the third in 
descent from Koteela, in the course of thirty-six generations eighteen 
tribes have emanated. The chief was Uana, and his descendants were in 



203 

the following order : — Putpat, Kottela, Juweraj, Kala, Sakria, Weeka, 
Seea, Kala, Juweraj who had four sons viz., Jor, Tola, Sajun, and 
Sakria : these four were the nephews of Bussia by their mother Sona ; 
they settled at Thankundola, and were named the Thakors of seventy- 
two tribes. The fourth son Sakria had issue in successive generations 
as follows : Kala, Jor, Sajun, Selar, Shahpooree, Sathee, Somesuir, 
Leeka, Moonga, Dhurja^ and Bhola. 

The Dhankras, — Account of the Dhankra Tribe of Babrias, ex- 
iracted and condensedfrom the books of Rawuls Nugajun and Bhoja of 
Dedan. 

The Dhankras. — Dhankra is a Babria descended from the Panduws 
of Hustnapoor : they dwelled in Patun, whence they came to Jhan Kun- 
dola, in the Punchal district, where they resided. Afterwards they 
migrated to Urneeroo. The genealogy is as follows : — Brumha Shoob, 
Sabud, Droobud, Tarabad, Amreek, Ukheprut, Sayetun, Pundoo, 
Pund, whose five sons were Joodishthut, Nukool, Urjoon, Suhdew, 
and Bheem : these were the nephews of Jaduw, born of Mata Koontee. 
Bheem's issue was Gutoorguch, born of Hurumba, nephew of Raksusb, 
son of Truelochun*8 daughter. Gutoorguch's son was Babruk, and his 
Babria, his was Soom, and his Samla, his Dhandh, his three sons the 
first Dhankra, the second Khora, the third Dangur : these two were 
Kattees, and nephews by their mother Magul of Wala. Dhanka's son 
was Dhank, whose issue were Peegul and Chandoo. The second had 
issue, Khunsee, whose generation was as follows : — Howl, Kala, ChoU 
rup, Mokul, Shetrum, Humva, lladen. Dewed, nephew by the mo- 
ther's side of Koteela. Dewra's genealogy was Setrun, Seea, Sajuo, 
and Seea. 

The Wuroos. — Account of the Wuroo Tribe of Babrias^ extracted 
and condensedfrom the books ofJRawul Weera, the Gemalogist of the 
tribe. 

In the beginning, Mahadeo asked of Krishna to appear unto him in 
the attractive female form which he had formerly assumed : Krishna 
consented. From Mahadeo then issued the Virile power.* Goruk- 
nauth sprung from the cow-dung (gor) which Krishna had touched, 
and the Jalundur Duet from the water (jul) in which he had dipped 
bis hand. Gaotun Rooshee had given an imprecation against his daugh- 
ter Unjnee, that she should become pregnant as a Virgin; she therefore 
buried herself up to her neck in the ground, and thus remained in the 
Mrilderness. By this spot passed Mahadeo and Krishna, to whom she 
bent her head in adoration. Krishna did not acknowledge the salute, 
saying, thou hast no guide over thee: she replied, be thou my guide. 
Krishna then blew into her ear the virile power that he had received 
from Mahadeo, by which she conceived, and brought forth Hunoo- 
man, of whom was born Mukurdhwug. When Ram conquered Lunka, 
Hunnooman was covered with perspiration in lifting the Droonagur 
hill, and which dropped from his body into the sea : a fish swallowed it, 
and gave birth subsequently to Mukurdhwug : his genealogy was Dhwuj 
Dhwujangee, Dhwuj Weraya, Mor, Dhwuj, who founded Moorvee, and 
^ The original is too gross to be translated. 



204 

established his reign there. From him sprung in succession as follows : 
Kumdhwug Mucka Soorun, Kunksasoor, Kusyup, Kupeel, Jan Ara- 
reek Ukhewurt, Manwusunt, Chukreen, Sayutun, Taljun, Mucka 
Soorun, Mehe Muggur, Dhwuj, Dhvvuj Jethee Dhwuj, Jetwa, Wukeed 
Meb, Jetroo Magronagajun, who built the Dhank fort of gold and 
sacrificed his head to his Hliat in the following manner: Sidnath Bama, 
disciple of Dhondhlee Mul, worshipped his master, who said, I will 
cause the fort of Dhank to resemble that of Lunka : the disciple re- 
plied, the fort of Lunka is of gold. The holy man replied, I will turn 
the Dhank citadel into gold : then by the power of his science he con- 
veyed the wife of Salwan Gohel from Moongeepoor Patun, and strok- 
ed the walls with her hand, which transformed them into gold. On 
Salwan Gohel finding out what had passed, he brought an army against 
Dhank, but could not take it. He then asked Putla Bhat to go to his 
•nemy, and beg his head : the Bhat went accordingly, and securing a 
pledge of Nagjun, demanded his head : the which he accordingly sur- 
rendered to him, Nagjun's race is as follows : — Wueddhwuj, Wukeeo, 
Muheeo, Mehe, Gujkurun, Halamun, Jetwo, whose issue rules in Pore- 
bundur. Halamun's sons were Meh and Wukeeo. Meh was united 
(wurryo) to Mai, the daughter of Rakait Dhankra — hence the Wurreeo 
tribe. The issue of this union was successively Bhano, Bharraul, 
Bhoojsee, Mehe, Bakhul, Mehe, Wankra, and Wank, from whom came 
the Kattees. Poput, of whom sprung the Aheers, and Wurroo, from 
whom came the Babrias. — Wurroo's issue was successively Dburm, 
Golun, Waseeo, Walo, Goghoo, Tajo, Wurroo, Dhayo, Panthe, 
Soortho, who married into the Muchwa Aheers — his race live atMurmut, 
at Mandwa, and at Kolra on the banks of the Bhadur : his issue was 
Waseeo, Waon, V/olo, Golun, Santurkhee, Soya, Kurno, and Sadool, 
whose sons, Khoro and Mukko, received Nagusree and Kysana. The 
issue of the third son, Duyo, will be found in the Arodro Book. 

The Aheers, — Account of the Aheer Trihe^ extracted from the Book 
of Rawul Jussa Sojana and his Son Bhugwan Jussa Rawul Wago 
itamaya, corroborating the same. 

In the country of Sind was a king named Somra, who had five 
sons: the 1st Wag, the 2nd Kamlio, the 3rd Kattear, the 4th Murmul, 
the 5th Arodro, who settled in the Burda Country. — Wag's race was as 
follows : Palun, Jaetho, Wasa, to whom were three sons, Jusso, 
Lakho, and Duyo. Jusso*s generation was thus : Aso, Sahir, Satho 
Wero, who received his grass in Nesraphulee in the Rampurra district. 
Latho's 2nd son Ruyo received half of Rampurra, and his 3rd son 
Khoko had three sons : the eldest Moojo, received Jampodun in grass, 
and hence the Jampodda tribe ; his second, Wago, received Jolapoor, 
hence the Jolapurree tribe ; his 3rd son, Rano, had also his grass in 
Jolapoor, and his issue mingled with the others : the 4th son was 
Rakho, the 5th Kaloo, Rakho received Ganjawudder, and Sajunwao, 
which last is under Bhaonuggur; Kalo received Veejooka, which is 
the same as Deoka, now under Rajoola. The Lakhnotra, and Ram 
tribes, descended from the Solunkee Rajpoots. — Urjup Solunkee reign- 



205 

ed over Deo (Diu.) Roosliro was his son by another caste : he had two 
sons ; the eldest was Lakhuotra, who married into the Soruthia Aheers, 
and his descendants are termed Lakhontra ; the 2nd son Jonto married 
into the Nepal Aheers. Lakhnotra's son Seehuro had three sons. 
Desoor received Kowaya, Jhalo received Mugalo, and Danturee the 
3rd Khooat received Oontinwuddur and Tiiryam, which last is now 
under Oona. 

The Wala Rajpoots held sovereignty of yore, from whom sprung 
Walojee, who had five sons : the 1st, Pinjur, who married into the 
Aheers, hence the Pinjoor tribe. They received Hurmutyoo Malunia- 
wuddur and Koombharioo, now under Bhownuggur, The 2d, Walojee, 
of this race had four sons, the eldest Waghosee, from -whom the 
Wunar tribe descend ; the 2nd Wawrio, whence the Wawrias ; the 3rd 
Kinkur, from whom came the Kinkras ; the 4th Chowur, whose de- 
scendants are called Chowur Wunar : their grass was originally in 
Bugusra, afterwards in Rajpura in the Bhownuggur country, subse- 
quently in Dewkawuddur and Entis. The Putal tribe sprung from 
the king of Oojen, Vikum Purmar, by a woman of other caste : the 
issue was Purmar, Dharwoand his Putal, who married into the Aheers, 
whence the name of the tribe. The Wala Rajpoots were formerly the 
landholders : many of the Aheers came and took up their residence 
with them, and on the Walas gradually d\yindling away the Aheers 
fell into possession of their grass. 

Tlie Babrias. — Account of the Bahnasy as given me hi/ Ala Wurroo 
of Safer itty and Sangana Dhojkoteela of Wankiody and others — Timbeej 
9th 3Iai/y 1842. 

The Koteelas are considered the highest caste in this part : they are 
descended from a Brahmun of Seehor, but they are the fewest in 
number. The Babrias are believed to have come from Than, from 
whom it was taken by the Jhalas. They migrated to Bugusra, 
Ararelee, and Koondia, whence they were driven by the Kattees. They 
then came to this quarter, which was in the hand of the Wala Rajpoots, 
the same caste as those now in Dhank, from which family the Wala 
Kattees are derived through Wallogee, who on his way to the Ganges 
stopped one might at Bhayasur, and slept with a Kakee female. The 
Babrias at first remained as the Ryots of the Walas, but after a few 
years they drove these out, and kept possession of the villages in 
which they had settled. All the seventy-two tribes come from Than. 
One cause assigned for their leaving this place, is the fear of the 
Padishah's enmity for having given shelter to two Grassias* 
daughters, one of them named Bhawunabaee, whom his army wished 
to seize for him. The Babrias were aided in establishing them- 
selves in Babriawar by Ebliulwala of Jet poor, then a Rajpoot 
Gadee. He was the father of the famous Cliampraj wala, who op- 
posed Feeroz Shah's Army, and was killed by his General Izeo 
Deen, who erected the great Mosque at Mangrol. A gate at Jetpoor 
is still named after the same Champrajwala to this day ; but the 
Walas, whose grass ejitended to Jhaujmer on the east, and Dhank on 



206 

the west, now only retain Dhank. Ebhulwalla gave marriage por- 
tions to #en million virgins : one of those was an Aheer's daughter who 
fell in love with a Brahmun, named Trikum, who had fled from Seehor, 
having killed his brother there. Ebhulwalla was then performing 
Jogan^ i. e. portioning off in marriage the virgins of his country, 
and hearing of an Aheer's daughter being about to destroy herself from 
unrequited love, Ebhulwalla persuaded the Brahmun to marry her, 
promising that his offspring should be included with the Babrias, and 
at their head. The name Koteela was given them from teela, the Brah- 
minical forehead mark. Another reason assigned for the name is the 
Brahmun and Aheer's daughter having claimed the protection of 
Ebhulwalla, who replied," umarekot manehe," it is upon my neck : 
consequently they were called Koteelas. The Dhankra Tribe sprung 
from' Panduws. They were at first the chief tribe, though now held 
inferior to the Koteelas. They are the most numerous of the Babrias, 
and next to them in number are the Wuroos, The Wuroos spring 
from the union of a Jetwa Rajpoot with a Dhankra Babria's daughter, 
when the former reigned at Bhoomlee {ov Goomlee.) Wuroos are still 
called Jetwas among themselves. My informant Bhoj lost his grand- 
father Bhoj and uncle Jhalo Koteela, with forty-five other Babrias, 
and eighteen Bhawurs killed at Kulagud, at the storm and capture of the 
place in S. 1844 by the Nawab's army under command of his 
Deewan Prubhasunkur. Their pallias are now at the village of Waud, 
which has fallen under Jaffrabad, but of which their race are still 
grassias. When this branch of the Koteela race lost its strength by 
the power of the Nawab, the Dewan family began to raise itself on its 
ruins, taking from it the villages of Sur, Goria, and Trakooroo. The 
Aheers came from the Bunee district in Kutch, where their tribe 
still exists, and entered Babriawar from the Muchor Kanta by land— 
and from Deo (Diu) by sea. 

The Babrias* — Account given of the Babrias hy Jeema Bharot of 
Morvee, hut having grass under Joonaghtcr, Genealogist of the Auwab. 

The Toour Rajpoot tribe reigned at Delhi for five generations, and 
being driven thence about the time of the Panduwp, Mantal Toour came 
to Than Kundola, and there reigned. He supported all the people who 
flocked thither. In consequence of a great famine, the men quitted in 
search of other homes or occupation, leaving their wives and children 
at Than : these were of divers castes, and were hence called Bahur or 
Buhur, which in the local dialect signifies numerous — mixed. They 
afterwards left and established themselves in the south of the Peninsula, 
hence called Babriawar. Afterwards Manpul Toour himself took refuge 
in Babriawar, where his race still exists, and are looked on with respect, 
intermarrying wMth the other Rajpoot tribes of the Peninsula. There 
is one house at Rajoola, Dosajee Toour ; one in Kanlur, Manjee Toour; 
one in Meetapoor, Panchanjee Toour ; and in a few other places : they 
have no grass possessions, but receive fees from the Babrias on mar- 
riages and other festivals. This race is now named Thakra. The 
Brahmuns of Seehor, whence the Koteelas are derived, received their 



207 

grass in that place> from Sudrae Jysing, the Salunkee Chief of 
Anhulwara. 

The Khant Gohets, — Account of the Khant Gohels on the western 
borders of Bdbriawar^ and in Naghury given me bj^ Jussa Qohel of 
Timbee, and others. 

This tribe call themselves Gohels, but they spring from the union of a 
Khant woman about fifteen generations back, with one of the Palitana 
family. Raja Gohel, six generations ago conquered seventy villages in 
this quarter from the Waja Rajpoots : the following remain to them, but 
now fallen under the Nawab : — 

1 Timbee, 7 Samtej. 13 Kandee. 

2 Mhota. 8 Wawurdo. 14 Pura. 

3 Sunkra. 9 Bhasa. 15 Dhokurwa. 

4 Gangra. 10 Oogla. 16 Aleedar under 

5 Punehwala. 11 XJmbaru. Koreenar. 

6 Oout walo. 12 "VVajree. 

These Khant Gohel Khants intermarry with the Khussias, the Mhers, 
the Mukwanas, and the Khants. The Wajas now retain grass in Rohee- 
sa, Simbar, and Gular : these intermarry with the Bhaonuggur, Palitanai 
Sathee Bhayad, and other Rajpoots, 



208 



List of the different Tribes ofBahrias, commonly called Bahria Kattees, 



No. 



Titles. 



No. 



Titles. 



10 



15 



20 



25 



30 



Koteela 

Dhankra 

Wuroo 

Gliurga 

Qhoosanba 

Chamya 

Boreecha 

Chubhar 

Chatroja 

Kareta 

M annul 

VVura 

Wusra 

Luya 

Lobud 

Kurena 

Kundhmul 

Shankhlia 

Suchla 

Bboowa 

Bbarmul 

Bbalera 

Dhormueta 

Soonwura 

Beparia 

Kheradot 

Burela 

Pooshatia 

Pudeeara 

Changor 

Chuk 

Rakhur 

Rathor 

Naeesa 

Sbeenng 

Dabbia 



37 ,Dugao 



40 



45 



50 



55 



60 



65 



Labhia 

Kbata 

Khasur 

Khodiala 

Kandhul 

Nepul 

Keelkan 

Kateeal 

Wagla 

Werma 

Dangur 

Chondia 

Khara 

Khulala 

Khuda 

Bboluvla 

Weda Bhoopal 

Shanja 

Nerala 

Sujora 

Slioba 

Kagru 

Mutara 

Sbeeala 

Kesoor 

Dedugra 

Sbubur 

Athur 

Veea 

Keea 

Kbagburda 

Nuvga 

Ladba 

Dbaudba ... 

Oomga 



(fSigaed) Q. Le G. Jacob, 1 tt Assistant, 



209 

Enclosure No. II. to Report dated \6th March 1843. 

Table shewing the value of one Santee of land under Bajree cultivation. 

Average produce after paying the reapers in kind Rs. 15 

Kalsees at something above 9 Rupees per Kalsee Rs. 137 

Expences. 
A 5th share to the Bhagia or household cultivator, thus — 

Paid and Termed Rs. 27 

Seed ... 2 

Labour, exclusive of that in reaping ... ... ... ... ... 10 ' 

Wuswaya Khumal, viz. 

Sotar, Lobar, Koombar, Hujjam, Durzee, Gamat, Rajghar, and Dhor 13 

52 

Net produce to landholder ... 85 

Value of a Santee of land under Til cultivation. — ""^ 

Average produce 10 Kalsees, or Rupees ... 150 

N. B. No Wuswaya Kumal is charged on Til. 

Bhagia a 5th Share ... 

Muudanun preparing and cleaning the ground 

Seed 

Reaping 

Labor and extra expences attending Til Harvest 



Net produce to landholder Rs. 88 

(Signed) G. Le G. Jacob, 1st Assistant. ' 
(True Extract) J. P. Willoughby, Chief Secretary. 




Desultory Observations on the probable Origin of the Ghonds, loith 
a Vocabulary of the Dialect spoken by the Ghond Tribes upon the 
Gawil Hills. By Assistant Surgeon W. H. Bradley, Sth Regt. 
Nizam's Infantry, at Ellichpore. 

[Communicated by the Author.] 
The following conjectural remarks upon the descent of the Ghonds, 
are offered with the hope of drawing attention to the subject, having 
no merit beyond this to reconimend them. The knowledge we 
possess is by no means very familiar or extended, relating to the 
obscure tribes found scattered up and down the Continent of India, 
more especially those isolated communities inhabiting its Mountaiu 
Ranges, — a circumstance to be accounted for with the latter races 
as much from their barbarous habits as in the difficulties their coun- 
try offers to a freer communication. 

The principal facts known about the Ghonds are but very limited, 
a few of which have already been recapitulated in a former commu- 
nication. Feeling deeply interested in these inoffensive beings, some 
pains have been taken to collect a tolerably copious Vocabulary of their 
Dialect,— at least such as is spoken' on the Gawil Hills; which before 
submitting will be prefaced by some slight references to certain lead- 
ing features of the race, physical and moral. 



210 

In hazarding a Scythian descent for these rude Mountaineers, we 
shall find, as we proceed in the course of the investigation, so many 
corroboratory proofs of this assertion, that, though it raaj- be not 
allowed, still the grounds on which they have been made will at all 
events, from their plausibility, show they have not heedlessly been 
advanced. No facts stronger in confirmation can be adduced, or pro- 
bably so conclusive in their nature, as those relating to their physical 
peculiarities ; the analogies drawing very closely with those distinc- 
tively characteristic of the Mongolian race. In them we see a square 
broad-faced skull, with low and narrow forehead ; the hair black, 
lank, coarse and tliin, sometimes altogether awanting on the lip and 
chin : the face broad and flat, with high cheek bones, wide mouth, 
end thick lips : the alae of the nose enlarged and flattened : skin 
swarthy and coarse : features harsh and forbidding : with a frame of 
body strongly knit, and stature rather under than over the medium 
height. This is an organization with which the eff^eminate southern 
Asiatic has no participation. Placed between the natives of the 
Deccan, and of Hindoostan Proper, we shall perceive the Ghond's 
condition to be as little analogous to theirs in a moral point of view 
as we have witnessed the case in a physical one : so great, indeed, 
are these discrepancies, that it is quite evident we have to look fur- 
ther a-field for their primogeniture. Even with the Bheels, a neigh- 
bouring hill tribe as rude, and even more barbarous, than themselves, 
between whom we might naturally conceive the possibility of some- 
thing like identity existing, we look in vain for any such results ; 
the only similitude traced consisting in one common stare of bar- 
barism. Though uncouth and rugged in his nature, the Ghond yet 
possesses kindly feelings, and if he has not many virtues, he has at 
,the same time not many vices : his great besetting one is a brutal 
indulgence in drinking, which is carried to excess, but save this single 
failing, the blandishments of sense seem little to aflect his rough nature. 
Such was the kind of stuff" those men were made of who, streaming 
;from the summits of the Caucasus as from a centre, mysteriously 
overspread the universe in process of time. 

The tract of country the Ghonds inhabit, is very extensive, and of 
the wildest nature ; spread over by the deepest forests and ranges 
of rugged and broken mountains. From these arise the head-waters 
of many vast-sized rivers, whose thousand rills come tumbling down 
into the valleys, producing there the rankest vegetation. Were the 
industry of Man here exercised in turning the natural advantages 
to account, Ghondwana might teem with Nature's richest pro- 
ducts. Pastoral pursuits occupy the attention of many ; not a few 
cu tivate the various fertile strips of land occurring along the 
valleys, reclaimed from the wild jungle or cleared on the hill side ; 
whilst a remnant, and not a small.one either, are found still retaining 
their old erratic habits, with much of their attending ferocity. These 
are principally of a tribe called ** Nals,'' or shepherds, whose thievish 
and^violent habits have brought the whole race into an universal 
and undeserved disrepute. Possessing no very defined notions of the 



211 

rights of property, they are shiinneJ and despised by their own people, 
and placed by them lowest in the scale of social life, as they concede 
the highest grade to the <♦ Korkoo," or cultivator ; a pleasing 
proof of an approach towards huraanization in so rude a race", where 
we find pruning hooks and ploughshares usurping the place of swords 
and spears. None but the Nal goes armed, and then carries nothing 
but the bow and arrow. All, however, are provided with a small 
hatchet, serving not only for defence but for employment in do- 
mestic purposes as well. 

Of their early history, they themselves know nothing ; nor are they 
in the remotest degree acquainted with any event relative to their 
original occupation of the land. Tradition observes a provoking silence, 
rendered more so by the absence of a written language : all is there- 
fore left to conjecture and vague surmise, but it is not difficult to con- 
ceive what the upshot would be in a case like this, where wandering 
habits are associated with warlike propensities. Wherever depasturage 
"was found compatible w^ilh their wants, Ihere in all probability 
they would tarry, supposing they were sufficiently powerful to carry 
out their wishes. The circumstances of their no longer seeming to be 
a military people, are more apparent than real, for we cannot suppose 
them holding undisturbed for ages their acquired boundaries, without 
possessing the power to maintain what they had gained. It is indeed 
far from being improbable that they are the descendants of those 
warlike people, immortalized by Hindoo Poets as the Monkey 
Hosts who, under Hanuman, overthrew the King of Ceylon, 
and gave rise to those extravagant fables recorded in the Ramayana : 
for in sober reality Rama was but mortal like ourselves, and son of 
a King of Oude. Banished from his father's court, he turned ascetic, 
and dwelt amongst the forests upon the Godavery. His wife Sita 
having been forcibly abducted by the King of Ceylon, for the purpose 
of recovering her he seeks the aid of the King of Karnata, who sends 
an army of his subjects to his assistance, led by the redoubtable Gen- 
eral Hanuman, who regains her, and destroys the ravisher. The 
uncouth manners, and mountain habits, combined with most unpre* 
possessing features, give these mountaineers some pretensions to a 
Simian character in the eyes of their more refined neighbours ; and 
what was probably first applied in bantering derision, has, with a 
wonder^loving people, now become serious matter of belief. Hanuman 
is a favorite shrine throuj^hout the Mahratta country, particularly in 
those villages bordering the country of these mountain tribes. 

Reverting to that restless disposition so particularly apparent in 
the Nals, but existing more or less in all, we may note in it one of 
many other connecting links to those nomadic tribes we conceive 
they sprung from, and which is now, as it ever has been, the cause of 
retaining them in their brutal and uninformed condition, whilst all 
around has progressed in civilization. No matter how hard gripped 
they be by want and hunger, they hang back from seeking any service 
which would impose a check upon their personal freedom : if by 



212 

accident they get coaxed into the fact, they seek the first available 
opportunity of regaining their wild mountain sides, as impatiently 
indeed as caged birds take wing who had forced their wires. The 
Ghond must not be judged of by his outward looks. They are but sorry 
enough ; but question him quietly, and you will feel astonished at the 
haughty notions you hear the miserable being before you holding of 
himself. He conceives his race were formerly the original masters of 
the land, and this vain notion is the only approach to anything 
traditional about himself which he possesses. At this present day, 
tribes very much the same as these are seen roaming over the wide 
Steppes of Tartary ; and tiie general identities between the two are far 
too remarkable to be looked upon merely as strange coincidences. To 
read the account that travellers give of these nomadic tribes, would 
make persons at all acquainted with the Ghond character conceive it 
had been written expressly of them. Bell, in his travels — given in Pinker- 
ton's collection — describes some wandering hordes he fell in with upon 
the confines of Siberia, as being perfectly distinct from the natives of 
the place, possessing the Tartar countenance, barbarous in manners 
yet not savage. Inoffensive, civil, tractable, honest, and not 
wanting, in couragp, — ardently attached to liberty, and spurning con- 
troul, — greatly given to intoxication, — their greatest failing perfect 
ignorance of literature ; in matters of religion having obscure notions 
of the Deity, worshipping the sun and moon, and believing firmly in 
sorcery or Shamanism. Now there is nothing here set forth but might 
mutatis mutandis be applied with equal force and truth to the 
Ghond's condition. That very remarkable and revolting charge of 
being Anthropophagous, which the ancient Scythians have had laid to 
them, is brought against a portion of these people also. Its uncommon 
and singular nature makes the instance a valuable one for our pur- 
pose, for it would seem that this horrid rite is confined only to one of 
the three Great Families of the World, of which these people are sup- 
posed to form an integrant portion. The old traveller Rubruguis, 
who was sent by St. Louis to the Cham of Tartary, tell us in the 
account he gives of his mission, that ** the people of Thibet had 
formerly a custom to eat the bodies of their deceased parents, that they 
might make no other sepulchre for them than their own bowels, but 
of late they have left off this custom, because thereby they became 
odious to all other nations." The Ghonds upon the Gawil Hills deny the 
existence of the rite amongst their tribes, and they and others of their 
race who have intercourse with the civilized world, would have very 
likely allowed such a practice to have fallen into disuetude from the 
reasons the Friar gives as advanced by the Thibetians: but the case 
would be different with those wilder tribes cut off from all connection 
with their fellow men, surrounded as they are by their deep forests, 
and deeper prejudices, and it is by no means unreasonable to suppose 
that they would still retain their ancient customs, and it is in those 
savage regions about the sources of the Nerbudda that these Anthro- 
pophagists are found. Horrid as such recitals are, be it remembered 



213 

that Strabo says in his time the custom prevailed in Ireland, and 
Rhodrogenius declares the same to have been the case in Scotland. 

In their recognising the Sun as the incorporated essence of the 
Deity, or nr^aterlal evidence of their Creator, as well as from their vague 
notions about an eternal reckoning beyond the grave for deeds done 
in the flesh, we are led to conclude they are not wholly without some 
knowled^jje of a revelation of the True God having reached them, 
though the channels through which it flowed are now no longer visible. 
The worship of the sun was the great apostacy after the Flood ; 
and it is not improbable, therefore, that their ancestors might 
have taken this sun worship with them from the plains of 
Shinar. The Tower of Babel, both from its name and form, 
had doubtless some connection with this idolatry. The Ghond, in ad- 
dition to his adoration of the sun, performs a slighter homage to the 
moon, — believes in the influence of genii over his destinies, and strives 
to conciliate the good will of the malignant ones by the aid of sorcery, 
in which he lias a firm faith, — this Jadooism being in point of fact 
identical with the Shamanism of Tartary. Tiiey possess no idols, un- 
less we term those huge misshapen rocks such which, from their gro- 
tesque appearance, have been invested with something of a supernatural 
character; smearing them over with oil and sendoor, he pays them 
adoration. In this worshipping of huge stones, or rocks, may there 
not be some resemblance traced to similar customs with the Druidf^ ? 
Like them, too, we see their temples are circular enclosures, open to the 
heavens, formed merely of a low wall of loose stone, the entrance to 
which is towards ihe rising sun: opposite, are arranged a row of co- 
nical shaped stones, anointed with oils and sendoor, before which 
flowers, fruits, and seeds, alone are off*ered. Rings of single stones 
are often met with in secluded spots, the work of some devOut cow- 
herd, within which he pays his adorations. In connection with their 
religious belief, we must note a curious circumstance of their having 
the Scythian symbol of the sun, a horse, cut out upon a wooden pillar, 
on which the sun is carved also. On questioning them upon this parti- 
cular, they could give no reason for placing the horse there too, be- 
yond it being their wisdom to do so ; and all, therefore, we can suppose, 
is that it: has resulted from some shadowy tradition that has been hand- 
ed down to them. These pillars are two in number, with rude figures of 
the sun on one, and the sun, moon, and horse, upon the other. Their 
forms are remarkable ; and whether by accident, or design, are of them- 
selves symbolical of the sun, such being the shape those monuments 
took that were erected to its honor, and hence termed Obelisks, from 
the God Bel, the solar deity of the Chaldeans. 

They can hardly be said to have a Priesthood, but such as it is, they 
elect amongst themselves, having no other consecration thau this to the 
ctfice. His sacerdotal duties are more connected with 
" The poisonous charms 
Of baleful superstition," 



214 

than any rational adoration of that Great Being whose power and might 
be recognises in the glory of the great star of day. Neither have they days, 
or stated times, for worship, but just when the whim seizes them, l^lie 
Priest has yet another office to fulfil, — the union dating from the re- 
motest antiquity : he is the physician also, as with tlie ancient Egyp- 
liaiis, none beside them being deemed worthy of so important an of- 
fice as the welfare of the public health. Perhaps the proofs surpass- 
ing all others, demonstrative of the existence of national relatioubhips, 
are found nowhere so satisfactory as in the evidence of language, and 
therefore it has been not inaptly termed the touchstone of nations. Dr. 
Johnstone has some appropriate remarks upon this point, very applica- 
ble in the present instance : he says — ** The similitude and derivation of 
language afford the most indisputable proof of the traduction of nations, 
and the genealogy of mankind ; they add often physical certainty to 
historical evidence of ancient migrations, and of the revolution of ages 
which left no written monuments behind tliem." Idioms and phrase- 
ology foreign to the original language, would iroperceptil)ly creep in and 
beconie incorporated with the moiher tongue, were it hedged in as this 
has been by other tribes all speaking various languages. To such an 
extent has this occurred, that they now no longer can discriminate this 
foreign admixture fromtheolder stock; ignorant, too, as they are of the 
use of symbolical writing. The first consideration in this investiga- 
tion will therefore be the endeavour to obtain the older tongue, and we 
think we shall show we have succeeded in taking the first step towards 
overcoming this difficulty. In a work recently written upon the sta- 
tistics of Malacca, by Captain Newbold of the Madras Army, he has 
dwelt very fully upon the condition of the Aborigines of the Malayan 
Peninsular, who are called Benuas. This race, according to his des- 
cription, have precisely the same physiognomy, usages, and habits, as 
\*e find the Ghonds possessing and^ — mirahile dictu ! — anextraordinary 
versimilitude in dialect as well. A vocabulary of the Benuas has been 
given by Captain Newbold, and we find upon comparing ours with it, 
Bome remarkable examples of verbal concordance, — in those instances, 
too, where we should most naturally expect to have found them. The 
examples might have been more numerous had the materials been more 
abundant, but so far as they go they appear perfectly satisfactory,— t 
agreeing, as they do, in such a general unity of principle. We are there- 
fore led to believe the origin of the Benuas or aborii^ines of Malay to 
be identical with the Ghonds ; and those words which may be found 
used in common by both races will probably prove to be the ancient 
language spoken by the nation they were descended from. It may be 
remarked, that we not only perceive an affinity of idiom between the 
two races, but an analogy as well, for both partake of the monosyl- 
labic construction. 

Thus, then, to the best of our ability we have endeavoured to 
•trengthen, by all the proofs we had the power of bringing forward, 
the truth of the proposition set out with, — that the Ghonds have a Mon- 
golian descent. In the absence of all historical evidence, and of any 
assistance from the trib?s themselves, much will be left to mere con- 



239 

these hours ; bringini^ out an old-fashioned and much damaged quad- 
rant, and seating himself on the poop, he first popped a pill of opium 
into his foul mouth, and then proceeded to impress the profundity of 
his wisdom on the Arabic crew. To settle the latitude he moved the 
indicator backwards and forwards for some time, then fixed the screw 
at a certain figure, took a long look through the one vacant glass frame 
and the half broken one of the other, then laying down the instrument^ 
masticated his bang in solemn meditation before he gave forth the 
imaginary latitude I He did not appear to understand the difference 
between the latitude and longitude. The nakoda was a very light 
shrivelled up mummy-like personage; such a devotee and fanatic that 
after leaving the waters of Bombay he became very churlish and un- 
civil to us; holding: up his garments lest they should be polluted by 
the contact of any thing belonging to a christian whenever one of us 
happened to go near him. This little man showed his attainments by 
his implicit faith in the infallibilty of his malum aforesaid; and was 
very indignant indeed when any of us attempted, as we did at first, 
to put his mentor right. Hence we soon understood that if ever we 
reached the intended port, it would be ** more by good luck than good 
guidance/' We had a good compass and a watch on chronometer 
principles, with which, and a good chart, we contrived to mark down 
Qur position roughly, computing the distance by the difference of time 
of sunset. 

Towards evening, either on account of the new moon, or our escape 
from the storm, there was a general rejoicing among the crew, ainging 
to the accompaniment of a tambourine and tomtoms. The evening 
waned away, and we went on at a rate of about seven knots an hour. 
Three of ourselves had passed the evening more gaily than usual ; 
the fourth was confined to bed by fever. About midnight we were 
nearly dashed out of our beds by the vessel striking heavily, and • 
tremendous sea next moment breaking over us. Then arose a most 
demoniacal succession of lamentable cries from the crew, just such as 
one would imagine to be the result of an announced holiday to his 
Satanic majesty's subjects. The helm was abandoned : all was con- 
fusion and uproar. If at this moment the anchor had been cast we 
might have been safe, for the vessel drifted some way before sbe again 
•truck. We each tried to encourage, to bribe, and to threaten, the orew 
to stand to their duty, but no one would listen. The breakers now 
rollad over us every moment, and the hen-coops were dashing about 
with other loose things in a fearful manner. We took refuge under 
the poop: a large looking-glass was banging about on its string ; one 
of us took it and threw it away. We were obliged to hold on while 
each surge went over us. The wind was southerly, and bV')wing us on 
the shoreward side ; the sails should have been lowered, as with their 
assistance the vessel was laid on her beam ends at each breaker. We 
relieved her a little by cutting the main sheets, but this was only ex- 
changing one evil for another, as the wreck attached to the freed sail 
kept sweeping and lashing furiously across the vessel, till at last getting 
wet, the main-mast broke off about six feet from the deck ; then one 



240 

of the large wooden tanks fastened at each side of the quarter-deck 
broke loose, and after a few heavy lurches, knocked the other one 
through the gunwale of one side, and carried away the opposite gun- 
wale in making a passage for itself into the sea. The mizen mast soon 
followed the main, and suddenly the poop gave way, and sunk upon 
our heads to within three (3) feet of the deck, compelling us to quit 
our position, which we could do with less danger, since the deck had 
been cleared of its floating lumber. Three of our party not being 
swimmers, were made fast to the stump of the main-mast, and the 
fourth who, on getting out of bed, had taken his watch from under the 
pillow and thrown the guard over his head, scrambled upon the poop, 
when a tremendous sea struck and smashed it to pieces, sweeping it 
into the boiling sea with its occupants, consisting, besides the one men- 
tioned, of the nakoda and a Turkish merchant of Medina. During all 
this time such of the crew as were not washed overboard were like 
" the sons of Belial, continuing the uproar ;*' under cover of which 
they were employed breaking open the boxes and bales they could get 
at, in search of treasure. No one knew where or how far off the land 
was, as the darkness was extreme, and none of us dreamt of being 
saved ; but we shook hands, and made up our minds that our race was 
run, and that in a few minutes more we should be " food for fishes." 
Then came bitter thoughts of our homes, and all those most dear to 
us ; and to add to the sting of death, there was no chance of their ever 
learning our fate. The waves still roared over us, and yawned for 
their prey. The wreck soon went to pieces, and the party tied to the 
mast were cast on shore with a few bruises received in the passage. 
They were surrounded by the Arabs, who were heard bawling to each 
other news of the wreck from the caverns in the hills : they were then 
pushed forward to the interior ; and passing on the shore the body of 
their companion, lying with a deep gash on the forehead, the}' were 
anxious to scrape a hole in the sand and cover his remains, but the 
Arabs would not permit them to stop, and they were hurried inland 
over a most dreadful stony valley, sand for a few miles, when they 
passed a large square building, and shortly descended into and crossed 
a rocky nullah, arriving at the town of Geda on the other bank, and 
were conducted to the habitation of a Banyan, who lodged them on 
the roof of his house, (all here are flat roofed) over which there was 
a ruinous framework of tattered matting of date leaves. Here the 
Banyan had no choice in receiving them ; he but obeyed the mandate of 
the " Sheikh of Belled." He gave them some dates and water. They 
tried to forget their fatigues and dangers in sleep, but the place being 
all open to the wind, the cold prevented them. Couched on the earthen 
floor, all th'^ covering one had was a night cap, another the shoulders 
and arms of his shirt, and the third had saved a shirt. Next morning 
crowds came from a distance to inspect the strangers, and most insist- 
ed that they were lepers I In the course of the day their lost com- 
panion arrived, lamed by the stones, having no shoes, and in a state of 
extreme exhaustion from long-continued fever — encreased by the ac- 



241 

cident which had just occurred. It appeared that just as he was wash- 
ed overboard with the wreclc of the poop, two planks which were 
joined in the middle at edge by some swivel or nail on which they could 
play freely, caught his thigh between them, and, in the raging of the 
sea, lacerated it very severely ; and keeping it under water for some 
time, nearly drowned him, when a wave dashed the planks away : al- 
most senseless he buffeted in direction with the waves, until his foot 
touched the ground, when a heavy billow overthrew him, and the next 
thing he recollected was lying on the sand with one of his dogs on each 
side of him. Sliortly afterwards his faithful servant Juwan came up, 
and told him that he had found his master lying senseless on the shore 
where he had been washed up ; that he carried him a little distance 
from the spray — searched for, found, and gave him some of the con- 
tents of a bottle that he thought was beer, but while he was thus en- 
gaged an Arab came up and took the bottle from him. The limbs had 
become quite stiff from the cold and wet, and he was not able to move 
till warmed by the morning sun. He had a flannel sleeping gown on, 
to which his existence that night was probably owing: his watch and 
a valuable diamond ring secured amongst his hair. The watch was 
given over to the care of Juwan, who concealed it in his langootee, 
where he had some silver spoons and forks saved. During the night 
Juwan had seen the Arabs breaking up and robbing all the chests or 
boxes that came on shore. He now walked over the same road his com- 
panions had passed over during the night. Near the large house he 
became so ve»'y faint as to be obliged to seat himself on a stone, when 
an Arab girl brought him water ; and what a delicious draught that was. 
As soon as the party was a little settled, nothing but misery and mis- 
fortune staring us in the face, and one murmured at having been saved 
for a worse fate ! We were often threatened to have our throats cut 
unless a ransom was paid ; and though the Bedouins had ascertained 
beyond any doubt our absolute nakedness, yet they thought we had 
only to will and we could pay them any sura. Whites had been heard 
of, but never seen in their country before, and were all supposed to be 
sorcerers ; and in this belief the lame, halt, and blind, from all parts 
flocked to be cured instantly by the medical oflicer or hakim, and 
none was more urgent than the Sheikh of the clan, an old man about 
seventy, of a very forbidding aspect. He said all he required was to 
be reorganized, or if that little favour could not be granted, at least 
that he might be enabled to perform the nuptial duties by two young 
wives he had recently added to his already large stock I No denial 
would do : he begged, beseec'aed, and threatened, in turns — sometimes 
saying << Ah, the hakim is sorry for the wreck, he is ill, and in a bad 
humour ; when his heart rises he will grant my little requests.'' A 
valuable medicine chest had been lost in the wreck, and the hakim 
promised to do much good among them if this was restored. Then 
they begged for written talismans, and were accommodated with small 
pieces of paper with the hakim's name written upon them. 
[The remainder of the notes has not been received. — Secy.] 



242 

Memorandum on the Citif of Shikarpcre, in Upper Scinde, By 

Captain T. Postans, 15ih Regiment N. I. 
[ Communicated by the Author. ] 

Shikarpore may be considered the most important town in the 
country of Sindh in point of trade, population, and influence. It is 
situated in Upper Sindh, or above Sindh proper, at a distance of 
twenty four miles N. VV. from the Indus at Sukkur, about forty 
miles from Larkhana, and thirty-six miles from the edge of the desert 
at Rojhan, which separates Upper Sindh from Cutchee. 

2. Shikarpore dates its origin to the year of the Hijira 1026, 
(A. D« 1617 j is an ill built dirty town, its walls in a state of delapida- 
tion and decay, the consequence of the total neglect and apathy of the 
Chiefs of these countries to the improvement of their possessions, 
further shown in the neglect of the Sindh Canal which flows within a 
mile of the city towards Larkhana, providinor means of irrigation to a 
large tract of country, and a temporary but important water commu- 
nication from the Indus during a few months of the year. 

3. The houses in Shikarpore are built of unburut bricks, upper- 
roomed, and some of those belonging to the wealthier soucars are 
of respectable size, and convenient. The streets are narrow, confined, 
and dirty in the extreme. The Great Bazar, which is the centre of all 
the Trade and banking transactions for which Shikarpore is celebrated, 
extends for a distance of 800 yards, running immediately through the 
centre of the city. It is, in common with the bazars of all towns in 
Sindh, protected from the oppressive heat by mats stretched from 
the houses on either side : this, although it imparts an appearance of 
coolness, occasions, by the stagnation of the air, an insufferably close 
and evidently unwholesome atmosphere, evinced in the sickly appear- 
ance of those who pass nearly the whole of their time in the shops and 
counting houses. This Bazar is generally thronged with people, and 
though there is little display of merchandize, the place has the air of 
bustle and importance, which it merits. The walls of Shikarpore, also 
of unburnt brick, have been allowed to remain so totally without re- 
pairs, that they no longer deserve the name of a protection to the city; 
they enclose a space of 3800 yards in circumference. 

4. 'There are eight gates. The suburbs of Shikarpore are very ex- 
tensive, and a great proportion of the population, calculated as belong- 
ing to the city, reside outside, particularly the Mahomedans, and work- 
ing classes : with the exception of one tolerable musjid, on the southern 
side, Shikarpore possesses no building of any importance. 

5. By a census taken with considerable care during the preceding 
month, the following is a return of the inhabitants of this city, includ- 
ing the suburbs. 

Hindoos 19013 souls, houses 368G. 

Males 9()04 

Females 9409 

Mahomedans 8558 souls, houses 1800. 

Males 44G7 

Females 4091 



243 

In detail thus. 
Hindoos, divided according to shops. 

Grain Sellers 64 

Confectioners 56 

Cotton Sellers It 

Soucars 35 

Shroffs 66 

Cloth Merchants 65 

Goldsmiths 94 

Dealers in Drugs 32 

„ „ Metals 17 

„ „ Silk 37 

^, „ Enamel 19 

„ „ Perfumes 11 

Vegetable and Milk Sellers 46 

Dealers in Dry Fruits 97 

„ „ Salt and Sundries 249 

Ivory Turners 3 

Total Hindoo Shops 903 

Note. — This is of course only a portion of the Hindoo population. 

The Mahomedans, divided according to Trade, &c. 

Weavers of Coarse Cloth 1554 

Dyers and Washermen 1248 

Oil Pressors 50 

Weavers of Mats 30 

Tailors 300 

Barbers 244 

Shoemakers, and Workers in Leather 305 

Ironmongers 290 

Embroiderers 95 

Lapidaries 164 

Potters 103 

Cotton Cleaners 121 

Butchers 89 

Carpenters 246 

Preparers of Woolen Mumiels 33 

Labourers 467 

Musicians, Singers, &c 267 

Cossids 83 

Gardeners 47 

Syuds and Moolahs 433 

Cultivators 2389 

Total 8558 

Independant of the above there are altogether 1001 AfFghans and Pa- 
tans in the city of Shikarpore, Employed principally as cultivators, 
and a few for police duties by the Government. They are of the follow- 
ing tribes, 1 Populzye, 2 Peshenee ("Syuds,) 3 Barukzye, 4 Noorzye, 
5 Rasakzye, 6 Magub, 7 Lukoozye, 8 Dooranee, 9 Baber, 10 Oos- 
teranee, 11 Monjin, 12 Kakur, 13 Ghilzee, 14 Bureeck, 15 Burdu- 
ranee, 16 Firheen, 17 Babee, 18 Dumanee, 19 O wan, 20 Perunee. 

6. It will be seen from the above that the population of Shikarpore 
may be calculated at 28571 (say 30,000) souls, of whom 9558 f say 
10,000) or one-third, are Mahomedans. In the above are also included 



244 

many Hindoos, who are employed in distant countries as agents from 
the soucars, returning at various periods to their families, who are 
always left at Shikarpore. 

7. The Hindoos carry on all the trade, whilst the cultivation and 
artizanship of almost every denomination is in the hands of the Ma- 
homedans. 

8. The dress of the Hindoos of Shikarpore varies little from that 
of the same class in other parts of India, except in those who are ser- 
vants of the Native Governments, as deputies or collectors of revenue, 
and these invariably adopt the beard and Mahomedan costume peculiar 
to Sindh. In their habits of life and religious observances, the Hin- 
doos of this city, as indeed throughout the whole of the Mahomedan 
countries westward of the Indus, indulge in a degree of laxity totally 
at variance with the strict rules by which they generally profess to be 
regulated; they possess, however, an unusuul degree of influence at Shi- 
karpore, and are too valuable to the financial resources of the country 
not to be permitted to maintain it. 

9- With the exception of the Moollahs and Syuds, few of the Ma- 
homedans of this city are either wealthy or influential. The AfFghan 
Zamindars, who, under that rule held important possessions in the vici- 
nity, and were men of note and consideration, have been gradually 
stripped of their rights by the Talpur Chiefs, although in many cases 
the same were guaranteed to them under promises held to be sacred. 
In consequence of this their, number has considerably decreased, and 
those who remain are poor, and from the connections they have form- 
ed in the country have become naturalized, and are no longer entitled 
to be considered as foreigners. 

10. The country in the immediate vicinity of Shikarpoor is low, and 
admits freely of irrigation from the inundations of the river Indus by 
means of smaller nullahs leading from the Sindh Canal. Cultivation is 
extensively carried on, and the gardens of Shikarpoor are rich in all 
the fruits peculiar to the country : the Mangoe, Neem, Accacia, Peepul, 
and Mulberry trees, attain great size. The soil is a rich alluvial, and 
its capabilities for production are no where better displayed than in 
the Mogullee district (that in which Shikarpore is situated,) owing to 
the advantages in this respect (possessed by nearly the whole of Upper 
Sindh) being turned to due account ; still, comparatively speaking, only 
a limited portion of land is brought under cultivation. Rice and Ju- 
warree form the great Khurreefov Autumnal, and wheat the Ruhhee 
or Spring crop. The former are entirely dependant on the inundations 
which commence to be available for purposes of cultivation about the 
middle of April, and continue until the middle of September. The 
ruhhee crops are raised by means of wells and bunds, formed from the 
inundations. The soil is so rich that no manure of any kind is used, the 
inundations bringing with them a certain slimy matter, which appears 
highly conducive to fertility. The ground is allowed to remain fallow 
from the reaping of one Khurreef crop in October until the sowing 
of another in April or May, and the same with the ruhhee lands. This 
rule appears to obtain ail over the country. Water is found at an 



245 

average of about 20 feot from the surface, and to a depth of 60 feet ; 
the finest description of sand is alone observable, with the alluvial soil 
as a superstrata ; a stone, or rocky formation of any description, is 
not to be seen. 

11. All the approaches to Sbikarpore are bad, from the country 
being so constantly intersected with water-courses, and no measures 
being taken to provide bridges or repair the roads, which are cut up 
by gharees, and the constant traffic of camels, bullocks, &c. A compa- 
ratively tritiing outlay would obviate this, as also improve the Sindh 
Canal, which, from having been allowed to choke up at its mouth, and 
get generally into disrepair, is only navigable from the end of April to 
the beginning of October ;* whereas it is capal)le of affording an im- 
portant means of water communication from the Indus to Shikarpore, 
for at least nine months of the year. 

12. Shikarpore being in the immediate route for the transmission 
of merchandize to Khorassan, and countries to the north-west, by 
the pass of the Bolan, has, with Dera Ghazee Khan, obtained the title 
of the ** Gates of Khorassan." Its influence is more immediately 
felt, however, in the banking transactions which, by means of Agents, 
it carries on in every intermediate place above the Bolan Pass, from 
Quettah and Kelat, to Bokhara and Herat, as also in all places of 
mercantile importance in India. Vexatious transit and other duties on 
goods pursuing the Shikarpore route towards Khorassan, have tended 
to turn much of its former trade, especially in European goods received 
from its port of Kurrachee, into the Channel of communication to the 
N. W. by way of Sonmeanee, Bella, and Kelat, the more direct, 
and at present by far the less expensive route ; still I have reason to 
think that if our political influence with the chiefs of the countries 
bordering the Indus will admit of it, a revisal of their imposts,! 
together with a settlement of Cutchee and suppression of the maraud* 
ing system in that province and the Bolan Pass, would revive the 
trade of Shikarpore, and induce its merchants, who do not want for 
energy, to purchase largely of such investments as might be cheaply 
transmitted by means of the River Indus: with the absence of tolls on 
merchandize, in transit, whether by water or land, they would be sure 
of making a favorable market, coupled also with the protection afforded 
them through the desert of Cutchee, which they could only formerly 
procure at an exorbitant amount of black mail to every leader of a 
predatory band. 

13. The various productions of these countries, and their prices 
in the Shikarpore market, J have attracted the attention of that ener- 
getic body the Chamber of Commerce of Bombay, and in the article of 

* The present state of the mouth of this Canal is such, that the river must rise 
at least ten feet from its ordinary level before it will pass to the bed of the Canal. 

t See a list of Export, Import, and Transit duties levied on articles of trade at 
Shikarpore, by the author, published in the Bombay Government Gazette of the 
28th July. 

X A montlily Prioo Current of articles in the Shikarpore market, is now publish- 
ed by authority. 



246 

Indigo alone there can be little doubt but that tlie produce of the 
Khyrpore, Bhawulpore, and the Punjaub countries will forin a staple 
return commodity for merchandize to be transmitted from the above 
Presidency. Silk (raw,) Drugs, and Dyes, may also be enumerated as well 
worthy of attention, Shikarpore receives from Kurrachee Bunder, Mar- 
war, Mooltan, Bhawulpore, Khyrpore, and Loodhiana, European Piece 
Goods, Raw Silk, Ivory, Cochineal, Spices of all sorts. Coarse Cotton 
Cloths, Raw Silk (China,) Kinkaubs, Silk manufactured. Sugar Candy, 
Cocoanuts, Metals, Kirame (or groceries,) Drugs of sorts, ludigo. Opi- 
um, Saffron, and Dyes of sorts, from Cutchee, Khorassan, and the North 
West, Raw Silk(Toorkistan,) Fruits of sorts. Madder, Turquoises, x\n-. 
timony. Medicinal herbs. Sulphur, Alum, Saffron, Assafaetida, Gums, 
Cochineal, and Horses. The Exports from Shikarpore are confined 
to transmission of goods to Khorassan through the Bolan, and a tole- 
rable trade with Cutchee (Bagh, Gundava, Kotree, and Dadur). They 
consist of Indigo (the most important,) Henna, Metals of all kinds, 
Country Coarse and fine Cloths, European Piece Goods (chintzes,) ic, 
Mooltanee Coarse Cloths, Silks manufactured. Groceries, Spices, Raw 
Cotton, Coarse Sugar, Opium, Hemp Seed, Shields, Embroidered Horse 
Cloths, and Dry Grains. The influence of the British Government, and 
the protection it has already afforded to trade in these countries, have 
had their effect at Shikarpore, evinced in the increising revenue, * and 
•ettlement there of influential traders from Loodhiana, Umritsir, Bha- 
wulpore, and other places. 

14. The revenue of Shikarpore derivable from trade, amounted 

last year to Rupees 54,736 

Other taxes, and revenue for lands belonging to the Town. 16,G45 

Making a total of Rupees... 71,381 

Divided between the Khyrpore and Hydrabad Chiefs, in the propor- 
tion of f ths to the former, and |^ths to the latter. The lands and villa- 
ge! forming the Shikarpore Pergunnah amount to about six Talookahs, 
and about sixty villages, of which four Talookahs and twenty-three 
villages only belong to the Government. The revenue of the whole, 
deducting Jaghires, may be about two lacks annually. 

15. The Government of the Town is vested in two agents, or 
Governors, furnished by the Hydrabad and Khyrpoor Ameers, who 
have also the duty of the police of the districts, and collection of reve- 
nue. 

The climate of Shikarpore is sultry, and the heat excessive from 
the middle of March until the end of August. Here are no periodical 
rains, though storms are generally looked for at the end of June or 
middle of July. If rain falls at that time, it eontinues only for a space 
of two or three days, but severe falls occur frequently at the Vernal 
Equinox. 

The air is remarkably dry and clear : the low situation of this Town, 
coupled with its being surrounded by stagnant pools close to the walls, 

* The soucars report that the trade of this placo has iacreasod nearly one-third 
during the current year. 



247 

and a large space of the adjacent country for a considerable period 
being completely under water, would warrant a supposition that the 
place was exceedingly unhealthy ; yet it is not so except for a short 
period, from the middle to the end of September, during which the in- 
undations are drying up, and ague in a mild form is prevalent. Ex- 
posure to the sun of Sindh, whether Upper or Lower, during the hot 
months, is invariably attended with dangerous effects, and for a cer- 
tain period of the year the Natives themselves avoid it as much as 
possible. The hot winds at Shikarpore lose much of their intensity, 
prevailing generally from the south ward, and passing over a considerable 
expanse of water : they continue, however, during the months of April, 
May, and June, to blow till midnight. In the deserts N. and \V. of 
Shikarpore, the deadly Simoom is often encountered. The winds vary 
generally between S. and N., the former the prevailing. The Easterly 
winds attain for a short period during the Autumual, and the westerly 
during the Vernal, Equinox. The former often precedes rain. Shikar- 
pore is not exempted from a great source of annoyance, experienced at 
at Sukkur, Hydrabad, and all places on the banks of the river, 
from the Delta upwards, viz. sand storms. The cold months may be 
said to commence in September, and last until the middle of March. 
Frost and Ice are not unusual, and vegetation assumes all the appear- 
ance of winter in a northern climate. After a fair experience of nearly 
two years residence at Shikarpore (the season of 1839 being consider- 
ed an unhealthy one) I conceive that with the precautions considered 
necessary elsiBwhere, of good houses and due attention to draining, 
troops might be cantoned at this place without any greater disadvan- 
tages than are to be met with in most of our stations in the interior of 
India. When it is considered that the officers and men of a force sta- 
tioned here during the most trying months of 1839, were for nearly 
the whole period under canvas, or in mud huts affording even less 
•helter than a tent, and that the inundations were allowed to reach in 
all directions within 200 yards of the camp, it is only surprising that 
the disease and mortality were so inconsiderable. I believe out of a 
force of nearly 2000 men, the latter amounted to under twelve cases. 
The mornings at Shikarpore are invariably cool. 

16. Routes from Shikarpoor to various places with which it carriet 
on trade; with the estimated distances from Shikarpore to the N. E. 
1. To Mooltan, by way of Deh Ahwul, on the river. Cross the 
river 

to Azeezpore. 

9, Meerpore. 

,1 Subzulkote. 

„ Khanpore. 

„ Ooch. 

Galloo Gharrah (opening 

„ of the Gharrah or Sutledge.) 

„ Shoojabad. 

,, Mooltan. 



248 

Estimated distance 215 kos8> * twenty-three stages for laden camelf, 
occupies from twenfy-three to twenty-six days. 

2. From Mooltan to Lahore, by way of Cheechawutnee. 

Cross the river to Bendee Sheikh Moosa. 
„ Seyud Dalloo. 
,) Zambra. 

„ Munjee Baba Naunacshah. 
„ Surakpore. 
„ Lahore. 
Estimated distance from Mooltan to Lahore 140 koss, fifteen stages, 
and occupies with laden camels about eighteen days. 

3. To Amritsir from Lahore twenty-five koss and two stages. 
4. From Amritsir to Loodhiana, forty koss and four stages. 
From Shikarpore to Deera Ghazee Khan, the route is by way of 

Rozan, Mithen Kote, and Deojel ; occupies about twenty to twenty- 
three days ; estimated distance 200 koss, twenty stages. 
Shikarpore to Jeysulmere, by way of Sukkurand Roree. 

To Oodenkote (Ooden ka Kila.) 
„ Dandooluk. 
„ Gottaroo. 
„ Chomdree. 
„ Jeysulmere. 
Estimated distance 108 koss, fifteen stages, and occupies from fifteen 
to eighteen days. 

From Jeysulmere to Palee by way of Pakram and Joudpore 120 
koss, sixteen stages, and occupies sixteen to nineteen days. 

Shikarpore to the N. W. to Dadur. The high road for Kaffilahs 
it by way of Janeedera 

» Rojhan (edge of the desert.) 
„ Burslooree (across do-) 
„ Kassim ka Joke. 
„ Bagh. 
„ Merjassir. 
„ Dadur. 
Ninety koss, fourteen stages, occupying from seven to ten days. 
The Routes above the Bolan Pass to Kelat, Kandahar, Cabul, &c., 
are now too well known to require repetition. From Shikarpore to the 
South, to Kurrachee, by way of Lark ha na. 

„ Seliwan. 
„ Karrachie. 
Distance 150 koss, twenty-nine stages, and occupying from twenty- 
nine to thirty-three days. This road is impracticable from April or 
May until September as far as Sehwan, and the river is the means of 
conveying merchandize. 

* If these distances are compared with those laid down in the late map of the«o 
countries, it would appear that the ko«3 was calculated generally at about 1 J 
miles, but the idea of distance by the natives Is generally very vague, and they 
calculate more on the time occupied in a journey. 



249 

Volcano in the Red Sea, — Extract paras, 2 at Q of a letter from thi 
Oficer Commanding the Steam Vessel Victoria, 

[Presented by Government. J 

" 2. Accompanying I have the honor to forward an abstract of the 
Steam Log ; and would beg to call your attention to the Remarks in 
the Log of the 14th August, a. m., the limited columns of which 
would not allow me to dwell further on the subject therein alluded to. 

"3. The morning of the 14th was ushered in with very cloudy 
weather, the atmosphere close and oppressive, but nothing that would 
indicate the approach of so severe a squall as we experienced. About 
10 o'clock observed a thick mass of black Clouds extending along 
the Horizon from N. W. to S. W. Then came a most vivid flash of 
Lightning, followed by a distant, though peculiarly distinct, sound of 
Thunder. 

** 4. We were passing the Zebayer Islands at the time, when just 
after the first flash of Lightning we observed the Island marked on 
the Chart as Saddle Island, Latitude 15° N., Longitude 42° 12' E., 
smoking, the smoke issuing from its summit in a narrow spiral 
thread. At this time it bore N.N.E. from us, distant about three miles; 
we were steering N. W. by N. Shortly afterwards the smoke issued 
forth in a dense sulphury-looking cloud ; the squall burst upon us, 
and it was shut out from view. 

** 5. The Zebayer Islands are all of volcanic origin, but there is 
neither record or tradition of their having been in active operatiou. 
Jibbel Teer, in Latitude 15° 32' N., Longitude 41° 55' E., was observed 
to be smoking when visited by the officers of the Benares during the 
survey of the Red Sea in 1832, but never since. There is a tradition 
among the Arab Pilots of its having been ''on Fire*' some 50 years 
ago ; it bears the name of Jibbel Dookan among many of them, viz. 
** Hill of Smoke." It certainly has the appearance of having been iu 
active operation at a much later period than the Zebayer Islands. 

" 6. I dwell on this subject as 1 consider it of great importance 
to the navigation of the Red Sea. These Islands are right in the 
nrack of vessels proceeding up and down. The smoke was seen for 
fully the space of halfan hour, when it was concealed from view by 
the very thick weather, and again an hour afterwards when it partially 
cleared up. The weather continued very unsettled, with heavy 
squalls till midnight." 

(True Extract) (Signed) P. M. Melvill, 
Lifutenant- Colonel, Secretary to Government. 



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